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Improvement tools for public libraries


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An overview of some service improvement tools and methodologies for public library services, including Lean, customer insight, improvement frameworks and more

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Improvement tools for public libraries

  1. 1. Service improvement methodologies Sarah Wilkie 30th March 2012©RedQuadrant 2012 Sarah Wilkie 07884 198812 SCL WM 30.03.12
  2. 2. Agenda• Use of improvement tools in West Midlands Library Service (the audit)• Seven ways to save and improve• Overview of some tools:  Improving efficiency (Lean and all that)  Measuring impact (frameworks, customers and peer review)• Bringing it all together SCL WM 30.03.12
  3. 3. AuditTool # authorities usingACE self-evaluation framework 1Business Improvement Package (CLG) 1Culture & Sport Improvement 4Toolkit (CSIT)Customer Insight 5Customer Service Excellence (Charter Mark) 3Inspiring Learning for All Framework (GSOs and GLOs) 6Lean 5Local Outcomes Framework for Culture and Sport 3Logic FrameworksPeer Review 4Social Return on Investment 1Any other (please list) 1 (Balanced Scorecard) SCL WM 30.03.12
  4. 4. A useful framework for thinking about Service Improvement 4
  5. 5. Seven ways to save and improve 5 Organisational structures 2 3 41 Demand Source 6 Process Contact /project Resources 7 Policy RedQuadrant Savings Framework™ © RedQuadrant, SCL WM 30.03.12 2010-2012
  6. 6. 1 Shape demand: effect behavioural change in residents, reduceSeven failure demandways to Create economies of flow: match capacity and contact points 2save and better to demandimprove 3 Reduce waste in the system: re-engineer processes or develop a more continuous lean whole system to reduce waste of all types Optimise resources: buildings, people (better scheduling, 4 less downtime, the right contracts and management), IT and other assets 5 Gain economies of scale: group or share activities and services Optimise procurement: procure volume, shape the market, 6 reduce or standardise specification, share services, outsource, use the third sector, or multiplying effectsRedQuadrantSavingsFramework™ 7 Change policy: stop, ration, reduce eligibility, delay, or charge© RedQuadrant, for a service2010-2012 SCL WM 30.03.12
  7. 7. Efficiency improvement tools SCL WM 30.03.12
  8. 8. Efficiency improvement tools• Systems thinking• LEAN• Six Sigma• Activity based costing• Business Improvement Package (CLG) SCL WM 30.03.12
  9. 9. …8 years ago…this dilbert appeared SCL WM 30.03.12
  10. 10. What’s in a name?• Lean / systems thinking are just trade names• The good news is, there is something underlying it• Guides to where to look can help:  We should think about the right change approach for the circumstance, not for our ideology  Use seven ways to save and improve in organisations – but we don’t always get to follow the hierarchy SCL WM 30.03.12
  11. 11. Systems thinking• What do we mean by “systems thinking”?  Focusing on the “end to end” process from the customer perspective and understanding all interactions along the way  Eliminating / reducing failure demand‘  Minimizing “hand-offs” in the process  Focus on only doing added value work  Basing decisions on economies of flow, rather than economies of scale SCL WM 30.03.12
  12. 12. Lean Thinking fundamentals (Womack)1. Specify value – define value from thecustomer’s perspective and express valuein terms of a specific service2. Map the value stream – see the wholeprocess that brings a service to the 1 2customer3. Establish flow – highlight how theprocess flows from start to finish for thecustomer 5 34. Implement pull – can we get thecustomer what they want when theywant it in the quantities they desire 45. Strive for perfection – there is alwaysroom for improvementA principle-driven philosophy and set of practices and approaches focused oncreating flow so that all effort adds value from the customer’s perspective SCL WM 30.03.12
  13. 13. Seven rules of thumb and two principles1. Work from the facts – not ideas or theories Pragmatic and effective –2. Engage and empower – the ‘boundary’ staff to deliver method and mindset not effective processes and continually improve, customers rules and tools. Get to feed back and improve the organisation savings fast, prototype3. Change management approaches and develop a and demonstrate to responsive organisation – ‘three levels of fix’, change belief and ‘prevention not cure’, ‘no blame’ behaviour.4. Start from purpose – understand the purpose and vision Target perfection – of the organisation, and the role of each process in construct systems that delivering this build capacity and5. Understand demand – customer purpose when they capability, and pull the access core processes amount of resource required – and no more.6. Create flow from the start – decrease unnecessary contact, increase necessary contact Remember, good service7. Build process and structures to meet demand – use the delivery costs less! needs of the process to determine organisational, systems, and other infrastructure changes SCL WM 30.03.12
  14. 14. More about flowLean Flow Flow is typically disrupted in many A developed flow is less services: disrupted: QueueingDisempoweredstaff Checking & • Smooth reporting • Customer focusedLong processingroutes • Meets organisational IT problems requirements Quality problems, • Efficient rework • Uninterrupted Hand-offs and split Backlogs • Shortest lead time teams • Waste intolerant SCL WM 30.03.12 • Right first time
  15. 15. Three key benefits of Lean• It makes information about how the organisation is actually working more visible for boundary (frontline) staff, managers and Members alike• It shifts thinking from top-down command and control to ‘outside in’ from the customer purpose• It helps all parties to truly understand the issues which are preventing high quality performance SCL WM 30.03.12
  16. 16. Lean in Merton Libraries SCL WM 30.03.12
  17. 17. Lean in Merton LibrariesLibrary Stock TeamTo Be Requests from Unity to Merton In stock Send email Update A Merton All libraries Book Go into Issue Package Document in Update to Merton shared Unity Library emails update Unity arrives at Unity to book in book and Post book items Libraries request back to say request Stock team inform Galaxy place in and count up supplied who hold spreadsheet they will send spreadsheet. from a them that system box for DX books for book stock of for libraries book Check Merton we have Courier courier and book to to update. spreadsheet library book document in check their NEW STEP daily for when it DX pick up shelves REPLACIN updates. arrives book G EMAILS NEW STEP REPLACING EMAILSCheck every Download Check in Merton Library Await Other Mertonday receipt of and print Galaxy for emails back to further Library emailsrequest from request and availability inform that the emails from to say not inanother library check its for of Merton book is not is other stocknot in LLC via Merton Stock stock MertonUnity librariesdatabase Out of stock Go into Unity to inform them the book is not in stock SCL WM 30.03.12
  18. 18. Merton procedures manual: missing stock – not recorded Customer Title is added to shelf-check list at Book is not found on Book does notsearches for a holding library shelf but is not marked arrive for the book on as missing on the customer, as itviewpoint and Shelf-checks need to be done catalogue. is no longer in finds it throughout the day or at least 3 existence on times a day. They can be made This adds no value to the shelves. faster by ensuring that books are this customer and shelved quickly and correctly. wastes the time of Volunteers can make a big both future customers difference to this. Also check the and staff. The customer Customer will now feel date that the book was last seen. If makes a that their time recent the book may be on the reservation has been returns shelf. If over two years the for the book wasted and book may not be on the shelves on viewpoint will be anymore. disappointed. This can be Book is not found on shelf and is therefore avoided! marked as missing on the catalogue This does not add value to this customer but does add value to the next! If the catalogue is updated it will mean that we can give customers the correct information first time and they are not disappointed when they reserve a non-existent item. SCL WM 30.03.12
  19. 19. Time-driven ABC approach ABC – Council B “Improved” Parking ABC – Council A Permit Unit Parking Permit Unit Traditional Measurement Check applicant details: Check applicant £60 Salaries: £200 details: £60 Input application details: Equipment: £40 Input application £10 details: £40 Supplies: £60 Confirm payment: £10Analyse Confirm payment: £50e.g. compare Overhead: £100 Process payment: £10against best Process payment: £50 TOTAL: £400 Print permit £100 practice & Print permit £100benchmarks Send permit: £100 Send permit: £100 TOTAL: £290 TOTAL: £400 ABC gives you more granularity to Focusing on improving “payment” function make cost improvement can lead to some real savings. How have decisions. Traditional Council B reduced costs in application mechanisms = “cuts” e.g. salaries checking? ABC gives you more granularity in your expense structure and helps to tie costs to activities. Comparison at this level allows you to identify what processes can be improved (with what enablers i.e. SCL WM 30.03.12 I.T.) and therefore what savings be made
  20. 20. Time-driven ABC approach Requires only two parameters to be known: Costs per unit of Estimation of unit time capacity of activities Employee costs / employee How much time it takes to minutes worked complete each type of activity Activity based process cost: costs per unit x unit time SCL WM 30.03.12
  21. 21. Impact measurement tools SCL WM 30.03.12
  22. 22. A range of impact toolsFrameworks & toolkits: Customers:• ACE self-evaluation • Customer Insight framework • Customer Service Excellence• Culture & Sport (Charter Mark) Improvement Toolkit (CSIT)• Inspiring Learning for All Framework (GSOs and GLOs) Plus:• Local Outcomes • Peer Review Framework for Culture and • Social Return on Investment Sport• Logic Frameworks It all depends what you want to measure – and why SCL WM 30.03.12
  23. 23. Frameworks & toolkits• ACE self-evaluation framework  ACE currently reviewing• Culture & Sport Improvement Toolkit (CSIT)  Designed to bring various parts of sector together  Useful in allowing councils to measure and compare across different areas of culture and sport  Provides a consistent approach – but not tailored to specific services• NEW! LGA self-assessment tool for libraries• Local Outcomes Framework for Culture and Sport:  demonstrates the links between culture and sport activities and the achievement of better outcomes, e.g. o children & young people o the economy o health and wellbeing o older people o safer communities o strong communities• Logic Frameworks SCL WM 30.03.12
  24. 24. CUMBRIA COUNCIL PLAN KEY PRIORITIES Poverty challenged in all its forms The most vulnerable Chances in Life improved for receive the support they the most disadvantaged in need Cumbria ASPIRATIONS FOR CUMBRIA ECONOMY ENVIRONMENT A thriving economy where poverty is A high quality and sustainable challenged in all its forms environment in which people can move around easily and safely CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE INDEPENDENT, SAFE AND HEALTHY LIVESA great place to be a child and grow up in; a place where Individuals enjoy an independent and happy life, young people are able to live happy and productive safe from harm, with more control over their life lives; a place where young people will want to live and and a say in decisions which affect them work in the future LIBRARY OUTCOMES SUPPORTING THE COUNCIL PLAN KEY PRIORITIES More people gaining new Library Services contribute to knowledge and skills through sustainability and cohesion of access to Library services communities across Cumbria Increased participation Increased participation Library Services become Increased health and by children, teenagers by adults in Library a key customer interface well being benefits and families in Library services for County through the provision of services Council/Council services Library services SCL WM 30.03.12
  25. 25. Customers• Customer Insight:  “only by understanding what is really important to people can a service be efficient and effective”  Expectation within CAA that local authorities and their partners can demonstrate that they: o understand community needs, especially those of vulnerable groups o are seeking to improve customers’ experience of services and tailor services to local needs  Not in itself a tool – provides guidance on tools and how/when to use them• Customer Service Excellence (Charter Mark):  Driving continuous improvement  Developing skills  Formal accreditation SCL WM 30.03.12
  26. 26. ROI measures the effectiveness of each investment• Return on Investment (ROI) is a straightforward financial tool that measures the economic return of a project or investment. ROI measures the effectiveness of the investment by calculating the number of times the net benefits (benefits minus costs) recover the original investment. ROI has become one of the most popular metrics used to understand, evaluate, and compare the value of different investment options. ROI = Net Value (Benefits – Costs) X 100 % Costs SCL WM 30.03.12
  27. 27. SROI – Social Return on InvestmentAn approach to understanding and managing the value of the social, economic and environmental outcomes created by an activity or an organisation.• Measures and accounts for the value created by activity• Includes the values of people that are often excluded from markets in the same terms as used in markets, that is money• Places a monetary value on outcomesA fictional example:• A Books on Prescription service costs £1,000 to provide (remember, activity-based costing will give you a robust figure here)• It has been demonstrated to reduce GP visits in the area by 10%, which equates to 100 visits, each of which would have cost the NHS £20• The SROI is therefore 100x£20 = £2,000, twice the cost of providing the service SCL WM 30.03.12
  28. 28. Why do an SROI?SROI can help you improve services in a range of ways. It can help you:• Understand the social, environmental and economic value created by your work• Maximise the positive change you create and identify and manage any negative outcomes arising from your work• Reconsider which organisations or people you should be working with, or improve the way you engage with your stakeholders• Find ways to collect more useful, better quality information SCL WM 30.03.12
  29. 29. Peer review• Developed by IDeA (now Local Government Improvement and Development)• Adapted by MLA for use in the cultural sector – first for libraries (three day reviews), later across the sector (light-touch one day reviews)• Not currently on offer as an externally-supported activity specifically for this sector, but LGA developing new approach to Peer Challenges SCL WM 30.03.12
  30. 30. Bringing it all togetherKey messages:• Choose the right tool for the job• Consider the culture of your organisation• Efficiency and effectiveness go hand in hand• Consider your messages• Measure what matters SCL WM 30.03.12
  31. 31. Thanks for listening ...... and a plug! Sarah Wilkie 07944 198812 SCL WM 30.03.12