p29
p32
p33
Figure 2-1 p36
p36
Table 2-1a p38
Table 2-1b p38
p39
p39
p40
p40
p45
p46
p50
Figure 2-2 p52
p54
p57
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  • This famous painting of the signing
    of the Constitution on September 17,
    1787, was commissioned by Congress
    and completed by Howard Chandler
    Christy in 1940. It is a 20 3 30-foot
    oil on canvas and hangs in the U.S.
    Capitol. (Only part of the painting is
    shown here.)
  • General George Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette visit suffering soldiers in
    the encampment of the Continental Army at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, during the
    winter of 1777–1778. Congress’s inability to provision the army with adequate food
    and clothing undermined the war effort.
  • On January 25, 1787, Daniel Shays and his rebels attacked the armory at
    Springfield, Massachusetts, which was successfully defended by local militia.
    This violent effort to undermine lawful authority prepared the public mind for
    a stronger national government.
  • FIGURE 2-1 The United States was the first constitutional democracy. In most of the world at the time, the people had little say in how
    they were governed.
  • The Assembly Room of the Pennsylvania State House, later renamed
    Independence Hall, is where the Second Continental Congress debated and
    approved the Declaration of Independence in July 1776, and where the
    Constitutional Convention fashioned the Constitution in the summer of 1787.
  • Sometimes called the “Father of the Constitution,” James Madison
    of Virginia is more responsible than any other single person for
    replacing the defective Articles of Confederation with a more
    powerful and effective national government. His efforts were vital
    to the calling of the Convention, to the drafting of the Constitution
    at Philadelphia, to the success of the ratification contest, and to the
    addition of a sound Bill of Rights.
  • Alexander Hamilton, a brilliant 32-year-old lawyer and former aide
    to General Washington in the Revolutionary War, gave a famous
    speech at the Constitutional Convention on June 18 calling for
    a central government even stronger than that proposed in the
    Virginia Plan. Later, he worked tirelessly to secure ratification by
    New York by writing most of the Federalist essays and leading the
    pro-Constitution forces in the state ratifying convention.
  • James Wilson of Pennsylvania, an eminent expert on law, was
    a signer of the Declaration of Independence, highly influential
    member of the Constitutional Convention (perhaps second only to
    Madison in importance), and one of the six original members of the
    U.S. Supreme Court. He became the nation’s second professor of
    law at an academic institution.
  • Although not well known to modern Americans, Gouverneur Morris
    of New York and Pennsylvania was one of the most influential
    members of the Constitutional Convention. He gave the most
    speeches, was a vigorous proponent of a strong national executive
    power, and as a member of the Committee of Style was responsible
    for giving the final form and polish to the Constitution. He is
    credited with drafting the Constitution’s now famous Preamble.
  • The British House of Commons wields the effective lawmaking power in the British
    Parliament, with the House of Lords limited to advising and proposing amendments to
    legislation. In the House of Commons, the opposition parties sit facing each other, with their
    leaders in the front row. Nonleaders are called “backbenchers.”
  • This is the chair in which George
    Washington sat while presiding over the
    Constitutional Convention.
  • This is how the famous Federalist 10 essay appeared in the New
    York Daily Advertiser on November 22, 1787.
  • FIGURE 2-2 Of the four possible ways to amend the Constitution, two have never
    been used, and another has been used only once. Under the Constitution, Congress
    decides on the method of ratification.
  • This newspaper advertisement for newly arrived slaves from Africa
    appeared in the South Carolina Gazette in the 1740s.
  • Images2

    1. 1. p29
    2. 2. p32
    3. 3. p33
    4. 4. Figure 2-1 p36
    5. 5. p36
    6. 6. Table 2-1a p38
    7. 7. Table 2-1b p38
    8. 8. p39
    9. 9. p39
    10. 10. p40
    11. 11. p40
    12. 12. p45
    13. 13. p46
    14. 14. p50
    15. 15. Figure 2-2 p52
    16. 16. p54
    17. 17. p57

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