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II. Handling the OT Prophets 1. The Eighth Century

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Some tools for understanding the Old Testament prophets. The focus in this lecture is on the historical context of the eighth century prophets (Amos, Hosea, Jonah, Isaiah, Micah, probably Joel and Obadiah) and different genres within the prophetic literature. This is the second of five lectures given on the Bible and Culture course at Schloss Mittersill, Austria (a course run jointly by Schloss MIttersill and IFES).

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II. Handling the OT Prophets 1. The Eighth Century

  1. 1. Handling the Prophets 1
  2. 2. 1 What is the historical context? 2
  3. 3. 2 How is the prophet’s message presented? 3
  4. 4. 3 What main problems does the prophet diagnose? 4
  5. 5. 4 What are the remedies? 5
  6. 6. 5 What is the underlying message about God and humanity? 6
  7. 7. 1 What is the historical context? 7
  8. 8. 10Century th 8
  9. 9. Saul David Solomon 1050 1010 970 9
  10. 10. Jeroboam 931 Saul David Solomon 1050 1010 970 Rehoboam 931 9
  11. 11. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 10
  12. 12. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 • ‘High places, sacred stones and Asherah poles on ‘every high hill and under every spreading tree’ 10
  13. 13. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 • ‘High places, sacred stones and Asherah poles on ‘every high hill and under every spreading tree’ • Egyptian invasion (925) 10
  14. 14. Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 • ‘High places, • Shrines at Dan sacred stones and and Bethel Asherah poles on ‘every high hill and under every spreading tree’ • Egyptian invasion (925) 10
  15. 15. 9Century th 11
  16. 16. Jeroboam 931 Saul David Solomon 1050 1010 970 Rehoboam 931 12
  17. 17. 1050 Saul 1010 David 970 Solomon Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 Abijam 913 Nadab 910 Baasha 909 Asa Elah 886 12 911
  18. 18. 1010 David 970 Solomon Rehoboam Jeroboam 931 931 Abijam 913 Nadab 910 Baasha 909 Asa Asa Elah 886 911 911 Zimri 885 Omri 885 Ahab 874 13
  19. 19. Ahab 874 14
  20. 20. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess 14
  21. 21. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess • Regained cities from Aram 14
  22. 22. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess • Regained cities from Aram • Elijah: 1 Kings 17 – 2 Kings 2 14
  23. 23. Ahab 874 • Married to Jezebel, Phoenician princess • Regained cities from Aram • Elijah: 1 Kings 17 – 2 Kings 2 • Elishah: 2 Kings 2 – 8 14
  24. 24. Mesha Stele records the victory of King Mesha of Moab after being subject to Israel during Omri’s reign and half of Ahab’s (2 Kings 3)
  25. 25. Omri 885 Ahab 874 Jeho- Asa 911 shaphat 870 16
  26. 26. Asa Omri 885 911 874 870 Ahab Jeho- shaphat Jehoram 848 Ahaziah 853 Ahaziah 841 Joram 852 Athaliah 841 841 Jehu 17
  27. 27. Hazael Damascus ARAM ISRAEL Jehu Samaria
  28. 28. Assyria 19
  29. 29. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region 20
  30. 30. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region • Fails to capture Dan 20
  31. 31. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region • Fails to capture Dan • Receives tribute from Jehu 20
  32. 32. 841: Shalmaneser III invades region • Fails to capture Dan • Receives tribute from Jehu 838: Shalmaneser invades neighbours 20
  33. 33. 805: Adadnirari III invaded area. Conquered surrounding nations but not Judah. 21
  34. 34. Asa Omri 885 911 874 870 Ahab Jeho- shaphat Jehoram 848 Ahaziah 853 Ahaziah 841 Joram 852 Athaliah 841 841 Jehu 835 Joash/Jehoash Jehoahaz 814 22
  35. 35. Jehoahaz 814 23
  36. 36. Jehoahaz 814 Army reduced to: • 50 horsemen • 10 chariots • 10,000 foot soldiers (2 Kings 13:7) 23
  37. 37. 8Century th 24
  38. 38. Jehoash 798 Jehoahaz Jehu 814 841 Jehoash Amaziah 835 796 25
  39. 39. Jehoash 798 26
  40. 40. Jehoash 798 • Defeated Syria three times 26
  41. 41. Jehoash 798 • Defeated Syria three times • Beginning of recovery 26
  42. 42. Jehoash 798 • Defeated Syria three times • Beginning of recovery 2 Kings 13:25 26
  43. 43. 841 Jehu 835 Jehoash Jehoahaz 814 Jehoash 798 796 Amaziah Jeroboam 27 782
  44. 44. Jeroboam 782 28
  45. 45. Jeroboam 782 • Built on Jehoash’s success (2 Kings 14:23) 28
  46. 46. Jeroboam 782 • Built on Jehoash’s success (2 Kings 14:23) • Increased Israel’s territory east and north 28
  47. 47. Adad-Nirari III died in 782 BC 29
  48. 48. Adad-Nirari III died in 782 BC Tiglath-Pileser III didn’t come to power until 745 BC 29
  49. 49. Jehoash 798 796 Amaziah 782 Jeroboam 767 Uzziah/ Azariah Zachariah 753 Shallum 752 Manahem 752 Pekahia 742 30
  50. 50. 800 780 760 740 720 700 800 780 760 740 720 700
  51. 51. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos 800 780 760 740 720 700
  52. 52. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  53. 53. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  54. 54. Peace 32
  55. 55. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) 32
  56. 56. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) 32
  57. 57. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) Poverty 32
  58. 58. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) Exploitation (Hosea 12:7; Amos 8:5-8) Poverty 32
  59. 59. Prosperity Peace (Hosea 8:14; Isaiah 9:10) Confidence (Amos 3:15; 5:11) Exploitation (Hosea 12:7; Amos 8:5-8) Idolatry Poverty (Hosea 13:2) 32
  60. 60. Decline 33
  61. 61. • Zechariah: 6 months, 753 BC (2 Kings 15:8– 12) 34
  62. 62. • Zechariah: 6 months, 753 BC (2 Kings 15:8– 12) • Shallum: 1 month, 753 BC (2 Kings 15:13–15) • Menahem: 752–742 BC (2 Kings 15:17–22) • Pekahiah: 742–741 (2 Kings 15:23–26) • Pekah: 740–732 BC (2 Kings 15:27) • Hoshea: 732–722 (2 Kings 17:1–4) 34
  63. 63. Amos 35
  64. 64. 2 How is the prophet’s message presented? 36
  65. 65. genre 37
  66. 66. Once upon a time, there lived a young boy in an old wooden chalet, high in the mountains. Every day, he cared for his father’s goats as they grazed on the slopes. But the boy was always worried that he might meet a troll. 38
  67. 67. You are covered up to the amounts specified on your policy schedule for personal accident benefits, which will be paid to you or your legal representative, if you sustain bodily injury caused by an accident and at the end of 12 months of the occurrence of that accident, it is the sole cause of: 1) your death (£10,000); 2) the physical loss of or permanent and total loss of use of one or more limbs at or above the wrist or ankle (£10,000); 3) the complete and irrecoverable loss of sight in one or both eyes (£10,000); 39
  68. 68. My darling Esmerelda, I miss you with all my heart. Every moment of every day, I long to be with you, to hold you close and to touch your face once more. I yearn for the scent of your fragrance, the taste of your lips and the touch of your hand. I cannot eat or sleep or focus on anything. With every second that passes, my desire for you grows more intense, more passionate, more overwhelming. I adore you, Esmerelda, with every fibre of my being. I am yours for ever. 40
  69. 69. To a good approximation (for sufficiently weak fields, assuming no dipolar moments are present), P is given by a Taylor series in E whose coefficients are the nonlinear susceptibilities: Pi /ε0 = ∑xij(1)Ej + ∑xijk(2)EjEk + ∑xijkl(3)EjEkEl + … j k l Where x (1) susceptibility, x is the linear (2) gives the Pockels effect and second harmonic generation, and x (3) gives the Kerr effect. 41
  70. 70. oracles 42
  71. 71. messenger speech 43
  72. 72. • Prophetic word formula (the word of the Lord came to X) 44
  73. 73. • Prophetic word formula (the word of the Lord came to X) • Commissioning formula (Go and say . . . ) 44
  74. 74. • Prophetic word formula (the word of the Lord came to X) • Commissioning formula (Go and say . . . ) • Messenger formula (This is what the Lord says . . . ) 44
  75. 75. • Prophetic word formula (the word of the Lord came to X) • Commissioning formula (Go and say . . . ) • Messenger formula (This is what the Lord says . . . ) • Message 44
  76. 76. judgment oracles 45
  77. 77. • Accusation 46
  78. 78. • Accusation • Link (logical connective) 46
  79. 79. • Accusation • Link (logical connective) • Announcement of judgment 46
  80. 80. covenant lawsuit 47
  81. 81. • Summons 48
  82. 82. • Summons • Charge 48
  83. 83. • Summons • Charge • Evidence 48
  84. 84. • Summons • Charge • Evidence • Verdict 48
  85. 85. woe oracle 49
  86. 86. • Announcement of distress 50
  87. 87. • Announcement of distress • Reason for distress 50
  88. 88. • Announcement of distress • Reason for distress • Prediction of disaster 50
  89. 89. lament 51
  90. 90. salvation oracles 52
  91. 91. • Indication of situation 53
  92. 92. • Indication of situation • Reference to the future 53
  93. 93. • Indication of situation • Reference to the future • Proclamation of radical change 53
  94. 94. • Indication of situation • Reference to the future • Proclamation of radical change • Blessing 53
  95. 95. oracles against the nations 54
  96. 96. poetry 55
  97. 97. narrative 56
  98. 98. commissioning 57
  99. 99. commissioning 57
  100. 100. • Encounter with God 58
  101. 101. • Encounter with God • Introductory words 58
  102. 102. • Encounter with God • Introductory words • Commission 58
  103. 103. • Encounter with God • Introductory words • Commission • Objection(s) 58
  104. 104. • Encounter with God • Introductory words • Commission • Objection(s) • Reassurances 58
  105. 105. • Encounter with God • Introductory words • Commission • Objection(s) • Reassurances • Sign(s) 58
  106. 106. vision 59
  107. 107. • Announcement of vision 60
  108. 108. • Announcement of vision • Transition 60
  109. 109. • Announcement of vision • Transition • Vision sequence 60
  110. 110. Identify the oracles in Amos. ? What features of the writing do you notice? 61
  111. 111. 1:1 – 2:6 Amos accuses foreign nations . . . and Judah and Israel 62
  112. 112. ARAM
  113. 113. PH IL IS T IN ES ARAM
  114. 114. PH IL IS T IN ES TYRE ARAM
  115. 115. TYRE ARAM ES IN T IS IL PH EDOM
  116. 116. TYRE ARAM AMMON ES IN T IS IL PH EDOM
  117. 117. TYRE ARAM AMMON ES IN T IS IL MOAB PH EDOM
  118. 118. TYRE ARAM AMMON ES IN T IS JUDAH IL MOAB PH EDOM
  119. 119. TYRE ARAM ISRAEL AMMON ES IN T IS JUDAH IL MOAB PH EDOM
  120. 120. 1:1 – 2:6 Amos accuses foreign nations . . . and Judah and Israel 3:1 – 6:14 Judgment speeches and woe oracles against Israel 7:1 – 9:15 Visions 64
  121. 121. Jonah 65
  122. 122. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  123. 123. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 67
  124. 124. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 67
  125. 125. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee 67
  126. 126. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 67
  127. 127. Assyrian aggression 743: Tiglathpileser III campaigning in Aram 738: Menahem pays tribute to Assyria 733: Tiglathpileser puts down rebellion by Aram and Samaria – takes Gilead and Galilee 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 67
  128. 128. They mocked God's messengers, despised his words and scoffed at his prophets until the wrath of the LORD was aroused against his people and there was no remedy. 2 Chronicles 36:16 68
  129. 129. Hosea 69
  130. 130. • Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah 70
  131. 131. • Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah • Israel: Jeroboam II, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah and Hoshea 70
  132. 132. • Dated in relation to kings of Judah: Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah • Israel: Jeroboam II, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah and Hoshea • Probably from 753–716 BC 70
  133. 133. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  134. 134. 1:1 – 3:5 Hosea’s marriage and Israel’s unfaithfulness 4:1 – 7:16 Sins of people, priests and leaders 8:1 – 11:11 False worship 11:12 – 14:9 Past and future 72
  135. 135. Adultery/Prostitution 73
  136. 136. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Ephesians 5:31–32 73
  137. 137. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Ephesians 5:31–32 Revelation 21:1–10 73
  138. 138. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Ephesians 5:31–32 Revelation 21:1–10 Numbers 15:37–41 73
  139. 139. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Ephesians 5:31–32 Revelation 21:1–10 Numbers 15:37–41 Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 73
  140. 140. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Exclusive, intimate Ephesians 5:31–32 covenant Revelation 21:1–10 Numbers 15:37–41 Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 73
  141. 141. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Exclusive, intimate Ephesians 5:31–32 covenant Revelation 21:1–10 The ultimate marriage Numbers 15:37–41 Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 73
  142. 142. Adultery/Prostitution Genesis 2:23–24 Exclusive, intimate Ephesians 5:31–32 covenant Revelation 21:1–10 The ultimate marriage Numbers 15:37–41 Forgetfulness leads to prostitution Hosea 1:1–3:5 Jeremiah 2–3 Ezekiel 16, 23 73
  143. 143. 3 What main problems does the prophet diagnose? 74
  144. 144. To Amos, justice was of the very essence of God’s Being, and therefore it must mark all who worship Him. H.H. Rowley 75
  145. 145. 4 What are the remedies? 76
  146. 146. 5 What is the underlying message about God and humanity? 77
  147. 147. Hosea 5:8–15 • 734 BC 78
  148. 148. Hosea 5:8–15 • 734 BC • Addressed to cities on road from Jerusalem to Bethel 78
  149. 149. Hosea 5:8–15 • 734 BC • Addressed to cities on road from Jerusalem to Bethel • Context: war 78
  150. 150. Read Hosea 1:1–11; 2:16–23; 3:1–5; 4:1–3; 6:1– 3; 11:1–4. What forms does Hosea use? Who is speaking in each case? What is the purpose of the passage? In what context might it have been spoken? 79
  151. 151. Assyrian aggression 733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29) 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 80
  152. 152. Assyrian aggression 733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29) 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 713: Sargon II put down rebellion of Ashdod (with Edom, Moab, Judah, plus help from Egypt) 80
  153. 153. Assyrian aggression 733: Tiglath-pileser III (2 Kings 15:19, 29) 724: Shalmaneser V besieged Samaria 722: Shalmaneser captured Samaria (2 Kings 17) 713: Sargon II put down rebellion of Ashdod (with Edom, Moab, Judah, plus help from Egypt) 701: Sennacherib’s invasion 80
  154. 154. 81
  155. 155. 824 BC
  156. 156. 670 BC
  157. 157. Judah
  158. 158. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) 84
  159. 159. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) • Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 21:1-18) 84
  160. 160. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) • Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 21:1-18) • Reform during reign of Josiah (2 Kings 22, 23) 84
  161. 161. • Revival during reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18, 19) • Idolatry during reigns of Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 21:1-18) • Reform during reign of Josiah (2 Kings 22, 23) … but too little, too late 84
  162. 162. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  163. 163. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah Isaiah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  164. 164. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah Isaiah Micah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  165. 165. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah ? Joel Isaiah Micah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  166. 166. 800 780 760 740 720 700 Amos Hosea Jonah ? Obadiah ? Joel Isaiah Micah 800 780 760 740 720 700
  167. 167. Isaiah 86
  168. 168. Zion 87
  169. 169. Divine judgment 88
  170. 170. Preservation/ Restoration 89
  171. 171. Security 90
  172. 172. Centrality 91
  173. 173. Holy One of Israel 92
  174. 174. King (1–37) 93
  175. 175. Servant (38–55) 94
  176. 176. Conqueror (56–66) 95
  177. 177. Righteousness 96
  178. 178. Davidic King 97
  179. 179. Israel and Gentiles 98
  180. 180. Messianic enigma 99
  181. 181. • 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God 100
  182. 182. • 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God • 2:1 - 4:6 – Israel is rebellious rather than being a means of blessing 100
  183. 183. • 1:1-31 – effects of abandoning God • 2:1 - 4:6 – Israel is rebellious rather than being a means of blessing • 5:1-30 – degeneration of God’s people despite his care 100
  184. 184. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) 101
  185. 185. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) • The charge: God’s children have rebelled against him (2–4) 101
  186. 186. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) • The charge: God’s children have rebelled against him (2–4) • They are ignoring what their experience teaches them (5–8) 101
  187. 187. Isaiah 1:1 – 31 • Summons to God’s court (1:2) • The charge: God’s children have rebelled against him (2–4) • They are ignoring what their experience teaches them (5–8) • But God preserves a remnant (9) 101
  188. 188. • God does not want empty religion (11–15) 102
  189. 189. • God does not want empty religion (11–15) • He wants repentance and reformation (15–17) 102
  190. 190. • God does not want empty religion (11–15) • He wants repentance and reformation (15–17) • He offers cleansing in return for obedience (18–20) 102
  191. 191. • The failure of the faithful city (21) 103
  192. 192. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) 103
  193. 193. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) 103
  194. 194. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) • So the Lord will act (24) 103
  195. 195. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) • So the Lord will act (24) • The dross will be purged (25) 103
  196. 196. • The failure of the faithful city (21) • It has become dross (22) • The rulers are corrupt (23) • So the Lord will act (24) • The dross will be purged (25) • The faithful city will be restored (26) 103
  197. 197. Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6 • 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem 104
  198. 198. Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6 • 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem • 2:5–4:1 – the actual Jerusalem 104
  199. 199. Isaiah 2:1 – 4:6 • 2:2–4 – the ideal Jerusalem • 2:5–4:1 – the actual Jerusalem • 4:2–6 – the new Jerusalem 104
  200. 200. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion 105
  201. 201. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion • centre of global revelation 105
  202. 202. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion • centre of global revelation • centre of global peace 105
  203. 203. The ideal Jerusalem (2:2-4) • The future attractiveness of Zion • centre of global revelation • centre of global peace • For that to be possible, God’s people must ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ (5) 105
  204. 204. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ 106
  205. 205. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ • 2:6–21- the religious situation 106
  206. 206. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ • 2:6–21- the religious situation • 2:22 – requirement: ‘stop trusting in human beings’ 106
  207. 207. Isaiah 2:5 – 4:1 • 2:5 – requirement: ‘walk in the light of the Lord’ • 2:6–21- the religious situation • 2:22 – requirement: ‘stop trusting in human beings’ • 3:1–4:1 – the social situation 106
  208. 208. • Aspects of Judah’s national life which deserve judgment (6–9)
  209. 209. • Aspects of Judah’s national life which deserve judgment (6–9) • The nation is the opposite of what it should be (2–4) • Judgment and its results (10–21) • The Lord will humble human beings and make idols vanish
  210. 210. • God will take away all physical resources and human leaders (2–3)
  211. 211. • God will take away all physical resources and human leaders (2–3) • He will give you immature leaders (4) • The social order will collapse (5–7) • Leadership will become a nonsense (6–7, 12)
  212. 212. God’s justice (3:9b-15) • Lifestyles have consequences 109
  213. 213. God’s justice (3:9b-15) • Lifestyles have consequences • The wicked bring disaster upon themselves 109
  214. 214. God’s justice (3:9b-15) • Lifestyles have consequences • The wicked bring disaster upon themselves • The righteous reap the consequences of right behaviour – it will be well for them in the long run 109
  215. 215. Judgment on Zion (3:25-4:1) • Judgment will be more than a change in economics
  216. 216. Judgment on Zion (3:25-4:1) • Judgment will be more than a change in economics • War is coming because sin leads to death, not just to losing happiness • Six out of seven men will be killed – women must care for themselves
  217. 217. Stop trusting in human beings • Human insights
  218. 218. Stop trusting in human beings • Human insights • Human resources • Human religion • Human achievement • Human influence
  219. 219. Pride 112
  220. 220. • The LORD Almighty has a day in store for all the proud and lofty, for all that is exalted … (2:12) • The arrogance of all people will be brought low and human pride humbled; the LORD alone will be exalted in that day (2:17)
  221. 221. • In that day people will throw away to the rodents and bats their idols (2:20) • In that day the Lord will snatch away their finery … (3:18) • In that day seven women will take hold of one man … (4:1) 114
  222. 222. In that day the Branch of the LORD will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the land will be the pride and glory of the survivors in Israel. Those who are left in Zion, who remain in Jerusalem, will be called holy, all who are recorded among the living in Jerusalem. The Lord will wash away the filth of the women of Zion; he will cleanse the bloodstains from Jerusalem by a spirit of judgment and a spirit of fire. (4:2–4) 115
  223. 223. Then the LORD will create over all of Mount Zion and over those who assemble there a cloud of smoke by day and a glow of flaming fire by night; over all the glory will be a canopy. It will be a shelter and shade from the heat of the day, and a refuge and hiding-place from the storm and rain. 116
  224. 224. Micah 117

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