Skyscraper security and life safety

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Skyscraper security and life safety

  1. 1. 5 February 2009 Skyscraper Security and Life Safety Insert picture in this frame Insert picture in this frame ASIS Asia-Pacific Conference Hong Kong, China
  2. 2. Discussion • Security and life safety threats • What is unique about high-rise buildings? • Best practices for high- rise security and life safety • What changes may occur in the future? Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 2
  3. 3. Four Major Types of Commercial High-Rises • Office Buildings • Hotels and Motels • Residential and Apartment Buildings • Mixed-Use Facilities Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 3
  4. 4. Security Threats • Assault • Robbery • Burglary • Sabotage • Espionage • Sex Offenses • Larceny • Stalking • Manslaughter • Trespass • Murder • Vandalism Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 4
  5. 5. Life Safety Threats • Aircraft collisions • Hazardous materials, chemical & biological • Arson weapons, nuclear attack • Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) • Labor disputes, civil • Bombs and bomb threats disorder & • Contagious diseases demonstrations • Elevator malfunctions and • Medical emergencies entrapments • Natural disasters • Fires and fire alarms • Traffic accidents • Hostage and barricade • Trip, slip and falls situations • Power failures • Workplace violence Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 5
  6. 6. Attacks Since 1993 Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 6
  7. 7. What is Unique About High-Rises? • High concentration of people and property make them a potential target for criminal activity, including terrorism • The probability of an uncontrolled fire, and the products of combustion, moving upward • Response to emergencies may be delayed due to travel time for emergency responders to reach upper floors Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 7
  8. 8. What is Unique About High-Rises? • In building emergencies, evacuation is restricted because large numbers of people cannot all leave at once via stairwells and elevators • In some emergencies, such as fire, emergency exit stairwells are the only safe means of escape Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 8
  9. 9. Best Practices for High-Rise Buildings Blast Mitigation - Barriers - Column Reinforcement Parking garages, loading docks & lobbies - Window Film Courtesy of Delta Scientific Corporation Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 9
  10. 10. Best Practices for High-Rise Buildings Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems (HVAC) Protection The positioning and protection of outdoor air intakes and the installation of detection systems have become of increased importance due to the threat of chemical and biological attack Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 10
  11. 11. Best Practices for High-Rise Buildings Contraband Detection Systems To control the entry of dangerous items some high-profile buildings are utilizing metal detectors, x-ray machines and explosives- detection systems in lobbies and loading docks Courtesy of Garrett Metal Detectors Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 11
  12. 12. Best Practices for High-Rise Buildings Optical Turnstiles Buildings of significance due: • size • economic, political or symbolic presence • tenant profile Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 12
  13. 13. Best Practices for High-Rise Buildings • Vehicles searched before entering under-building parking garages • Loading dock gates closed between deliveries; heightened screening of deliveries at loading docks; pre- approval of deliveries • Visitors screened for entry, sign-in and escort, visitor management software • Building lockdown requiring card access during normal business hours • Increased security awareness by building users; use of biometrics Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 13
  14. 14. Best Practices for High-Rise Buildings • Video analytics • Video surveillance in downtown public areas Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 14
  15. 15. Best Practices for High-Rise Buildings • Focus on emergency evacuation drills, including complete building evacuations • On-line life safety training for building tenants Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 15
  16. 16. What Changes May Occur in Future? National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Findings on the World Trade Center Fire and Collapse Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 16
  17. 17. WTC Towers Population “It is estimated that 17,400 occupants (+ or – 1,200) were present in the WTC Towers on the morning of September 11, 2001. Interviews were conducted of 1,034 WTC surviving occupants and 116 first responders. NIST’s Findings on the World Trade Center Fire and Collapse S. Shyam Sunder and William L. Grosshandler; NFPA World Safety Conference & Exposition, June 8, 2005 (Bolding to quotation added for emphasis.) Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 17
  18. 18. Emergency Response “Approximately 87 percent of the WTC tower occupants, including more than 99 percent of those below the floors of impact, were able to evacuate successfully.” “The egress capacity (number and width of exits and stairways) was adequate to accommodate survivors.” NIST’s Findings on the World Trade Center Fire and Collapse S. Shyam Sunder and William L. Grosshandler; NFPA World Safety Conference & Exposition, June 8, 2005 (Bolding to quotation added for emphasis.) Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 18
  19. 19. Occupant Evacuation for the physical challenge of full building evacuation. “Occupants were often unprepared “Occupants were often unprepared to encounter transfer hallways. “Mobility challenged occupants were not universally identified or prepared for full building evacuation. NIST’s Findings on the World Trade Center Fire and Collapse S. Shyam Sunder and William L. Grosshandler; NFPA World Safety Conference & Exposition, June 8, 2005 (Bolding to quotation added for emphasis.) Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 19
  20. 20. Occupant Preparedness the physical challenge of full building evacuation. “Occupants were often unprepared for “Two-thirds of surviving occupants reported having participated in a fire drill in the 12 months prior to September 11, 2001, while 17 percent reported that they had received no training during that same period. “Of those participating in fire drills, 93 percent were instructed about the location of the nearest stairwell.” NIST’s Findings on the World Trade Center Fire and Collapse S. Shyam Sunder and William L. Grosshandler; NFPA World Safety Conference & Exposition, June 8, 2005 (Bolding to quotation added for emphasis.) Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 20
  21. 21. 30 Recommendations in Eight Categories • Increased Structural Integrity • Enhanced Fire Resistance of Structures • New Methods for Fire Resistance Design of Structures • Improved Active Fire Protection • Improved Building Evacuation • Improved Emergency Response • Improved Procedures and Practices • Continued Education and Training Final Report of the National Construction Safety Team on the Collapses of the World Trade Center Towers National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), http://wtc.nist.gov Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 21
  22. 22. Questions and answers Insert picture in this frame Insert picture in this frame
  23. 23. Integrity | Vigilance | Helpfulness www.securitasinc.com Geoff Craighead, CPP | High-Rise Security and Life Safety | December 15 2008 23

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