BRAZIL Use this case study for the QuestionA” and the themed questions in B & C where appropriate .
A Country of contrasts <ul><li>Most of Brazil is found south of the EQUATOR to just south of the TROPIC of CAPRICORN. </li></ul><ul><li>Its climate varies from the hot and humid Equatorial rainforest in the Amazon to the temperate grasslands, from high mountains to flat lowlands. </li></ul><ul><li>Its area is greater than the whole of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>A population of @150million people with 115million living in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a NIC Newly Industrialised Country </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a LEDC a Less Economically Developed Country? </li></ul>
Case Study in an LEDC Brazil <ul><li>Brazil is an LEDC which has been industrialising since the 1960s. It is around the high end of LEDCs on the HDI. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil regions & topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rio de Janeiro: settlement & landslide hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South East: population, migration, industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon: climate, vegetation, resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole country: population & migration, industry </li></ul></ul>
Amazon region, tropical rainforest Plateau of Mato Grosso, dry, inland, high, rich mineral wealth South East, coastal climate, narrow coastal plain, good trade links & industrial base
rainforest S E coast Note: differences in climate & vegetation as well as landscape& economy affect lifestyles & population density.
Rainforest vegetation is affected by climate. High temperatures & rainfall lead to high biodiversity, dense vegetation, great variety of animals. Removal of trees can cause erosion as the vegetation protects the soil. Low density population is sustainable. Projects to use the rainforest look for sustainability. Pressure to develop as the economy looks to expand. Alto Floreste project & Liana project are egs of sustainable development.
<ul><li>High Density in South East, & North East (coastal access, ports, flat plain, industry, climate) </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest Density in tropical rainforest (climate, density of vegetation, poor access) </li></ul><ul><li>Medium density in South-east hinterland (relief, resources, road access) </li></ul>Population Distribution in Brazil
Make a copy of this and add the key. Look at slides 4,5 & 9 and annotate (add labels which explain) to show why the population is distributed like this. Include something vegetation, climate and industry in your labels. 3 2 1
Changing population structure: Birth rate is beginning to decrease, suggest move from stage 2 to stage 3 of demographic transition model. Problems still = high no. of young people; still low life expectancy compared to MEDCs; Difficult for many families to support large families Lack of suitable facilities, jobs etc for many people. Look at the width here,going in sharply Look at the width here, the widest point Dependents Dependents Workers
<ul><li>Differences between the regions: </li></ul><ul><li>South East has largest population & attracts most people here </li></ul><ul><li>Internal migration is the most common as people move from the rural north & centre to the large cities at the coast, looking for work and a better life. </li></ul>
Industry in Brazil <ul><li>Brazil has a huge wealth of resources. These are both agricultural and mineral. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil lacks good sources of fuel, it has little oil or coal. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil has traditionally exported raw materials & imported manufactured goods </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1980s the country encouraged new industries to invest, mainly from MEDCS, based on the car industry. Firms such as Volkswagen, Fiat, VW built factories employing cheap local labour. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories, roads, facilities were developed but the technical expertise & profits were based abroad. </li></ul><ul><li>The main exports still rely on minerals & agricultural products, although some of these are partly processed before export. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil still has a lot of debt & doesn’t have enough money to develop fully industries which will manufacture all the country’s secondary & hi-tech goods. </li></ul>
Brazil,s economic miracle relied initially on the car industry. It has now broadened out to include other goods.
Brazil: LEDC <ul><li>Primary & secondary industry </li></ul><ul><li>Cars – based on foreign investment eg Fiat, Volkswagen </li></ul><ul><li>Crops & food packaging: coffee, chocolate, beef, chicken, sugar cane </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals: iron ore, gold, copper, zinc, rarer minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary: growing hi-tech, banking administration as economy grows & education rises; mainly services in informal sector; tourism eg Amazon tours. </li></ul>
Brazil: LEDC <ul><li>Economic Miracle </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials minerals, crops, land </li></ul><ul><li>Labour plenty of cheap, low skilled workers </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel some coal, import oil & coal </li></ul><ul><li>Market compete on global market, emerging home market </li></ul><ul><li>Location focussed in South East Region & North East Coastal zone </li></ul>
Industry is located mainly in the South East Region. The main cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo are major coastal ports. They attract workers. They depend on the materials from inland (the hinterland). Imports and exports come through the ports.
Urban Environments <ul><li>2 major cities at the coast dominate industry & trade –Sao Paulo & Rio de Janeiro </li></ul><ul><li>Both are large around 22m (SP) & 20m (RdeJ) population </li></ul><ul><li>Migrants are attracted & the cities are growing very rapidly. City authorities cannot keep up with the demand for amenities (water, electricity, education, health), housing & jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Large shanty town areas have developed both within & in the edge of the cities, known as favelas. </li></ul><ul><li>New housing is being developed on the outskirts & in ‘new towns’, eg Barra outside Rio de Janeiro, but these are for the wealthier middle classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Shanty towns are built on poor ground, eg steep hillsides prone to slides. </li></ul>
Rocinha, a favela in Rio Barra, a new out of town residential development for more wealthy people.
Steep hillside unsuitable for building No roads, no sanitation Electricity by tapping into the power lines Where is the work? Also called a shanty town Can I get an education?
Favela settlements. These are built from scavenged materials and usually have poor foundations, little space & few services (water, sewage, electricity, paved roads). Problems associated with this are: health , esp. for young children & the elderly, education which is expensive of time consuming for poor families, hazardous as houses are vulnerable to flood, crime , overcrowding, transport.
Self Help Schemes <ul><li>A favoured solution to the difficulties of favelas </li></ul><ul><li>Groups help each other build houses with water supply </li></ul><ul><li>The plots are laid out & transport is improved </li></ul><ul><li>Basic amenities, eg electricity, water, drainage, sewerage </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap & easy to fund & implement but small & limited facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Need to have space & plans allocated </li></ul>
<ul><li>23 rd May 2000. OCR Q A2 </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Name and locate a LEDC, or a region of a LEDC, that you have studied. </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Describe how the total population is changing. </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Explain how this change is affecting the country or region. </li></ul><ul><li>(8) </li></ul><ul><li>To answer this question : - </li></ul><ul><li>First circle the command word. (the word that tells you what to do) E.g. Name, Locate,………,……….. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Underline the topic e.g. LEDC, population ,………. </li></ul><ul><li>Third Highlight the slant e.g. changing,……………. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to find one more of each in question (e) above. </li></ul>
Development means change for the better. As a country develops so does the quality of life of the people. There are differences in quality of life within countries and in cities. A view across Rio de Janeiro
In which of the two living areas in the photo do you think people would have a better quality of life? Explain your answer. Use the questions below to help you. What three words would you use to describe the SHANTY HOUSING? What three words would you use to describe the APARTMENT HOUSING? Why are the people living in the shanty areas instead of the apartments?
Fig 4 Migration to the CITY Think about migration and rural depopulation What are the push factors? Pull factors. Add more examples to get to the higher levels.
Remember to look at the resources. (Fig 3 & 4 on the previous slides) Look at the key Use the units population in millions, % in urban areas.. Make sure you have used information from both sources.
<ul><li>June 2001 QA2 (e) </li></ul><ul><li>For an LEDC country of region you have studied: </li></ul><ul><li>Name the county or region and describe where it is. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how its population is changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Give reasons for these changes. </li></ul><ul><li>(8) </li></ul>Use Brazil and try to put in a sketch map to locate it. Add labels. If not write a sentence to include continent, surrounding seas, neighbouring countries. Population changing means the population pyramids. Go back have a look. Notice the width of the base, how long people live for –life expectancy, what proportion are working? How many are dependents- those without jobs. Why – What is happening now that didn’t happen before e.g. health care- is the base of the pyramid going in? Are people living longer?