•Mosquito born infectious disease - Carried and transmitted by mosquito
•Found in tropical and subtropical regions
•killing between one and three million people, the majority of whom are young children in sub-Saharan Africa.
•Ninety percent of malaria-related deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.
•Malaria is commonly associated with poverty, but is also a cause of poverty
•When a mosquito bites an infected person, a small amount of blood is taken, which contains malaria parasites. These develop within the
mosquito, and about one week later, when the mosquito takes its next blood meal, the parasites are injected with the mosquito’s saliva into the
person being bitten
•Mosquitoes easily breed in regions of warm and wet climates and areas of still water.
•Pneumonia is a common illness which occurs in all age groups, and is the leading cause of death in children under ﬁve years old worldwide.
•Pneumonia is caused by the invasion of the lungs by microorganisms and by the immune system‘s response to the infection.
•Found in warm sub tropical areas where the virus can survive outside the body.
•Easily transmitted in areas with a poor source of water, sewage systems or proper hygiene.
Diamond mining in
Refugee camps in
Soldiers in Afghanistan
•Areas of political instability (no government or a corrupt government)
•Areas of diverse ethnicity or religion (Christian, Muslim, Jewish or Indigenous, Chinese, African)
•Areas with few resources and a large population.
•Areas dealing with mass unemployment. & Economies are based on primary industry employment
•People usual die in direct conﬂict or from a lack of water, food or shelter trying to escape from the ﬁghting.
•Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons cause incredible damage.
•People are killed by the hazard.
•Sewer and water lines are destroyed, water is contaminated causing cholera and diarrhea
•Roads are destroyed, aid groups are unable to get food and water to the people causing malnutrition.
•Dead bodies and standing water increase the spread of malaria.
•Earthquakes and volcanoes are often found along the Ring of Fire.
•Typhoons and ﬂooding is found in tropical areas near the ocean around the equator.
HIV / AIDS
•Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, bodily ﬂuids or breast milk.
•The four major routes of transmission are unsafe sex, contaminated needles, breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her
baby at birth (Vertical transmission).
•Treatment is expensive and diﬃcult for most people in poor countries to aﬀord. This makes the virus diﬃcult to control
•Sex education is not taught in school, even if the people can aﬀord to attend school in poor countries.
•Often in countries with a harsh climate, usually dry (arid), rocky and either extreme heat or cold. (desert, tundra, savanna)
•Areas with large population density
•Areas of subsistence farming
•Areas experiencing a long term drought
•Areas with no access to fresh water
•Transmission to humans occurs through eating food or drinking water contaminated with cholerae from other cholera patients.
•Found in countries with no source of clean drinking water - Water ﬁltration is too expensive for some areas
•Found in countries with poor education on the dangers of drinking infected water.
•Areas with no sewer system often have contaminated water
•In 2000, some 140,000 cholera cases were oﬃcially notiﬁed to WHO. Africa accounted for 87% of these cases.