Tom Wolfe's book. First astronauts selected for their physical, physcological characteristics What are the barriers to human space travel? What have we done to overcome those barriers? What will we need to do to match reality with future aspirations in space travel?
Humans evolved on earth so those are the evironmental constraints to which we've adapted Earth has features unique to it that make space travel difficult. Gravity-local concentrations of fluids can shift in the absence of gravity. Bone structure, muscle mass, gravity receptors come from having to fight against gravity Magnetic field protects us from harfmul cosmic radiation Atmosphere- difussion systems in our body are controlled my atomspheric pressure, we need the contents to breath Our biochemistry is linked to available elements (we look like other rocky planets) Humans are highly social beings. On Earth there is an abundance of opportunities to explore this Our bodies (especially sleep cycles) are tuned to the earth-particulars of the sun's rotation and revolution
Nazi V-2 seized after WWII, goal to measure physiological effects of 2 minutes of weightlessness. (same myths applied as during the model T) Laika dies 4 hours into flight after capsule overheats Ham and Enos both return. Their flight a bit controversial–we're in a race!
Russians win the race, Yuri orbits the earth once Apollo 11 lands, Aldrin and Armstrong walk on the moon Valeriy Polyakov sets record (that stands today) for longest mission. NASA (and other agencies) are targeting 2020-2030 for return trips to the moon, an asteroid that will come close and Mars It's always been our science fiction dream to colonize other planets.
- Van Beckh in South America moves from snakes/turtles to humans. Kittinger was first test pilot (success!) Other aspects of life were tested. How do we eat? How do we urinate? How do we sleep? - We need Gravity to orient ourselves/balance. Especially without view of the Earth, how do we know where we are?! - ”Falling around the Earth” (Give us a task we're fine)
- Effects of prolonged missions, opportunities to do sustained research with human intervention. We need fuel (for us, our ships and ourselves). Fuel costs grow exponentially with mass. 2009 NASA liscensed a technology to turn sewage into fuel with genetically engineered algae Gene expression in arabadopsis experiments active on ISS. If expression varies much from Earth, can we count on it to last multiple generations? An understanding of how other animals thrive in microgravity can help us select important traits and use those in future genetic engineering properties.
We are hoping to get to Mars in 2030. 6-9 months each way, 3-6 months of exploration in 1/3 Earth's Gravity. Bears lay down, no waste for months. How doe they not lose bone mass? Hormones that tell the body to recycle calcium in the blood stream to rebuild bones. Resistance exercise has helped muscle mass but not bone density as much as we'd like. Large dosages of radiation in space that can destroy DNA. Measured effects are not additive, the body can adapt to such exposure? All went up with 1 trip, diminished returns with future trips in duration. Only 4-6 weeks and our cardiovascular system adapts to microgravity. How can we give astronauts the support to survive when they come home. 520 day 'flight' just hit ½ way mark. All men on the mission. We'll learn about social dynamics here.
The Human species is mobile. Find new environments, divide and grow. We're going to continue that on earth and we're running out of resources. Initial stock, carrying capacity of the ship? 450-500 population, 100 breeders no imbreeding with no intervention.
Evolutionary and Genetic Consideration in Space Travel
Implications of Genetics and Evolution of Human Space Travel <ul><li>Or: Who's got the right stuff? </li></ul>
What are the Human Barriers to Space Travel? <ul><li>We're built to live on Earth </li><ul><li>Gravity
Future Missions <ul><li>How can genetics and evolution anticipate and alleviate potential negative effects?
Mars, 6-9 months one way </li><ul><li>Bone and muscle deterioration </li><ul><li>Hibernating bears?
Exercise in space? </li></ul><li>Cosmic Radiation </li><ul><li>Effects on genes </li></ul><li>Cardiovascular Effects </li><ul><li>Heart muscles, O2 requirments. What happens whe we come home? </li></ul></ul><li>520 day ”Flight” </li></ul>
One Way Mission <ul><li>200 years on a space ship
Who gets to come? How do we select? </li><ul><li>Initial population size