Flood Hydrographs Rainfall. This shows when the rain fell and how much fell. The most rain fell between 18 and 24 hours. Discharge. This line shows how the water level in the river has changed since the storm. Lag time. Time in between the peak rainfall to the peak discharge, in this case 39 hours (21 hours to 60). 6am – start of rainfall. Look at the shape of the graph. Use the key and the notes below to work out what the graph is showing. Does the level of the river (discharge) rise quickly or slowly? How quickly does it respond to rainfall? (what is the lag time?)
Choropleth Maps Look at the title and key. What is this map about? What is the overall pattern shown on the map? Where do most people live? Where do least people live? (answer in km 2 ). Core: area of dense population (this line did not appear on the exam paper). Periphery: area of lower population density. You need to locate the area that is circled below. Name specific countries as examples.
Divided Bar Graphs Look at the title and key. Each bar graph adds up to 100%. Use a ruler to accurately measure percentages, e.g the percentage of secondary industry in New Zealand is 22% and not 35% - make sure you understand this! USA Switzerland/Japan USA
Climate Graphs Climate graphs show average rainfall and temperature for a specific place over a year. They may appear as two separate graphs or as one combined graph. If the graph is combined, the rainfall scale will appear down one side of the graph and the temperature scale will appear down the other – if this is the case, don’t get the two confused! Temperature. Usually shown as a line graph and measured in o c. Rainfall. Usually shown as a bar graph and measured in mm. Months of the year are usually shown on the x axis. ‘ Mean’ is the average for the year. ‘ Describe’ means write exactly what you see. For example: January: temperatures are lower than average for the year at approximately 10 o c. Rainfall is higher than average for the year at approximately 100mm. ‘ Suggest’ in this case means say why think the climate affects farming. For example: In the summer months of June to September rainfall is low. This would mean that the farmer has to irrigate (water) the crops. Using the examples given, attempt the rest of these questions for yourself.
News Articles <ul><li>Read the news article. Identify: </li></ul><ul><li>The theme of the article. </li></ul><ul><li>The source (where the article came from) </li></ul><ul><li>Any bias (is it for or against a ‘cause’? What is it trying to make the reader think? </li></ul><ul><li>The questions usually ask about each section – make sure you use all of the article. </li></ul>The headline will usually indicate what the article is about. There might be a map. What is it showing? Read the key. Use the smaller inset map to check what country/countries you’re looking at. The main story. Use the inset map to check where Canada is. You are expected to use the article to think about this one – the answer needs understanding, not reading skills.
Systems Diagrams Systems diagrams are common in the Economic Systems section as they show how industries operate. Systems typically consist of ‘inputs’ ‘processes’ and ‘outputs’, which are often shown by arrows going into or out of a diagram. These questions are often not difficult if you understand how systems diagrams work. The systems diagram below shows a supermarket. There are only inputs and outputs on this systems diagram. You are expected to know what goes into the supermarket and what comes out of the supermarket. Outputs shown as arrows going away from the diagram. Inputs shown as arrows going towards the diagram. Sometimes the correct words are provided for you. Have a go at this one yourself!
Cartoons and Diagrams Some cartoons and diagrams are informative and helpful. Others just illustrate a point that you are expected to know already. This cartoon tells us very little, unless we understand what global warming is. The cartoon is relevant to the question, but it will not necessarily help you to answer it. This cartoon contains all of the information that we need to answer the question. You must look at the writing as well as the pictures. <ul><li>‘ Features’ are important points that are made. This question relates to migration to LEDC cities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. The writing tells us that people in rural areas work on farms and that conditions are poor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. The picture tells us that conditions in urban areas are often not much better. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You will need to explain these points well to get all 6 marks. In the exam, there will be more space to write in. </li></ul>
Photographs Questions using photographs expect you to study the photograph carefully. This village contains houses that are irregularly spaced out and all different sizes. This usually means that the houses are older. The roads leading into and out of the village are small and winding. This suggests that the village has very little ‘through traffic’ This village contains houses that are evenly spaced out and all the same size. Often newer houses are built like this. The roads leading into and out of the village are larger and straight. This suggests that a lot of traffic passes through the village. You are expected to use your own knowledge of growing settlements to answer this.
Satellite Images Satellite images are often used to show weather patterns, such as depressions or hurricanes. They can also be used to show land uses. You need to understand depressions and hurricanes in order to answer these questions. White areas are colder and therefore they usually show the where clouds are. The shape of countries is often shown as a grey line. Dark areas are warmer. They usually show clear skies. This is the Mediterranean. Describe means ‘say what you see’. What shape is the cloud? Where exactly is the cloud? This is asking for an explanation – swirls like this often show depressions. What are depressions?
To use the satellite map look at the key carefully.
X Y Y Which blue colour would be along the coast? Which blue colour would be amongst the fields?
Map work Look at the line of longitude. It curves so follow it to find the most westerly member Look at the line to find the most easterly new member. Check the key The position of most new members is from Eastern Europe, except Norway and Iceland which are in the North and North West. All new members are on the periphery of the current member countries.
Look at the shape the rainfall makes. Where does mot rain occur? Where does least rain occur? Use the mm of rainfall in your answer. The heaviest rainfall,1000mm occurs along the Northern and Eastern coasts. The rainfall decreases rapidly as you southwards and inland. The least rainfall is in the centre southern area where less than 200mm falls. The capitals will be where the temperature is coolest at 20 ºC . The centre is desert and very hot so communications are made by boat, also importing goods and trade.
Looking at maps First look where the severe drought areas are. (Near the tropics not on the equator .) Are the starved recently areas the same as drought areas? If not what are the similarities and differences? What is the climate like in the areas of drought? How reliable is the rainfall? These areas are semi desert with mostly less than 50mm of rain each year, recently the rains have not occurred at all. Some say this is because of global warming. Human activity in these areas is mostly farming often with cattle which means the grass is eaten and the trees cut down for firewood. The more people that live here the worse this gets so that there is not enough food to feed the people and too little water, so they starve. The animals destroy the grass by eating it and destroying the roots as they are hungry. Often it is worse around water holes, which encourage more animals and people because of the constant water supply
<ul><li>When looking at a map:- </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the grid lines993 (along the bottom of the map. Line 99and 3/10 along. Just under half way to the next gridline. 518 (look up the side to line 51 then 8/10 further up nearly to the next grid line.) </li></ul><ul><li>Always find the exact location first. </li></ul><ul><li>Look around the place . Think! </li></ul><ul><li>height, is it steep/gentle slope steep or flat, </li></ul><ul><li>roads, can you get to it. </li></ul><ul><li>space, is there room to expand/ build on </li></ul><ul><li>What’s on the outside? -fields are cheaper to build roads on, </li></ul><ul><li>Is it wet here? Look for marshland. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the basic map symbols as it saves you time eg </li></ul>
Describe the location of Pattoki in Pakistan. (2) Look at both maps, use the key, scale and other settlements. Look at the compass. Pattoki is in North East Pakistan. Near the North Western border with India. It is on the lowland, below 500m, near the River Indus. How close to the nearest settlement is it? Use the scale. Pattoki. Can you say anything about the height of the land? Is the river important? Understanding maps
Understanding Tables Read the question- which hazard has the greatest impact? For each hazard add up the totals for impact. ( or see which one has thee most number ‘3’s) Think which columns refer to impact? Add up the last four columns. (Or the most number ‘3’s)
Understanding tables Describe the changes- Note the time interval is every 10 years. Has it gone up a little each year or faster in some? What is the difference between 1960 and 2000? For doctors it gradually increased form 1960 at roughly 20 per 10,000 people, but jumped in 1980 to 1990 by 43 per 10,000. people. What else can you add? Finally the number of doctors has almost doubled. The final question is asking you to look at all the measures. Have they gone up or down? Which ones went up? Which ones went down? Which ones stayed the same? What is new? Are all the measures positive? Why do you think this is? You are expected to write in sentences. Think- money, Employment,education
Understanding population pyramids. Very steep angle so many people are dying Straight edges many survive to the next age group. Wide base, many children born Narrow base, few children born but most survive. Triangular shape. Column or bottle shape Few older people, narrow top. Wide top,people live longer. ( c) Look at graph B. Increasing elderly population which needs to be cared for. Less workers as birth rate is declining so less money being made to pay for the pensions of the increasing elderly pop. Less workers to do the work in the future ,older people will have to retire later.