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Handling the
 Prophets
               1
1
What is the historical context?


                                  2
2
How is the prophet’s
message presented?

                       3
3
What main problems does
 the prophet diagnose?

                          4
4
What are the remedies?


                         5
5
What is the underlying
 message about God
   and humanity?
                         6
1
What is the historical context?


                                  7
10Century
  th
        8
Saul
1050




       9
Jeroboam
                               931
Saul   David   Solomon
1050   1010    970




                         Rehoboam
                               931
                                     9
Rehoboam   Jeroboam
  931        931




                      10
Rehoboam              Jeroboam
        931                931

• ‘High places,
  sacred stones and
  Asherah poles on
  ‘every high hill and
  under every
  spreading tree’




                                    10
Rehoboam              Jeroboam
        931                931

• ‘High places,
  sacred stones and
  Asherah poles on
  ‘every high hill and
  under every
  spreading tree’

• Egyptian invasion
  (925)

                                    10
Rehoboam                Jeroboam
        931                    931

• ‘High places,          • Shrines at Dan
  sacred stones and        and Bethel
  Asherah poles on
  ‘every high hill and
  under every
  spreading tree’

• Egyptian invasion
  (925)

                                            10
9Century
 th
           11
Jeroboam
                               931
Saul   David   Solomon
1050   1010    970




                         Rehoboam
                               931
                                     12
1050
                    Saul
                  1010
                    David
                  970
                    Solomon




     Rehoboam                 Jeroboam
        931                      931

     Abijam 913               Nadab 910
                              Baasha 909
        Asa                    Elah 886
12




        911
1010
                    David
                  970
                    Solomon
     Rehoboam                 Jeroboam
        931                      931

     Abijam 913               Nadab 910
                              Baasha 909
        Asa                    Elah 886
        911
13
1010
                    David
                  970
                    Solomon
     Rehoboam                 Jeroboam
        931                      931

     Abijam 913               Nadab 910
                              Baasha 909
        Asa                   Elah 886
        911
                              Zimri 885
                              Omri 885
                              Ahab 874
13
Ahab 874




           14
Ahab 874

• Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess




                                            14
Ahab 874

• Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess

• Regained cities from Aram




                                            14
Ahab 874

• Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess

• Regained cities from Aram

• Elijah: 1 Kings 17 – 2 Kings 2




                                            14
Ahab 874

• Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess

• Regained cities from Aram

• Elijah: 1 Kings 17 – 2 Kings 2

• Elishah: 2 Kings 2 – 8



                                            14
Mesha Stele

records the victory of
King Mesha of Moab
after being subject to
Israel during Omri’s
reign and half of Ahab’s

(2 Kings 3)
Asa   Omri 885
     911



            874
              Ahab




16
Omri 885


            Ahab
             874




             Jeho-
Asa
      911




            shaphat
             870


                      16
Omri 885


            Ahab
             874




             Jeho-
Asa
      911




            shaphat
             870


                      17
Asa        Omri 885
             911



                       874




       870
                         Ahab




          Jeho-
         shaphat
     Jehoram 848    Ahaziah 853

     Ahaziah 841      Joram
                        852
     Athaliah 841




17
Asa        Omri 885
             911



                       874




       870
                         Ahab




          Jeho-
         shaphat
     Jehoram 848    Ahaziah 853

     Ahaziah 841      Joram
                        852
     Athaliah 841
                      841
                         Jehu




17
ISRAEL
ISRAEL
Jehu Samaria
Hazael Damascus
                     ARAM

  ISRAEL
Jehu Samaria
19
Assyria
      19
20
841: Shalmaneser III invades region




                                      20
841: Shalmaneser III invades region

 • Fails to capture Dan




                                      20
841: Shalmaneser III invades region

 • Fails to capture Dan

 • Receives tribute from Jehu




                                      20
841: Shalmaneser III invades region

 • Fails to capture Dan

 • Receives tribute from Jehu

838: Shalmaneser invades neighbours




                                      20
21
805: Adadnirari III invaded area. Conquered
surrounding nations but not Judah.




                                              21
Asa        Omri 885
             911



                       874




       870
                         Ahab




          Jeho-
         shaphat
     Jehoram 848    Ahaziah 853

     Ahaziah 841      Joram
                        852
     Athaliah 841
                       841
                         Jehu




22
Asa                  Omri 885
             911



                                 874




       870
                                   Ahab




          Jeho-
         shaphat
     Jehoram 848              Ahaziah 853

     Ahaziah 841                Joram
                                  852
     Athaliah 841
                                 841
                                   Jehu




        835
              Joash/Jehoash


22
Asa                  Omri 885
             911



                                 874




       870
                                   Ahab




          Jeho-
         shaphat
     Jehoram 848              Ahaziah 853

     Ahaziah 841                Joram
                                  852
     Athaliah 841
                                 841
                                   Jehu




        835
              Joash/Jehoash




                              Jehoahaz
                                  814
22
Jehoahaz
  814




           23
Jehoahaz
       814


Army reduced to:

• 50 horsemen
• 10 chariots
• 10,000 foot soldiers
                   (2 Kings 13:7)
                                    23
8Century
 th
           24
Jehoahaz
Jehu


                      814
841




      Jehoash
        835


                            25
841
                      Jehu




     835
       Jehoash
                  Jehoahaz
                     814



                 Jehoash 798




25
Jehoash 798
                Jehoahaz
Jehu


                      814
841




      Jehoash                        Amaziah
        835                               796


                                                25
Jehoash 798




              26
Jehoash 798


• Defeated Syria three times




                               26
Jehoash 798


• Defeated Syria three times

• Beginning of recovery




                               26
Jehoash 798


• Defeated Syria three times

• Beginning of recovery

                          2 Kings 13:25



                                     26
Jehoash 798
                Jehoahaz
Jehu


                      814
841




      Jehoash                        Amaziah
        835                               796


                                                27
841
                      Jehu




     835
       Jehoash
                  Jehoahaz
                     814



                 Jehoash 798

     796
       Amaziah

                 Jeroboam
27                   782
Jeroboam
  782




           28
Jeroboam
                   782




• Built on Jehoash’s success (2 Kings 14:23)




                                               28
Jeroboam
                    782




• Built on Jehoash’s success (2 Kings 14:23)

• Increased Israel’s territory east and north



                                                28
29
Adad-Nirari III died in 782 BC




                                 29
Adad-Nirari III died in 782 BC


Tiglath-Pileser III didn’t come to power
until 745 BC




                                           29
Jehoash
     798         Jeroboam
                   782




      Amaziah
           796


                            30
Jehoash
                     798




     796
       Amaziah
                    782
                       Jeroboam




                 Zachariah 753
                  Shallum 752
                 Manahem 752
                  Pekahia 742
30
Jehoash
                         798




       796
           Amaziah
                        782
                           Jeroboam




     767
       Uzziah/
       Azariah
                     Zachariah 753
                      Shallum 752
                     Manahem 752
                      Pekahia 742
30
800   780   760   740   720   700




800   780   760   740   720   700
800   780    760   740   720   700


            Amos




800   780    760   740   720   700
800   780    760    740   720   700


            Amos

            Jonah




800   780    760    740   720   700
800   780    760    740       720   700


            Amos      Hosea

            Jonah




800   780    760    740       720   700
32
Peace




        32
Prosperity       Peace
 (Hosea 8:14;
  Isaiah 9:10)




                         32
Prosperity       Peace
                (Hosea 8:14;
                 Isaiah 9:10)

Confidence
 (Amos 3:15;
   5:11)




                                        32
Prosperity       Peace
                (Hosea 8:14;
                 Isaiah 9:10)

Confidence
 (Amos 3:15;
   5:11)



   Poverty
                                        32
Prosperity       Peace
                (Hosea 8:14;
                 Isaiah 9:10)

Confidence
 (Amos 3:15;
   5:11)                        Exploitation
                                  (Hosea 12:7;
                                  Amos 8:5-8)

   Poverty
                                                 32
Prosperity          Peace
                (Hosea 8:14;
                 Isaiah 9:10)

Confidence
 (Amos 3:15;
   5:11)                           Exploitation
                                     (Hosea 12:7;
                                     Amos 8:5-8)
                    Idolatry
   Poverty          (Hosea 13:2)

                                                    32
Decline

          33
34
• Zechariah: 6 months, 753 BC (2 Kings 15:8–
  12)

• Shallum: 1 month, 753 BC (2 Kings 15:13–15)

• Menahem: 752–742 BC (2 Kings 15:17–22)

• Pekahiah: 742–741 (2 Kings 15:23–26)

• Pekah: 740–732 BC (2 Kings 15:27)

• Hoshea: 732–722 (2 Kings 17:1–4)

                                                34
Amos

       35
2
How is the prophet’s
message presented?

                       36
genre

        37
Once upon a time, there lived a young boy in
an old wooden chalet, high in the mountains.
Every day, he cared for his father’s goats as
they grazed on the slopes. But the boy was
always worried that he might meet a troll.



                                                38
You are covered up to the amounts specified on your
policy schedule for personal accident benefits, which will
be paid to you or your legal representative, if you sustain
bodily injury caused by an accident and at the end of 12
months of the occurrence of that accident, it is the sole
cause of:
1) your death (£10,000);
2) the physical loss of or permanent and total loss of use
of one or more limbs at or above the wrist or ankle
(£10,000);
3) the complete and irrecoverable loss of sight in one or
both eyes (£10,000);

                                                              39
My darling Esmerelda,
I miss you with all my heart. Every moment of
every day, I long to be with you, to hold you
close and to touch your face once more. I
yearn for the scent of your fragrance, the taste
of your lips and the touch of your hand. I
cannot eat or sleep or focus on anything. With
every second that passes, my desire for you
grows more intense, more passionate, more
overwhelming. I adore you, Esmerelda, with
every fibre of my being. I am yours for ever.
                                                   40
To a good approximation (for sufficiently weak
fields, assuming no dipolar moments are present),
P is given by a Taylor series in E whose coefficients
are the nonlinear susceptibilities:

Pi /ε0 =
 ∑xij(1)Ej +
             ∑xijk(2)EjEk +

         ∑xijkl(3)EjEkEl + …

         j
          k
           l


Where   x (1)            susceptibility, x
              is the linear                (2)
                                        gives the
Pockels effect and second harmonic generation,
and x (3) gives the Kerr effect.


                                                       41
oracles

          42
messenger speech


                   43
messenger speech


                   43
• Prophetic word formula (the word of the
  Lord came to X)
• Commissioning formula (Go and say . . . )
• Messenger formula (This is what the Lord
  says . . . )
• Message



                                              44
judgment oracles


                   45
judgment oracles


                   45
46
• Accusation




               46
• Accusation

• Link (logical connective)




                              46
• Accusation

• Link (logical connective)

• Announcement of judgment



                              46
covenant lawsuit


                   47
48
• Summons




            48
• Summons
• Charge




            48
• Summons
• Charge
• Evidence




             48
• Summons
• Charge
• Evidence
• Verdict



             48
Woe oracle


             49
50
• Announcement of distress




                             50
• Announcement of distress
• Reason for distress




                             50
• Announcement of distress
• Reason for distress
• Prediction of disaster




                             50
lament


         51
salvation oracles


                    52
53
• Indication of situation




                            53
• Indication of situation
• Reference to the future




                            53
• Indication of situation
• Reference to the future
• Proclamation of radical
  change




                            53
• Indication of situation
• Reference to the future
• Proclamation of radical
  change
• Blessing


                            53
prophecy concerning a
  surrounding nation

                        54
poetry

         55
narrative

            56
commissioning


                57
commissioning


                57
58
• Divine confrontation




                         58
• Divine confrontation
• Introductory word




                         58
• Divine confrontation
• Introductory word
• Commission




                         58
• Divine confrontation
• Introductory word
• Commission
• Objection(s)




                         58
• Divine confrontation
• Introductory word
• Commission
• Objection(s)
• Reassurances




                         58
• Divine confrontation
• Introductory word
• Commission
• Objection(s)
• Reassurances
• Sign(s)


                         58
vision


         59
• Announcement of vision
• Transition
• Vision sequence




                           60
Identify the oracles in Amos 1:1–2:16.
                                         ?
What features of the writing do you notice?




                                              61
1:1 – 2:6   Amos accuses foreign nations . . .
            and Judah and Israel




                                                 62
ARAM
PH
  IL
     IS
       T
          IN
               ES
                    ARAM
PH
  IL
     IS
       T
          IN
               ES
                           TYRE


                    ARAM
TYRE


                      ARAM




          ES
      IN
     T
     IS
 IL
PH




               EDOM
TYRE


                      ARAM




                      AMMON
          ES
      IN
     T
     IS
 IL
PH




               EDOM
TYRE


                       ARAM




                       AMMON
          ES
      IN
     T
     IS
 IL




                      MOAB
PH




               EDOM
TYRE


                       ARAM




                       AMMON
          ES
      IN
     T
     IS




          JUDAH
 IL




                      MOAB
PH




               EDOM
TYRE


                       ARAM




               ISRAEL
                       AMMON
          ES
      IN
     T
     IS




          JUDAH
 IL




                      MOAB
PH




               EDOM
1:1 – 2:6    Amos accuses foreign nations . . .
             and Judah and Israel

3:1 – 6:14   Judgment speeches and woe
             oracles against Israel

7:1 – 9:15   Visions


                                                  64
65
Jonah

        66
800   780    760    740       720   700


            Amos      Hosea

            Jonah




800   780    760    740       720   700
Assyrian aggression




                      68
Assyrian aggression
743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram




                                              68
Assyrian aggression
743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram

738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria




                                              68
Assyrian aggression
743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram

738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria

733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram
and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee




                                                  68
Assyrian aggression
743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram

738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria

733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram
and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee

724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria


                                                  68
Assyrian aggression
743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram

738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria

733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram
and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee

724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria

722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17)
                                                  68
They mocked God's messengers, despised his
words and scoffed at his prophets until the wrath
of the LORD was aroused against his people and
there was no remedy.
                              2 Chronicles 36:16




                                                    69
Hosea

        70
• Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah,
  Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah




                                                 71
• Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah,
  Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah

• Israel: Jeroboam II, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem,
  Pekahiah, Pekah and Hoshea




                                                      71
• Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah,
  Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah

• Israel: Jeroboam II, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem,
  Pekahiah, Pekah and Hoshea

• Probably from 753–716 BC



                                                      71
800   780    760    740       720   700


            Amos      Hosea

            Jonah




800   780    760    740       720   700
1:1 – 3:5      Hosea’s marriage and Israel’s
               unfaithfulness

4:1 – 7:16     Sins of people, priests and leaders

8:1 – 11:11    False worship

11:12 – 14:9   Past and future

                                                     73
Adultery/Prostitution




                        74
Adultery/Prostitution
Genesis 2:23–24
Ephesians 5:31–32




                            74
Adultery/Prostitution
Genesis 2:23–24
Ephesians 5:31–32

Revelation 21:1–10




                            74
Adultery/Prostitution
Genesis 2:23–24
Ephesians 5:31–32

Revelation 21:1–10

Numbers 15:37–41




                            74
Adultery/Prostitution
Genesis 2:23–24
Ephesians 5:31–32

Revelation 21:1–10

Numbers 15:37–41


Hosea 1:1–3:5
Jeremiah 2–3
Ezekiel 16, 23
                            74
Adultery/Prostitution
Genesis 2:23–24      Exclusive, intimate
Ephesians 5:31–32    covenant

Revelation 21:1–10

Numbers 15:37–41


Hosea 1:1–3:5
Jeremiah 2–3
Ezekiel 16, 23
                                           74
Adultery/Prostitution
Genesis 2:23–24      Exclusive, intimate
Ephesians 5:31–32    covenant

Revelation 21:1–10   The ultimate marriage

Numbers 15:37–41


Hosea 1:1–3:5
Jeremiah 2–3
Ezekiel 16, 23
                                             74
Adultery/Prostitution
Genesis 2:23–24      Exclusive, intimate
Ephesians 5:31–32    covenant

Revelation 21:1–10   The ultimate marriage

Numbers 15:37–41     Forgetfulness leads to
                     prostitution

Hosea 1:1–3:5
Jeremiah 2–3
Ezekiel 16, 23
                                              74
3
What main problems does
 the prophet diagnose?

                          75
To Amos, justice was of the very essence of
God’s Being, and therefore it must mark all who
worship Him.
                                     H.H. Rowley




                                                   76
4
What are the remedies?


                         77
5
What is the underlying
 message about God
   and humanity?
                         78
Hosea 5:8–15




               79
Hosea 5:8–15
• 734 BC




                          79
Hosea 5:8–15
• 734 BC

• Addressed to cities on road from Jerusalem
  to Bethel




                                               79
Hosea 5:8–15
• 734 BC

• Addressed to cities on road from Jerusalem
  to Bethel

• Context: war




                                               79
Read Hosea 1:1–11; 2:16–23; 3:1–5; 4:1–3; 6:1–
3; 11:1–4.

What forms does Hosea use?

Who is speaking in each case?

What is the purpose of the passage?

In what context might it have been spoken?

                                                 80
Assyrian aggression
733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29)

724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria

722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17)




                                                 81
Assyrian aggression
733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29)

724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria

722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17)

713: Sargon II put down rebellion of Ashdod (with
Edom, Moab, Judah, plus help from Egypt)


                                                    81
Assyrian aggression
733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29)

724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria

722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17)

713: Sargon II put down rebellion of Ashdod (with
Edom, Moab, Judah, plus help from Egypt)

701: Sennacherib’s invasion
                                                    81
82
82
824 BC
670 BC
Judah
85
• Revival during reign of Hezekiah
  (2 Kings 18, 19)




                                     85
• Revival during reign of Hezekiah
  (2 Kings 18, 19)

• Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon
  (2 Kings 21:1-18)




                                                85
• Revival during reign of Hezekiah
  (2 Kings 18, 19)

• Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon
  (2 Kings 21:1-18)

• Reform during reign of Josiah
  (2 Kings 22, 23)



                                                85
• Revival during reign of Hezekiah
  (2 Kings 18, 19)

• Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon
  (2 Kings 21:1-18)

• Reform during reign of Josiah
  (2 Kings 22, 23)

                          … but too little, too late

                                                       85
800   780    760    740     720   700


            Amos    Hosea

            Jonah




800   780    760    740     720   700
800   780    760    740      720     700


            Amos    Hosea

            Jonah




                            Isaiah



800   780    760    740      720     700
800   780    760    740      720      700


            Amos    Hosea

            Jonah




                            Isaiah

                              Micah

800   780    760    740      720      700
800   780    760    740      720            700


            Amos    Hosea

            Jonah



                                   ? Joel
                            Isaiah

                              Micah

800   780    760    740      720            700
Isaiah

         87
Zion

       88
Divine judgment


                  89
Preservation/
 Restoration

                90
Security


           91
Centrality


             92
Holy One of
   Israel
              93
King
(1–37)
         94
Servant
(38–55)
          95
Conqueror
 (56–66)
            96
Righteousness


                97
Davidic King


               98
Israel and Gentiles


                      99
Messianic enigma


                   100
101
• 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God




                                       101
• 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God

• 2:1 - 4:6 – Israel is rebellious rather than being
  a means of blessing




                                                       101
• 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God

• 2:1 - 4:6 – Israel is rebellious rather than being
  a means of blessing

• 5:1-30 – degeneration of God’s people despite
  his care




                                                       101
Isaiah 1:1 – 31




                  102
Isaiah 1:1 – 31
• Summons to God’s court (1:2)




                                 102
Isaiah 1:1 – 31
• Summons to God’s court (1:2)

• The charge: God’s children have rebelled against
  him (2–4)




                                                     102
Isaiah 1:1 – 31
• Summons to God’s court (1:2)

• The charge: God’s children have rebelled against
  him (2–4)

• They are ignoring what their experience teaches
  them (5–8)




                                                     102
Isaiah 1:1 – 31
• Summons to God’s court (1:2)

• The charge: God’s children have rebelled against
  him (2–4)

• They are ignoring what their experience teaches
  them (5–8)

• But God preserves a remnant (9)


                                                     102
103
• God does not want empty religion (11–15)




                                             103
• God does not want empty religion (11–15)

• He wants repentance and reformation (15–17)




                                                103
• God does not want empty religion (11–15)

• He wants repentance and reformation (15–17)

• He offers cleansing in return for obedience
  (18–20)




                                                103
104
• The failure of the faithful city (21)




                                          104
• The failure of the faithful city (21)

   • It has become dross (22)




                                          104
• The failure of the faithful city (21)

   • It has become dross (22)

   • The rulers are corrupt (23)




                                          104
• The failure of the faithful city (21)

   • It has become dross (22)

   • The rulers are corrupt (23)

   • So the Lord will act (24)




                                          104
• The failure of the faithful city (21)

   • It has become dross (22)

   • The rulers are corrupt (23)

   • So the Lord will act (24)

   • The dross will be purged (25)


                                          104
• The failure of the faithful city (21)

   • It has become dross (22)

   • The rulers are corrupt (23)

   • So the Lord will act (24)

   • The dross will be purged (25)

• The faithful city will be restored (26)
                                            104
Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6




                   105
Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6
• 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem




                                105
Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6
• 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem

• 2:5–4:1 – the actual Jerusalem




                                   105
Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6
• 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem

• 2:5–4:1 – the actual Jerusalem

• 4:2–6 – the new Jerusalem




                                   105
The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4)




                              106
The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4)
• The future attractiveness of Zion




                                      106
The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4)
• The future attractiveness of Zion

   • centre of global revelation




                                      106
The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4)
• The future attractiveness of Zion

   • centre of global revelation

   • centre of global peace




                                      106
The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4)
• The future attractiveness of Zion

   • centre of global revelation

   • centre of global peace

• For that to be possible, God’s people must ‘walk
  in the light of the Lord’ (5)



                                                     106
Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1




                   107
Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1
• 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’




                                                       107
Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1
• 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’

• 2:6–21- the religious situation




                                                       107
Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1
• 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’

• 2:6–21- the religious situation

• 2:22 – requirement: ‘stop trusting in human
  beings’




                                                       107
Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1
• 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’

• 2:6–21- the religious situation

• 2:22 – requirement: ‘stop trusting in human
  beings’

• 3:1–4:1 – the social situation



                                                       107
• Aspects of Judah’s national life which deserve
  judgment (6–9)
• The nation is the opposite of what it should be
  (2–4)
• Judgment and its results (10–21)
• The Lord will humble human beings and make
  idols vanish
• God will take away all physical resources and
  human leaders (2–3)

• He will give you immature leaders (4)

• The social order will collapse (5–7)

• Leadership will become a nonsense (6–7, 12)
God’s justice (3:9b-15)




                          110
God’s justice (3:9b-15)
• Lifestyles have consequences




                                 110
God’s justice (3:9b-15)
• Lifestyles have consequences

• The wicked bring disaster upon themselves




                                              110
God’s justice (3:9b-15)
• Lifestyles have consequences

• The wicked bring disaster upon themselves

• The righteous reap the consequences of right
  behaviour – it will be well for them in the long
  run




                                                     110
Judgment on Zion (3:25-4:1)
Judgment on Zion (3:25-4:1)
• Judgment will be more than a change in
  economics

• War is coming because sin leads to death, not
  just to losing happiness

• Six out of seven men will be killed – women
  must care for themselves
Stop trusting in human
        beings
Stop trusting in human
           beings
• Human insights

• Human resources

• Human religion

• Human achievement

• Human influence
Pride

        113
• The LORD Almighty has a day in store for all the
  proud and lofty, for all that is exalted … (2:12)
• The LORD Almighty has a day in store for all the
  proud and lofty, for all that is exalted … (2:12)

• The arrogance of all people will be brought low
  and human pride humbled; the LORD alone will
  be exalted in that day (2:17)
115
• In that day people will throw away to the
  rodents and bats their idols (2:20)




                                              115
• In that day people will throw away to the
  rodents and bats their idols (2:20)

• In that day the Lord will snatch away their finery
  … (3:18)




                                                      115
• In that day people will throw away to the
  rodents and bats their idols (2:20)

• In that day the Lord will snatch away their finery
  … (3:18)

• In that day seven women will take hold of one
  man … (4:1)



                                                      115
In that day the Branch of the LORD will be
beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the land
will be the pride and glory of the survivors in
Israel. Those who are left in Zion, who remain in
Jerusalem, will be called holy, all who are
recorded among the living in Jerusalem. The Lord
will wash away the filth of the women of Zion; he
will cleanse the bloodstains from Jerusalem by a
spirit of judgment and a spirit of fire. (4:2–4)


                                                    116
Then the LORD will create over all of Mount
Zion and over those who assemble there a cloud
of smoke by day and a glow of flaming fire by
night; over all the glory will be a canopy. It will be
a shelter and shade from the heat of the day, and
a refuge and hiding-place from the storm and
rain.



                                                         117
Micah

        118

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II. Handling the OT Prophets 1. The Eighth Century

  • 2. 1 What is the historical context? 2
  • 3. 2 How is the prophet’s message presented? 3
  • 4. 3 What main problems does the prophet diagnose? 4
  • 5. 4 What are the remedies? 5
  • 6. 5 What is the underlying message about God and humanity? 6
  • 7. 1 What is the historical context? 7
  • 10. Jeroboam 931 Saul David Solomon 1050 1010 970 Rehoboam 931 9
  • 11. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 10
  • 12. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 • ‘High places, sacred stones and Asherah poles on ‘every high hill and under every spreading tree’ 10
  • 13. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 • ‘High places, sacred stones and Asherah poles on ‘every high hill and under every spreading tree’ • Egyptian invasion (925) 10
  • 14. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 • ‘High places, • Shrines at Dan sacred stones and and Bethel Asherah poles on ‘every high hill and under every spreading tree’ • Egyptian invasion (925) 10
  • 16. Jeroboam 931 Saul David Solomon 1050 1010 970 Rehoboam 931 12
  • 17. 1050 Saul 1010 David 970 Solomon Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 Abijam 913 Nadab 910 Baasha 909 Asa Elah 886 12 911
  • 18. 1010 David 970 Solomon Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 Abijam 913 Nadab 910 Baasha 909 Asa Elah 886 911 13
  • 19. 1010 David 970 Solomon Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 Abijam 913 Nadab 910 Baasha 909 Asa Elah 886 911 Zimri 885 Omri 885 Ahab 874 13
  • 20. Ahab 874 14
  • 21. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess 14
  • 22. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess • Regained cities from Aram 14
  • 23. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess • Regained cities from Aram • Elijah: 1 Kings 17 – 2 Kings 2 14
  • 24. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess • Regained cities from Aram • Elijah: 1 Kings 17 – 2 Kings 2 • Elishah: 2 Kings 2 – 8 14
  • 25.
  • 26. Mesha Stele records the victory of King Mesha of Moab after being subject to Israel during Omri’s reign and half of Ahab’s (2 Kings 3)
  • 27. Asa Omri 885 911 874 Ahab 16
  • 28. Omri 885 Ahab 874 Jeho- Asa 911 shaphat 870 16
  • 29. Omri 885 Ahab 874 Jeho- Asa 911 shaphat 870 17
  • 30. Asa Omri 885 911 874 870 Ahab Jeho- shaphat Jehoram 848 Ahaziah 853 Ahaziah 841 Joram 852 Athaliah 841 17
  • 31. Asa Omri 885 911 874 870 Ahab Jeho- shaphat Jehoram 848 Ahaziah 853 Ahaziah 841 Joram 852 Athaliah 841 841 Jehu 17
  • 34. Hazael Damascus ARAM ISRAEL Jehu Samaria
  • 35. 19
  • 36. Assyria 19
  • 37. 20
  • 38. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region 20
  • 39. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region • Fails to capture Dan 20
  • 40. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region • Fails to capture Dan • Receives tribute from Jehu 20
  • 41. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region • Fails to capture Dan • Receives tribute from Jehu 838: Shalmaneser invades neighbours 20
  • 42. 21
  • 43. 805: Adadnirari III invaded area. Conquered surrounding nations but not Judah. 21
  • 44. Asa Omri 885 911 874 870 Ahab Jeho- shaphat Jehoram 848 Ahaziah 853 Ahaziah 841 Joram 852 Athaliah 841 841 Jehu 22
  • 45. Asa Omri 885 911 874 870 Ahab Jeho- shaphat Jehoram 848 Ahaziah 853 Ahaziah 841 Joram 852 Athaliah 841 841 Jehu 835 Joash/Jehoash 22
  • 46. Asa Omri 885 911 874 870 Ahab Jeho- shaphat Jehoram 848 Ahaziah 853 Ahaziah 841 Joram 852 Athaliah 841 841 Jehu 835 Joash/Jehoash Jehoahaz 814 22
  • 48. Jehoahaz 814 Army reduced to: • 50 horsemen • 10 chariots • 10,000 foot soldiers (2 Kings 13:7) 23
  • 50. Jehoahaz Jehu 814 841 Jehoash 835 25
  • 51. 841 Jehu 835 Jehoash Jehoahaz 814 Jehoash 798 25
  • 52. Jehoash 798 Jehoahaz Jehu 814 841 Jehoash Amaziah 835 796 25
  • 54. Jehoash 798 • Defeated Syria three times 26
  • 55. Jehoash 798 • Defeated Syria three times • Beginning of recovery 26
  • 56. Jehoash 798 • Defeated Syria three times • Beginning of recovery 2 Kings 13:25 26
  • 57. Jehoash 798 Jehoahaz Jehu 814 841 Jehoash Amaziah 835 796 27
  • 58. 841 Jehu 835 Jehoash Jehoahaz 814 Jehoash 798 796 Amaziah Jeroboam 27 782
  • 60. Jeroboam 782 • Built on Jehoash’s success (2 Kings 14:23) 28
  • 61. Jeroboam 782 • Built on Jehoash’s success (2 Kings 14:23) • Increased Israel’s territory east and north 28
  • 62. 29
  • 63. Adad-Nirari III died in 782 BC 29
  • 64. Adad-Nirari III died in 782 BC Tiglath-Pileser III didn’t come to power until 745 BC 29
  • 65. Jehoash 798 Jeroboam 782 Amaziah 796 30
  • 66. Jehoash 798 796 Amaziah 782 Jeroboam Zachariah 753 Shallum 752 Manahem 752 Pekahia 742 30
  • 67. Jehoash 798 796 Amaziah 782 Jeroboam 767 Uzziah/ Azariah Zachariah 753 Shallum 752 Manahem 752 Pekahia 742 30
  • 68. 800 780 760 740 720 700 800 780 760 740 720 700
  • 69. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos 800 780 760 740 720 700
  • 70. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  • 71. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  • 72. 32
  • 73. Peace 32
  • 74. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) 32
  • 75. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) 32
  • 76. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) Poverty 32
  • 77. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) Exploitation (Hosea 12:7; Amos 8:5-8) Poverty 32
  • 78. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) Exploitation (Hosea 12:7; Amos 8:5-8) Idolatry Poverty (Hosea 13:2) 32
  • 79. Decline 33
  • 80. 34
  • 81. • Zechariah: 6 months, 753 BC (2 Kings 15:8– 12) • Shallum: 1 month, 753 BC (2 Kings 15:13–15) • Menahem: 752–742 BC (2 Kings 15:17–22) • Pekahiah: 742–741 (2 Kings 15:23–26) • Pekah: 740–732 BC (2 Kings 15:27) • Hoshea: 732–722 (2 Kings 17:1–4) 34
  • 82. Amos 35
  • 83. 2 How is the prophet’s message presented? 36
  • 84. genre 37
  • 85. Once upon a time, there lived a young boy in an old wooden chalet, high in the mountains. Every day, he cared for his father’s goats as they grazed on the slopes. But the boy was always worried that he might meet a troll. 38
  • 86. You are covered up to the amounts specified on your policy schedule for personal accident benefits, which will be paid to you or your legal representative, if you sustain bodily injury caused by an accident and at the end of 12 months of the occurrence of that accident, it is the sole cause of: 1) your death (£10,000); 2) the physical loss of or permanent and total loss of use of one or more limbs at or above the wrist or ankle (£10,000); 3) the complete and irrecoverable loss of sight in one or both eyes (£10,000); 39
  • 87. My darling Esmerelda, I miss you with all my heart. Every moment of every day, I long to be with you, to hold you close and to touch your face once more. I yearn for the scent of your fragrance, the taste of your lips and the touch of your hand. I cannot eat or sleep or focus on anything. With every second that passes, my desire for you grows more intense, more passionate, more overwhelming. I adore you, Esmerelda, with every fibre of my being. I am yours for ever. 40
  • 88. To a good approximation (for sufficiently weak fields, assuming no dipolar moments are present), P is given by a Taylor series in E whose coefficients are the nonlinear susceptibilities: Pi /ε0 = ∑xij(1)Ej + ∑xijk(2)EjEk + ∑xijkl(3)EjEkEl + … j k l Where x (1) susceptibility, x is the linear (2) gives the Pockels effect and second harmonic generation, and x (3) gives the Kerr effect. 41
  • 89. oracles 42
  • 92. • Prophetic word formula (the word of the Lord came to X) • Commissioning formula (Go and say . . . ) • Messenger formula (This is what the Lord says . . . ) • Message 44
  • 95. 46
  • 97. • Accusation • Link (logical connective) 46
  • 98. • Accusation • Link (logical connective) • Announcement of judgment 46
  • 100. 48
  • 101. • Summons 48
  • 104. • Summons • Charge • Evidence • Verdict 48
  • 105. Woe oracle 49
  • 106. 50
  • 107. • Announcement of distress 50
  • 108. • Announcement of distress • Reason for distress 50
  • 109. • Announcement of distress • Reason for distress • Prediction of disaster 50
  • 110. lament 51
  • 112. 53
  • 113. • Indication of situation 53
  • 114. • Indication of situation • Reference to the future 53
  • 115. • Indication of situation • Reference to the future • Proclamation of radical change 53
  • 116. • Indication of situation • Reference to the future • Proclamation of radical change • Blessing 53
  • 117. prophecy concerning a surrounding nation 54
  • 118. poetry 55
  • 119. narrative 56
  • 122. 58
  • 124. • Divine confrontation • Introductory word 58
  • 125. • Divine confrontation • Introductory word • Commission 58
  • 126. • Divine confrontation • Introductory word • Commission • Objection(s) 58
  • 127. • Divine confrontation • Introductory word • Commission • Objection(s) • Reassurances 58
  • 128. • Divine confrontation • Introductory word • Commission • Objection(s) • Reassurances • Sign(s) 58
  • 129. vision 59
  • 130. • Announcement of vision • Transition • Vision sequence 60
  • 131. Identify the oracles in Amos 1:1–2:16. ? What features of the writing do you notice? 61
  • 132. 1:1 – 2:6 Amos accuses foreign nations . . . and Judah and Israel 62
  • 133.
  • 134. ARAM
  • 135. PH IL IS T IN ES ARAM
  • 136. PH IL IS T IN ES TYRE ARAM
  • 137. TYRE ARAM ES IN T IS IL PH EDOM
  • 138. TYRE ARAM AMMON ES IN T IS IL PH EDOM
  • 139. TYRE ARAM AMMON ES IN T IS IL MOAB PH EDOM
  • 140. TYRE ARAM AMMON ES IN T IS JUDAH IL MOAB PH EDOM
  • 141. TYRE ARAM ISRAEL AMMON ES IN T IS JUDAH IL MOAB PH EDOM
  • 142. 1:1 – 2:6 Amos accuses foreign nations . . . and Judah and Israel 3:1 – 6:14 Judgment speeches and woe oracles against Israel 7:1 – 9:15 Visions 64
  • 143. 65
  • 144. Jonah 66
  • 145. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  • 147. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 68
  • 148. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 68
  • 149. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee 68
  • 150. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 68
  • 151. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 68
  • 152. They mocked God's messengers, despised his words and scoffed at his prophets until the wrath of the LORD was aroused against his people and there was no remedy. 2 Chronicles 36:16 69
  • 153. Hosea 70
  • 154. • Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah 71
  • 155. • Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah • Israel: Jeroboam II, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah and Hoshea 71
  • 156. • Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah • Israel: Jeroboam II, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah and Hoshea • Probably from 753–716 BC 71
  • 157. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  • 158. 1:1 – 3:5 Hosea’s marriage and Israel’s unfaithfulness 4:1 – 7:16 Sins of people, priests and leaders 8:1 – 11:11 False worship 11:12 – 14:9 Past and future 73
  • 163. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Ephesians 5:31–32 Revelation 21:1–10 Numbers 15:37–41 Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 74
  • 164. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Exclusive, intimate Ephesians 5:31–32 covenant Revelation 21:1–10 Numbers 15:37–41 Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 74
  • 165. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Exclusive, intimate Ephesians 5:31–32 covenant Revelation 21:1–10 The ultimate marriage Numbers 15:37–41 Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 74
  • 166. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Exclusive, intimate Ephesians 5:31–32 covenant Revelation 21:1–10 The ultimate marriage Numbers 15:37–41 Forgetfulness leads to prostitution Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 74
  • 167. 3 What main problems does the prophet diagnose? 75
  • 168. To Amos, justice was of the very essence of God’s Being, and therefore it must mark all who worship Him. H.H. Rowley 76
  • 169. 4 What are the remedies? 77
  • 170. 5 What is the underlying message about God and humanity? 78
  • 173. Hosea 5:8–15 • 734 BC • Addressed to cities on road from Jerusalem to Bethel 79
  • 174. Hosea 5:8–15 • 734 BC • Addressed to cities on road from Jerusalem to Bethel • Context: war 79
  • 175. Read Hosea 1:1–11; 2:16–23; 3:1–5; 4:1–3; 6:1– 3; 11:1–4. What forms does Hosea use? Who is speaking in each case? What is the purpose of the passage? In what context might it have been spoken? 80
  • 176. Assyrian aggression 733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29) 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 81
  • 177. Assyrian aggression 733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29) 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 713: Sargon II put down rebellion of Ashdod (with Edom, Moab, Judah, plus help from Egypt) 81
  • 178. Assyrian aggression 733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29) 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 713: Sargon II put down rebellion of Ashdod (with Edom, Moab, Judah, plus help from Egypt) 701: Sennacherib’s invasion 81
  • 179. 82
  • 180. 82
  • 181.
  • 182. 824 BC
  • 183. 670 BC
  • 184. Judah
  • 185. 85
  • 186. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) 85
  • 187. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) • Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 21:1-18) 85
  • 188. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) • Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 21:1-18) • Reform during reign of Josiah (2 Kings 22, 23) 85
  • 189. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) • Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 21:1-18) • Reform during reign of Josiah (2 Kings 22, 23) … but too little, too late 85
  • 190. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  • 191. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah Isaiah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  • 192. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah Isaiah Micah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  • 193. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah ? Joel Isaiah Micah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  • 194. Isaiah 87
  • 195. Zion 88
  • 198. Security 91
  • 199. Centrality 92
  • 200. Holy One of Israel 93
  • 208. 101
  • 209. • 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God 101
  • 210. • 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God • 2:1 - 4:6 – Israel is rebellious rather than being a means of blessing 101
  • 211. • 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God • 2:1 - 4:6 – Israel is rebellious rather than being a means of blessing • 5:1-30 – degeneration of God’s people despite his care 101
  • 212. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 102
  • 213. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) 102
  • 214. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) • The charge: God’s children have rebelled against him (2–4) 102
  • 215. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) • The charge: God’s children have rebelled against him (2–4) • They are ignoring what their experience teaches them (5–8) 102
  • 216. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) • The charge: God’s children have rebelled against him (2–4) • They are ignoring what their experience teaches them (5–8) • But God preserves a remnant (9) 102
  • 217. 103
  • 218. • God does not want empty religion (11–15) 103
  • 219. • God does not want empty religion (11–15) • He wants repentance and reformation (15–17) 103
  • 220. • God does not want empty religion (11–15) • He wants repentance and reformation (15–17) • He offers cleansing in return for obedience (18–20) 103
  • 221. 104
  • 222. • The failure of the faithful city (21) 104
  • 223. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) 104
  • 224. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) 104
  • 225. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) • So the Lord will act (24) 104
  • 226. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) • So the Lord will act (24) • The dross will be purged (25) 104
  • 227. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) • So the Lord will act (24) • The dross will be purged (25) • The faithful city will be restored (26) 104
  • 228. Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6 105
  • 229. Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6 • 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem 105
  • 230. Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6 • 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem • 2:5–4:1 – the actual Jerusalem 105
  • 231. Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6 • 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem • 2:5–4:1 – the actual Jerusalem • 4:2–6 – the new Jerusalem 105
  • 232. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) 106
  • 233. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion 106
  • 234. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion • centre of global revelation 106
  • 235. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion • centre of global revelation • centre of global peace 106
  • 236. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion • centre of global revelation • centre of global peace • For that to be possible, God’s people must ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ (5) 106
  • 237. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 107
  • 238. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ 107
  • 239. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ • 2:6–21- the religious situation 107
  • 240. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ • 2:6–21- the religious situation • 2:22 – requirement: ‘stop trusting in human beings’ 107
  • 241. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ • 2:6–21- the religious situation • 2:22 – requirement: ‘stop trusting in human beings’ • 3:1–4:1 – the social situation 107
  • 242.
  • 243. • Aspects of Judah’s national life which deserve judgment (6–9) • The nation is the opposite of what it should be (2–4) • Judgment and its results (10–21) • The Lord will humble human beings and make idols vanish
  • 244.
  • 245. • God will take away all physical resources and human leaders (2–3) • He will give you immature leaders (4) • The social order will collapse (5–7) • Leadership will become a nonsense (6–7, 12)
  • 247. God’s justice (3:9b-15) • Lifestyles have consequences 110
  • 248. God’s justice (3:9b-15) • Lifestyles have consequences • The wicked bring disaster upon themselves 110
  • 249. God’s justice (3:9b-15) • Lifestyles have consequences • The wicked bring disaster upon themselves • The righteous reap the consequences of right behaviour – it will be well for them in the long run 110
  • 250. Judgment on Zion (3:25-4:1)
  • 251. Judgment on Zion (3:25-4:1) • Judgment will be more than a change in economics • War is coming because sin leads to death, not just to losing happiness • Six out of seven men will be killed – women must care for themselves
  • 252. Stop trusting in human beings
  • 253. Stop trusting in human beings • Human insights • Human resources • Human religion • Human achievement • Human influence
  • 254. Pride 113
  • 255.
  • 256. • The LORD Almighty has a day in store for all the proud and lofty, for all that is exalted … (2:12)
  • 257. • The LORD Almighty has a day in store for all the proud and lofty, for all that is exalted … (2:12) • The arrogance of all people will be brought low and human pride humbled; the LORD alone will be exalted in that day (2:17)
  • 258. 115
  • 259. • In that day people will throw away to the rodents and bats their idols (2:20) 115
  • 260. • In that day people will throw away to the rodents and bats their idols (2:20) • In that day the Lord will snatch away their finery … (3:18) 115
  • 261. • In that day people will throw away to the rodents and bats their idols (2:20) • In that day the Lord will snatch away their finery … (3:18) • In that day seven women will take hold of one man … (4:1) 115
  • 262. In that day the Branch of the LORD will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the land will be the pride and glory of the survivors in Israel. Those who are left in Zion, who remain in Jerusalem, will be called holy, all who are recorded among the living in Jerusalem. The Lord will wash away the filth of the women of Zion; he will cleanse the bloodstains from Jerusalem by a spirit of judgment and a spirit of fire. (4:2–4) 116
  • 263. Then the LORD will create over all of Mount Zion and over those who assemble there a cloud of smoke by day and a glow of flaming fire by night; over all the glory will be a canopy. It will be a shelter and shade from the heat of the day, and a refuge and hiding-place from the storm and rain. 117
  • 264. Micah 118

Editor's Notes

  1. Five key questions to ask when handling the prophets 1 Need to find dates, events, situations
  2. What structure, genre, kinds of oracles, etc.?
  3. What’s the root of the problem? What are the key themes?
  4. What are the key themes?
  5. What is God offering? What are people required to do? What are the key themes? Walt Kaiser: ‘Preaching from the prophets can have a great contemporary application if we recognize repentance as the condition for experiencing God’s favor.’ (Toward an Exegetical Theology (Baker Books, 1981), p. 195.)
  6. Handling the prophets 1 Need to find dates, events, situations
  7. Aram/Syria becoming major local power Jeroboam: 1 Kings 12–14 Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21–31; invaded by Shishak – Shoshenq I (945–924 BC), 22nd dynasty reunited land and brought stability and expansion
  8. Aram/Syria becoming major local power Jeroboam: 1 Kings 12–14 Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21–31; invaded by Shishak – Shoshenq I (945–924 BC), 22nd dynasty reunited land and brought stability and expansion
  9. Aram/Syria becoming major local power Jeroboam: 1 Kings 12–14 Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21–31; invaded by Shishak – Shoshenq I (945–924 BC), 22nd dynasty reunited land and brought stability and expansion
  10. Aram/Syria becoming major local power Jeroboam: 1 Kings 12–14 Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21–31; invaded by Shishak – Shoshenq I (945–924 BC), 22nd dynasty reunited land and brought stability and expansion
  11. Aram/Syria becoming major local power Jeroboam: 1 Kings 12–14 Rehoboam: 1 Kings 14:21–31; invaded by Shishak – Shoshenq I (945–924 BC), 22nd dynasty reunited land and brought stability and expansion
  12. Eg 1 Kings 13 - By the word of the LORD a man of God came from Judah to Bethel, as Jeroboam was standing by the altar to make an offering. . . .
  13. We hear about most prophets but not much from them (Elijah, Elisha). For some we get some prophecy and biography (Gad: 1 Sam 22; 2 Sam 24 ≈≈ Nathan: 1 Ki 7, 12 ≈≈ Huldah 2 Ki 22) We hear from God via a few, but not much about them Note that only 16 of the hundreds of prophets have their words recorded in a substantial form
  14. We hear about most prophets but not much from them (Elijah, Elisha). For some we get some prophecy and biography (Gad: 1 Sam 22; 2 Sam 24 ≈≈ Nathan: 1 Ki 7, 12 ≈≈ Huldah 2 Ki 22) We hear from God via a few, but not much about them Note that only 16 of the hundreds of prophets have their words recorded in a substantial form
  15. Baasha: army officer usurper; strengthened Ramah (just N of I/J border) Asa bribed Ben-Hadad of Aram to attack Israel so Judah could tear down fortifications of Ramah to use in Geba (in Benjamin) and Mizpah Elah killed when drunk by Zimri (captain in chariot)
  16. Baasha: army officer usurper; strengthened Ramah (just N of I/J border) Asa bribed Ben-Hadad of Aram to attack Israel so Judah could tear down fortifications of Ramah to use in Geba (in Benjamin) and Mizpah Elah killed when drunk by Zimri (captain in chariot)
  17. Baasha: army officer usurper; strengthened Ramah (just N of I/J border) Asa bribed Ben-Hadad of Aram to attack Israel so Judah could tear down fortifications of Ramah to use in Geba (in Benjamin) and Mizpah Elah killed when drunk by Zimri (captain in chariot)
  18. Baasha: army officer usurper; strengthened Ramah (just N of I/J border) Asa bribed Ben-Hadad of Aram to attack Israel so Judah could tear down fortifications of Ramah to use in Geba (in Benjamin) and Mizpah Elah killed when drunk by Zimri (captain in chariot)
  19. Baasha: army officer usurper; strengthened Ramah (just N of I/J border) Asa bribed Ben-Hadad of Aram to attack Israel so Judah could tear down fortifications of Ramah to use in Geba (in Benjamin) and Mizpah Elah killed when drunk by Zimri (captain in chariot)
  20. Omri (officer) had himself crowned and attacked Zimri who burnt palace down with himself inside. Omri lost cities to Aram but conquered Moab
  21. Mesha regains independence from Ahab
  22. 853 (Ahab’s reign). Shalmaneser III attacked Aram »» alliance of Canaanite nations (incl. I & J) headed by Aram. Shalmaneser claimed victory but didn’t take territory I-J alliance (Ahab & Jehoshaphat) to retake Ramoth Gilead but Ahab killed (1 Ki 22
  23. Two J(eh)orams attempted to regain Moab but failed Jehoram of Judah married Athaliah, daughter of Ahab or Omri Ahaziah and Joram fought Hazael, usurper of Aram, but Elisha involved in Hazael’s take-over; A & J wounded; Elisha sends prophet to Ramoth Gilead to anoint Jehu (officer) as king; Jehu avenges death of Naboth by wiping out house of Ahab and Baal-prophets
  24. Jehu loses all of Trans-Jordan to Hazael Israel becomes vassal of Damascus (2 Kings 10:32–33)
  25. The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears. (second line from top)
  26. The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears. (second line from top)
  27. The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears. (second line from top)
  28. The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears. (second line from top)
  29. Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802. Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  30. Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802. Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  31. Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802. Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  32. Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802. Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  33. Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802. Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  34. Joash hidden as boy by aunt when Athaliah killed all royal family following death of Ahaziah. Priest Jehoiada staged rebellion & became regent. Ahaziah crowned 836. Assassinated 802. Jehoahaz was vassal of Aram. Ben-Hadad tried to dominate all Canaan but failed against Hamath »» weakened; Israel became independent again
  35. Historical background to Hosea (probably started ministry in 753) Together with Judah (during reign of Uzziah), the borders were very similar to those of David and Solomon (Hamath to Dead Sea) (2 Ki. 14)
  36. Historical background to Hosea (probably started ministry in 753) Together with Judah (during reign of Uzziah), the borders were very similar to those of David and Solomon (Hamath to Dead Sea) (2 Ki. 14)
  37. Historical background to Hosea (probably started ministry in 753) Together with Judah (during reign of Uzziah), the borders were very similar to those of David and Solomon (Hamath to Dead Sea) (2 Ki. 14)
  38. Time of relative weakness
  39. Time of relative weakness
  40. Historical background to Hosea (probably started ministry in 753) Together with Judah (during reign of Uzziah), the borders were very similar to those of David and Solomon (Hamath to Dead Sea) (2 Ki. 14)
  41. See Amos 1:1 for dating ~ 760: 767 (Uzziah as king) < Amos < 753 (death of Uzziah) Why only writing prophets for 300 years from 760? Particular need for covenant enforcement mediators during this time. Plus God wanted to record his warnings and promises given at critical time
  42. See Amos 1:1 for dating ~ 760: 767 (Uzziah as king) < Amos < 753 (death of Uzziah) Why only writing prophets for 300 years from 760? Particular need for covenant enforcement mediators during this time. Plus God wanted to record his warnings and promises given at critical time
  43. See Amos 1:1 for dating ~ 760: 767 (Uzziah as king) < Amos < 753 (death of Uzziah) Why only writing prophets for 300 years from 760? Particular need for covenant enforcement mediators during this time. Plus God wanted to record his warnings and promises given at critical time
  44. Baal worship introduced by Omri (1 Kings 16:29–33); Calf worship at Dan and Bethel (Hosea 13:2); Temple prostitution (Hosea 4:10–18) Resulted in judgment (2 Kings 17:7–12; Hosea 9:1–9; Amos 2:6–16)
  45. Baal worship introduced by Omri (1 Kings 16:29–33); Calf worship at Dan and Bethel (Hosea 13:2); Temple prostitution (Hosea 4:10–18) Resulted in judgment (2 Kings 17:7–12; Hosea 9:1–9; Amos 2:6–16)
  46. Baal worship introduced by Omri (1 Kings 16:29–33); Calf worship at Dan and Bethel (Hosea 13:2); Temple prostitution (Hosea 4:10–18) Resulted in judgment (2 Kings 17:7–12; Hosea 9:1–9; Amos 2:6–16)
  47. Baal worship introduced by Omri (1 Kings 16:29–33); Calf worship at Dan and Bethel (Hosea 13:2); Temple prostitution (Hosea 4:10–18) Resulted in judgment (2 Kings 17:7–12; Hosea 9:1–9; Amos 2:6–16)
  48. Baal worship introduced by Omri (1 Kings 16:29–33); Calf worship at Dan and Bethel (Hosea 13:2); Temple prostitution (Hosea 4:10–18) Resulted in judgment (2 Kings 17:7–12; Hosea 9:1–9; Amos 2:6–16)
  49. Wealth for few at expense of increasing poor. Side-effect: driving people to cities. Oppression undermined society and economy. Exploitation (6:4-7). Appeal: 5:24. Amos sees roots of injustice in idolatry and apostacy. Religion = superstition.
  50. What structure, genre, kinds of oracles, etc.?
  51. Nonlinear optics. Changes to polarization density of material under extreme electric fields. Polarization waves generated are related to the generating electric fields by the nonlinear susceptibility tensor. This expansion shows the way higher order tensors arise.
  52. prophetic speeches. Think oracles. Identify oracles. But many just follow on. Often can’t identify whether given at same time or to same people or not. Haggai and early Zech. - all oracles dated; some of Ezekiel and Jeremiah Eg Amos 5 - generally accepted that contains 3 oracles: 1–3, 4–17, 18–27
  53. Report of oral message delivered by the prophet on behalf of God
  54. Hosea 1; Amos 7; Isaiah 6; 7:3–9; Jeremiah 1 Messenger formula: Hosea, Joel, Habakkuk, Zephaniah – 0; Obadiah, Micah, Nahum – 1; Haggai – 3; Zechariah – 9; Amos – 14 times; Isaiah – 44; Ezekiel 125; Jeremiah 157
  55. Hosea 1; Amos 7; Isaiah 6; 7:3–9; Jeremiah 1 Messenger formula: Hosea, Joel, Habakkuk, Zephaniah – 0; Obadiah, Micah, Nahum – 1; Haggai – 3; Zechariah – 9; Amos – 14 times; Isaiah – 44; Ezekiel 125; Jeremiah 157
  56. Hosea 1; Amos 7; Isaiah 6; 7:3–9; Jeremiah 1 Messenger formula: Hosea, Joel, Habakkuk, Zephaniah – 0; Obadiah, Micah, Nahum – 1; Haggai – 3; Zechariah – 9; Amos – 14 times; Isaiah – 44; Ezekiel 125; Jeremiah 157
  57. Hosea 1; Amos 7; Isaiah 6; 7:3–9; Jeremiah 1 Messenger formula: Hosea, Joel, Habakkuk, Zephaniah – 0; Obadiah, Micah, Nahum – 1; Haggai – 3; Zechariah – 9; Amos – 14 times; Isaiah – 44; Ezekiel 125; Jeremiah 157
  58. Judgment speech
  59. Amos 3:9-11; Isaiah 5:8–10 (land-grabbing), 11–17 (drunkenness), 18–24; 10:1–4 (injustice); Micah 3:9–12; Jeremiah 11:9–12 Judgment usually expressed through one of 10 ‘D’s: Death, Disease, Drought, Dearth, Danger, Destruction, Defeat, Deportation, Destitution, Disgrace
  60. Amos 3:9-11; Isaiah 5:8–10 (land-grabbing), 11–17 (drunkenness), 18–24; 10:1–4 (injustice); Micah 3:9–12; Jeremiah 11:9–12 Judgment usually expressed through one of 10 ‘D’s: Death, Disease, Drought, Dearth, Danger, Destruction, Defeat, Deportation, Destitution, Disgrace
  61. Amos 3:9-11; Isaiah 5:8–10 (land-grabbing), 11–17 (drunkenness), 18–24; 10:1–4 (injustice); Micah 3:9–12; Jeremiah 11:9–12 Judgment usually expressed through one of 10 ‘D’s: Death, Disease, Drought, Dearth, Danger, Destruction, Defeat, Deportation, Destitution, Disgrace
  62. Covenant/prophetic lawsuit (rîb) Charging and individual or nation with breech of covenant
  63. Hosea 4:1–19 ≈≈ Isaiah 3:13–26; Isaiah 41 ≈≈ Micah 6 Ezekiel 16; 20; 22 Jeremiah 12 – a lawsuit against God
  64. Hosea 4:1–19 ≈≈ Isaiah 3:13–26; Isaiah 41 ≈≈ Micah 6 Ezekiel 16; 20; 22 Jeremiah 12 – a lawsuit against God
  65. Hosea 4:1–19 ≈≈ Isaiah 3:13–26; Isaiah 41 ≈≈ Micah 6 Ezekiel 16; 20; 22 Jeremiah 12 – a lawsuit against God
  66. Hosea 4:1–19 ≈≈ Isaiah 3:13–26; Isaiah 41 ≈≈ Micah 6 Ezekiel 16; 20; 22 Jeremiah 12 – a lawsuit against God
  67. Ezekiel 13:1-16 – woe to prophets; v. 17–23 – woe to daughters who prophecy Ezekiel 7 Isaiah 5:8–24; 10:1–4 ≈≈ Habakkuk 2:6–8 ≈≈ Micah 2:1–5 ≈≈ Zeph 2:5–7
  68. Ezekiel 13:1-16 – woe to prophets; v. 17–23 – woe to daughters who prophecy Ezekiel 7 Isaiah 5:8–24; 10:1–4 ≈≈ Habakkuk 2:6–8 ≈≈ Micah 2:1–5 ≈≈ Zeph 2:5–7
  69. Ezekiel 13:1-16 – woe to prophets; v. 17–23 – woe to daughters who prophecy Ezekiel 7 Isaiah 5:8–24; 10:1–4 ≈≈ Habakkuk 2:6–8 ≈≈ Micah 2:1–5 ≈≈ Zeph 2:5–7
  70. Amos 5:1–3; Isaiah 14:3–23; Ezekiel 19:1–14; Jeremiah 9:17–21 8:18 – 9:1; 4:19–22 (note change of voice - Jeremiah, people or God?)
  71. Proclamation of salvation/restoration Promise
  72. Ezekiel 36:22f Amos 9:11–15 ≈≈ Hosea 2:16–20 and 21–23 ≈≈ Isaiah 45:1–7 ≈≈ Jeremiah 31:1–9
  73. Ezekiel 36:22f Amos 9:11–15 ≈≈ Hosea 2:16–20 and 21–23 ≈≈ Isaiah 45:1–7 ≈≈ Jeremiah 31:1–9
  74. Ezekiel 36:22f Amos 9:11–15 ≈≈ Hosea 2:16–20 and 21–23 ≈≈ Isaiah 45:1–7 ≈≈ Jeremiah 31:1–9
  75. Ezekiel 36:22f Amos 9:11–15 ≈≈ Hosea 2:16–20 and 21–23 ≈≈ Isaiah 45:1–7 ≈≈ Jeremiah 31:1–9
  76. Recognised by content; may take any form Isaiah 13–23; Jeremiah 46–51; Ezekiel 25–32; Amos 1–2; Zephaniah 2:4–15
  77. Watch out for changes (eg Isa 35 is poetry; 36 is narrative)
  78. First or third person story about prophet Isaiah 6; Ezekiel 4, 12; Hosea 1; Isaiah 20; Jeremiah 27 Political – 2 Kings 6; Isaiah 36–37 Ethical – Numbers 20; 2 Kings 4–5 Confrontation stories – Amos 7:10–17; Jeremiah 6, 19, 26–28
  79. Autobiographical account of the prophet’s calling Vocation Report (Marvin A. Sweeney, ‘The Genres of Prophetic Literature’)
  80. Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3 Amos 7:10–17
  81. Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3 Amos 7:10–17
  82. Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3 Amos 7:10–17
  83. Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3 Amos 7:10–17
  84. Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3 Amos 7:10–17
  85. Isaiah 6; Jeremiah 4:1–10; Ezekiel 1–3 Amos 7:10–17
  86. Autobiographical account of prophet’s experience Amos 7, 8; Ezek 1
  87. Amos 7, 8; Ezek 1
  88. Amos 7, 8; Ezek 1
  89. Amos 7, 8; Ezek 1
  90. Amos’s oracles against the nations ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  91. Amos’s oracles against the nations ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  92. Amos’s oracles against the nations ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  93. Amos’s oracles against the nations ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  94. Amos’s oracles against the nations ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  95. Amos’s oracles against the nations ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  96. Amos’s oracles against the nations ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  97. Amos’s oracles against the nations ‘sins’ = ‘transgressions’ – rebellion: were these part of Davidic empire? Is Amos appealing to some natural law? Or war crimes?
  98. 3:2 ‘chosen’ (NIV) = ‘known’ v. personal. QUESTION: How useful is idea of chosen people today? cf 1 Pet. 2:9 What kind of encouragement and challenge should it bring?
  99. During reign of Jeroboam 782–753
  100. See Amos 1:1 for dating ~ 760: 767 (Uzziah as king) < Amos < 753 (death of Uzziah) Why only writing prophets for 300 years from 760? Particular need for covenant enforcement mediators during this time. Plus God wanted to record his warnings and promises given at critical time
  101. Poss TigPil invasion in 734 713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  102. Poss TigPil invasion in 734 713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  103. Poss TigPil invasion in 734 713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  104. Poss TigPil invasion in 734 713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  105. Poss TigPil invasion in 734 713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  106. Moses warned about the results of disobedience: Leviticus 26:27-39; Deuteronomy 28:49-68
  107. The Son of Beeri; Contemporary of Isaiah and Amos
  108. Jeroboam 782-753
  109. Jeroboam 782-753
  110. Jeroboam 782-753
  111. What’s the root of the problem? What are the key themes?
  112. What are the key themes?
  113. What is God offering? What are people required to do? What are the key themes? Walt Kaiser: ‘Preaching from the prophets can have a great contemporary application if we recognize repentance as the condition for experiencing God’s favor.’ (Toward an Exegetical Theology (Baker Books, 1981), p. 195.)
  114. 2 Ki 16:5–9 Israeli-Syrian attack on Judah; counteracted with help from Assyria
  115. 2 Ki 16:5–9 Israeli-Syrian attack on Judah; counteracted with help from Assyria
  116. 2 Ki 16:5–9 Israeli-Syrian attack on Judah; counteracted with help from Assyria
  117. Poss TigPil invasion in 734 713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  118. Poss TigPil invasion in 734 713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  119. Poss TigPil invasion in 734 713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  120. Poss TigPil invasion in 734 713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  121. Poss TigPil invasion in 734 713 - Judah became vassal of Assyria to
  122. Glass jar from palace of Ashurnarsipal II, but from later date. A cuneiform inscription on it reads: 'Palace of Sargon King of Assyria', accompanied by an engraving of a lion. The lion, often occurring with inscriptions of Sargon II (reigned 722-705 BC), is probably an official mark indicating that the article derives from or belongs to Sargon's palace or treasury. The jar has no close parallels either in Assyria or in neighbouring areas. It may be of Phoenician origin, and the cuneiform inscription may have been added for its new Assyrian owner. Glass vessels are known in the ancient Near East from as early as the second millennium BC. They were made by building glass up around a clay core, which was afterwards removed. By the time this jar was produced however, glass vessels were being cast, probably by the lost wax technique, and then finished by grinding and polishing. (BM)
  123. Contemporary of Hosea and Micah
  124. Jerusalem / Zion / mountain / city are broadly interchangeable
  125. 1:8; 3:1, 8, 16; 4:3-4; 10:12, 24-25, 32; 22:1-14; 49:14-21; 54:1, 11; 64:10; 66:6
  126. Preservation: 1:8; 26:1; 29:1-8; 31:5-9; 36:15; 37:10, 32-35; 38:6 // Restoration: 40:2, 9: 52:1; 57:13; 61:3; 66:8 // Davidic restoration: 1:21, 26-27; 24:23; 33:20 // Redeemed: 51:7; 52:1-2, 7-8; 59:20; 62:11 // Cyrus: 45:13 // God's dwelling: 4:3-5; 12:6
  127. Of or In Preservation: 1:8; 26:1; 29:1-8; 31:5-9; 36:15; 37:10, 32-35; 38:6 // Restoration: 40:2, 9: 52:1; 57:13; 61:3; 66:8 // Davidic restoration: 1:21, 26-27; 24:23; 33:20 // Redeemed: 51:7; 52:1-2, 7-8; 59:20; 62:11 // Cyrus: 45:13 // God's dwelling: 4:3-5; 12:6
  128. 14:25; 41:27; 46:13; 60:14; 62:1, 6; 65:18-19; 66:13
  129. 6:1-13 — Holiness and transcendence (cf 5:16; 40:25; 57:15), holiness and judgement (cf 5:16, 24; 10:17; 30:12-14), holiness and salvation (cf 30:15; 10:20; 12:6; 29:19; 41:14; 43:3, 14; 47:4; 48:17; 49:7; 52:10; 54:5; 60:9, 14). 'Holy' used of God more in Isaiah than in all rest of OT. 'The Holy One of Israel' used 25 times (7 in rest of OT).