Photography – meaning‘drawing or writing in light’ A brief history of ‘writing in light’ The Camera (Qamara) EPISODE ONE
It only took....2500 years or 130,250 weeks to arrive
Early History...A Surprise!• Photography is the result of combining several discoveries.• 5th & 4th Century BC - Chinese philosopher Mo Ti & Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera• In the 6th century AD - Byzantine mathematician Anthemus of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments.• 965 in Basra – c. 1040 in Cairo - Ibn al-Haytham(Alhazen) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera.• 1206-80 Saint Alburtus Magnus discovered silver nitrate.• 1516-71 Georges Fabricius discovered silver chloride.• 1568 - Daniel Barbaro described a diaphragm ( Aperture )• 1694 - Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect).• 1729–74 - The novel Giphantie by Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what could be interpreted as photography.• 1955 – Tone was born...So you can have this presentation, bless him!
The camera obscura Early photo folk ( homo nikonicus blanko pict- erectus ) had no way to preserve images produced by camera obscuras apart from manually tracing the images. Some early obscuras - were room sized & known to exist in the Arab world. Hence the word Camera coming from the Arab .... QamaraCamera Obscura means......The Darkened Chamber
Late Iberian- Homo nikonicus erectus... pretends he has a qamara
Why is the image projected upside down camera obscura or pin hole?Light travels in a straight line, which means rays from above the pinhole will pass through it and hit the bottom of the wall opposite. Rays from below the pinhole will hit the top of the back wall; hence, forming the upside down image.
Now you get to make your own Camera Obscura• Get a Pringles tube & remove opened end.• Insert a rolled piece of black paper inside the tube, to make the inside dark.• Poke a pinhole in one end about 1.5mm diameter & leave in place.• Remove other end & place a piece of tracing or greaseproof paper neatly on the open end – secure with cellotape.• There you have it – go point it at something bright
And now for some really old photos... Daguerreotype camera 1839 – Lens by Charles Chevalier
1826-First permanent photograph By French inventor Joseph Nicephore Niepce – On bitumen/pewter plate 9,700 Weeks ago!
Daguerre copper plate with silver then iodine vapour treated to make light sensitive 1835 Louis Daguerre - First ever photograph of people
1861 First Colour PhotographTartan ribbon by Thomas Sutton & James Clerk Maxwell.
Thomas Sutton & James ClerkMaxwell. – father of electromagnetism• The image of a tartan ribbon is the first-ever permanent colour photograph, and it was taken 150 years ago with the legendary scientist James Clerk Maxwell.• In order to illustrate a lecture on colour vision on May 17, 1861, Clerk Maxwell asked Thomas Sutton, a photography innovator in his own right who had invented the first camera with a wide-angle lens, to take three separate photographs of a tartan ribbon, each time using a different filter. The result was the first colour photograph, and so the three- color process was born.
1849 Calotype printAmerican photographer Frederick Langenheim. Caption says Talbotype process
1839 - One of the oldest portraitsknown by Joseph Draper New York Portrait is of Anna Katherine Draper the photographers sister.
1855 – Punchcartoon satirizing problems with posing for Daguerrotypesslight movementduring exposure, resulting in blurred pics
19th Century studio set up- note the head clamp
1855 – Fenton’s photographic van 150 years later Roger Fenton & Philip Delamotte helped popularise photography & recorded the construction & de-construction of the Crystal Palace
1854 - The Crystal Palace, SydenhamBy Philip Henry Delamotte
Bit about photographic plates• Plates preceded photographic film as a target medium in photography.• A light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was applied to a glass plate.• This form of photographic material largely faded from the consumer market in the early years of the 20th century, as more convenient and less fragile films Negative Plate were introduced.• Photographic plates were still in use by some photography businesses until the 1970s and were in wide use by the professional astronomical community as late as the 1990s. Agfa Plates c1880
1885-1889...Along comes film• 1885 George Eastman manufactured paper film• 1889 Switched to celluloid• 1888/89 First camera called the Kodak• By end of 19th century produced several inexpensive camera models resulting in the snapshot concept• 1960 The Brownie was so popular various models remained on sale until the 1960s
So now we have thebeginnings of fixed images. The birth of modern photography in 1885-1889 In 1900 George Eastman took to the mass market with the Brownie box (snapshot) camera. Pre loaded with 100 Kodak No 2 Brownie box camera c.1910 by George Eastman exposures Use it and send it back to the factory for developing and re reloading 5,835 Weeks ago!
Next episode – from film to digital & spy satellites.... 1981 Sony Mavica 1st digital camera ever! 1651 weeks ago!