VirginiaBegan in 1607 at Jamestown. First permanent English colonyin North America.Named for Queen Elizabeth of England (The Virgin Queen -had no husband).Principal cities: Jamestown, Williamsburg.First to have elected representative body (House of Burgesses- a fore-runner of the Congress)
MarylandFounded by Lord Baltimore, an English nobleman who wasalso a Catholic.Colony was intended to be a haven for Catholics, but allowedall Christian faiths to be practiced there (like mostcolonies, it did not permit Jews).Principal cities: Baltimore, Annapolis
Carolina (North and South)Founded in 1670 at Charles Town (Charleston).Named for the English King Charles II ("Charles" in English ="Carol" in Latin).Dispute over who should rule the colony led to completedivision into North and South Carolina in 1712.North Carolina was made up of mostly poor tobacco farmerswhile South Carolina was run by wealthy rice plantationowners.Principal cities: Charleston (SC), Wilmington (NC)
GeorgiaLast of the original 13 colonies.Founded in 1733 by James Ogelthorpe as a haven for debtors(people in jail for owing money).Intended to be a silk-producing colony where slavery would bebanned. It was to act as a buffer to protect South Carolinasslave-based economy from interference by Spanish Florida(where slavery was banned and the governor often offeredincentives for British slaves who ran away).Silk failed, rice plantations took over, Georgia became a cloneof South Carolina....with all of South Carolinas vulnerabilitiesas they pertained to slavery.
Shared characteristics of SouthernColonies-large-scale, cash crop, plantation-based agriculture, primarily centered oncoastal areas. (Tobacco in the northern parts,rice and indigo in the southern parts)-heavy reliance on African slavery
Slavery in the 13 coloniesAt first, plantations were worked by indentured servants, poorwhites from Europe who agreed to basically be slaves for 7years in exchange for passage to America.Europeans were no match for African slaves, whose knowledgeof things like rice production made them particularly valuable.As slavery made plantations more profitable, slavery becamemore permanent and race-based.slavery existed in all colonies (except Pennsylvania) but wasmost predominant in the South.
The Triangular TradeRum, manufactured goods (tools, guns) from the England andthe 13 colonies went to West Africa in exchange for slaves.Slaves from West Africa were traded in the Caribbean formolasses and sugar.Molasses and sugar from the Caribbean were traded inEngland and the 13 Colonies for Rum and manufacturedgoods....and the process repeats.