2011 Lillehammer Energy Claims
Conference
BP Macondo Well Incident
U.S. Gulf of Mexico
Pollution Containment and Remediati...
Pollution Containment
How do you contain pollution from a well out
of control in 5,000 feet of water?
 Bring together the brightest minds to so...
Pollution Containment
FIRST ATTEMPTS
Riser Hot Tap
 Consisted of coiled tubing placed inside the broken
end of the Deepwater Horizon riser
 Intended to captu...
Cofferdam (Containment Dome)
Cofferdam (Containment Dome)
Cofferdam (Containment Dome)
DID IT WORK?
Cofferdam (Containment Dome)
Unfortunately hydrates (or
ice crystals) formed within
the Containment Dome and
plugged the s...
Riser Insertion Tube Tool
Riser Insertion Tube Tool
Riser Insertion Tube Tool
DID IT WORK?
Riser Insertion Tube Tool
The Riser Insertion Tube Tool did in fact work to an
extent and was able to recover approximatel...
Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP)
Cap
Though the Riser Insertion Tube Tool was able to
recover a portion of the oil flowin...
Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP)
Cap
Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP)
Cap
One problem. . .
The Deepwater Horizon riser was still attached to
the BOP package
Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP)
Cap
Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP)
Cap
The first attempt to
completely cut the
riser with the
Diamond Wire Saw
was unsucces...
Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP)
Cap
BP then utilized
large hydraulic
shears to complete
removal of the riser
Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP)
Cap
Recovery through Choke and Kill Lines
Issues
The LMRP Cap and Choke and Kill line systems
were able to capture a significant amount of oil
flowing from the Maco...
Containment Disposal Project (CDP)
As other containment systems were being
developed and deployed, BP engineers were
desig...
Containment Disposal Project (CDP)
Three-Ram Capping Stack
Three-Ram Capping Stack
Consisted of:
 Flex Joint Flange to encompass broken drill pipe
inside Deepwater Horizon riser an...
Three-Ram Capping Stack
Three-Ram Capping Stack
Pollution Remediation and Clean-Up
Pollution Remediation and Clean-Up
So what exactly were all these resources
used for?
Chemical Dispersants
Methods of Dispersant Application
Aerial Application
Over 400 sorties flown
Used trained spotters in
small aircraft to loc...
Methods of Dispersant Application
Use permitted since the 1990’s
Originally developed by Exxon, use
of subsea dispersants ...
Chemical Dispersants
Controlled In-Situ Burns
Controlled In-Situ Burns
BP, along with the U.S. Coast
Guard carried out 411 controlled
burns
Approximately 265,000 barrel...
Open-Water Skimming
Open-Water Skimming
Deployed more than 60 open-
water skimmers including 12
purpose-built vessels
Fleet had skimming capac...
Pollution Containment Booms
Pollution Containment Booms
Two types of Pollution Containment Booms
were utilized
Pollution Containment Booms
Reusable boom used to
block or contain the oil slick
14 million feet (4.3 million
meters) of b...
Pollution Containment Booms
A one-time use, selectively
permeable boom used to
absorb oil and not water
9.1 million feet (...
Vessels of Opportunity (VOO)
Vessels of Opportunity (VOO)
BP utilized a VOO fleet of
over 5,800 vessels
VOO vessels carried out
booming, skimming, oil
...
Shoreline and Waterway Protection
Shoreline and Waterway Protection
Sandbags
Shoreline and Waterway Protection
Sand filled man-made barriers
Shoreline and Waterway Protection
Sand berms
Shoreline and Waterway Protection
And floating barriers such as barges to
protect inlets
Shoreline Clean-Up
Manual Clean-Up
BP trained more than
11,000 community
responders to lead teams of
workers
Night-time shifts were also
adop...
Mechanical Clean-Up
Mechanical Clean-Up
BP designed and fabricated
five purpose built “Sand
Sharks”
Designed to lift and sift sand to
remove o...
Marsh Clean-up
Marsh Clean-up
Marsh Clean-up
Several established techniques included:
 Vacuum/pumping – removes pooled oil on marsh sediment or on
the ...
Marsh Clean-up
 BP developed a “small spill” approach utilizing
over 2,500 workers divided into task forces of 16
to 20 r...
Marsh Clean-up
For example, BP
utilized concrete
pumping arms to
inject water deep into
marshes to
accelerate natural
flus...
New Ideas and Proposals
M/V: A WHALE or a Whale of a Ride?
M/V: A WHALE or a Whale of a Ride?
Unfortunately the
Vessel only collected
negligible amounts of
oil and was dubbed a
bust
The BIG GULP and LITTLE GULP
“You’re a Fool to Believe in Something You Have Never
Seen” (Waterworld 1995)
V16 Centrifuge and Trans Rec 150
Skimmer
The system was
built in 10 days
BP ordered 32
Other Ideas
Gelling Agents
Hay is for Horses
A Hairy Situation
What’s All The Buzz About?
Pine Shavings
Oil Eating Mushrooms
And Finally…..
2011 Lillehammer Energy Claims
Conference
BP Macondo Well Incident
U.S. Gulf of Mexico
Pollution Containment and Remediati...
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BP Macondo Well Incident in U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Pollution Containment and Remediation Efforts [By: J. Steven Butler]

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presented at: 2011 Lillehammer Energy Claims Conference

source: http://energyclaims.net/assets/Macondo-well-PC&R.pdf

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BP Macondo Well Incident in U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Pollution Containment and Remediation Efforts [By: J. Steven Butler]

  1. 1. 2011 Lillehammer Energy Claims Conference BP Macondo Well Incident U.S. Gulf of Mexico Pollution Containment and Remediation Efforts Presented By: J. Steven Butler
  2. 2. Pollution Containment
  3. 3. How do you contain pollution from a well out of control in 5,000 feet of water?  Bring together the brightest minds to solve the problem  Design, engineer and fabricate containment systems in a matter of weeks  Install untested technology in an environment only accessible by Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) Pollution Containment
  4. 4. Pollution Containment FIRST ATTEMPTS
  5. 5. Riser Hot Tap  Consisted of coiled tubing placed inside the broken end of the Deepwater Horizon riser  Intended to capture a portion of the oil flowing out of the riser  System failed to capture any measurable amounts of oil due to the lack of a sufficient seal with the riser and was abandoned
  6. 6. Cofferdam (Containment Dome)
  7. 7. Cofferdam (Containment Dome)
  8. 8. Cofferdam (Containment Dome) DID IT WORK?
  9. 9. Cofferdam (Containment Dome) Unfortunately hydrates (or ice crystals) formed within the Containment Dome and plugged the system Subsequently, this effort was abandoned
  10. 10. Riser Insertion Tube Tool
  11. 11. Riser Insertion Tube Tool
  12. 12. Riser Insertion Tube Tool DID IT WORK?
  13. 13. Riser Insertion Tube Tool The Riser Insertion Tube Tool did in fact work to an extent and was able to recover approximately 8,000 barrels of oil a day at the peak of its use However...
  14. 14. Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP) Cap Though the Riser Insertion Tube Tool was able to recover a portion of the oil flowing from the end of the broken Deepwater Horizon riser, the riser had also been compromised at another location closer to the well-head BP now needed a way to contain more significant amounts of oil As such, the LMRP Cap, also known as a Top Hat, was developed
  15. 15. Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP) Cap
  16. 16. Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP) Cap One problem. . . The Deepwater Horizon riser was still attached to the BOP package
  17. 17. Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP) Cap
  18. 18. Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP) Cap The first attempt to completely cut the riser with the Diamond Wire Saw was unsuccessful as the Diamond Wire became stuck
  19. 19. Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP) Cap BP then utilized large hydraulic shears to complete removal of the riser
  20. 20. Lower Marine Riser Package (LMRP) Cap
  21. 21. Recovery through Choke and Kill Lines
  22. 22. Issues The LMRP Cap and Choke and Kill line systems were able to capture a significant amount of oil flowing from the Macondo Well, however, BP was still looking to recover 100 percent of the flow into a “closed” containment system
  23. 23. Containment Disposal Project (CDP) As other containment systems were being developed and deployed, BP engineers were designing a “closed” containment system, known as the Containment Disposal Project (CDP)
  24. 24. Containment Disposal Project (CDP)
  25. 25. Three-Ram Capping Stack
  26. 26. Three-Ram Capping Stack Consisted of:  Flex Joint Flange to encompass broken drill pipe inside Deepwater Horizon riser and BOP  Flange Transition Spool connecting Flex Joint Flange to HC Connector  HC Connector (transfers to load of the Capping Stack above)  3 Ram Stack (fabricated using traditional subsea BOP components)  Remotely Operated Vehicle “Hot Stabs” and control module
  27. 27. Three-Ram Capping Stack
  28. 28. Three-Ram Capping Stack
  29. 29. Pollution Remediation and Clean-Up
  30. 30. Pollution Remediation and Clean-Up So what exactly were all these resources used for?
  31. 31. Chemical Dispersants
  32. 32. Methods of Dispersant Application Aerial Application Over 400 sorties flown Used trained spotters in small aircraft to locate pockets of oil Most effective and fast moving tool for minimizing shoreline impact
  33. 33. Methods of Dispersant Application Use permitted since the 1990’s Originally developed by Exxon, use of subsea dispersants was purely experimental at the time of the Macondo incident Allowed use of surface dispersants to be reduced by 70 percent and reduced overall Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions Subsea Application
  34. 34. Chemical Dispersants
  35. 35. Controlled In-Situ Burns
  36. 36. Controlled In-Situ Burns BP, along with the U.S. Coast Guard carried out 411 controlled burns Approximately 265,000 barrels of oil remediated Drove improvements in fireproof boom, water-cooled and reusable boom technology
  37. 37. Open-Water Skimming
  38. 38. Open-Water Skimming Deployed more than 60 open- water skimmers including 12 purpose-built vessels Fleet had skimming capacity of 1.2 million barrels of oil per day Developed enhanced booming and skimming methods and capability to convert offshore supply vessels into skimmers
  39. 39. Pollution Containment Booms
  40. 40. Pollution Containment Booms Two types of Pollution Containment Booms were utilized
  41. 41. Pollution Containment Booms Reusable boom used to block or contain the oil slick 14 million feet (4.3 million meters) of boom mobilized 4.2 million feet (1.3 million meters) actually deployed Traditional Containment Booms
  42. 42. Pollution Containment Booms A one-time use, selectively permeable boom used to absorb oil and not water 9.1 million feet (2.8 million meters) deployed Sorbent Booms
  43. 43. Vessels of Opportunity (VOO)
  44. 44. Vessels of Opportunity (VOO) BP utilized a VOO fleet of over 5,800 vessels VOO vessels carried out booming, skimming, oil collection, monitoring and reporting operations The program will be included as part of future response systems established in the Gulf of Mexico
  45. 45. Shoreline and Waterway Protection
  46. 46. Shoreline and Waterway Protection Sandbags
  47. 47. Shoreline and Waterway Protection Sand filled man-made barriers
  48. 48. Shoreline and Waterway Protection Sand berms
  49. 49. Shoreline and Waterway Protection And floating barriers such as barges to protect inlets
  50. 50. Shoreline Clean-Up
  51. 51. Manual Clean-Up BP trained more than 11,000 community responders to lead teams of workers Night-time shifts were also adopted to reduce intrusion for beachgoers and reduce heat stress on workers
  52. 52. Mechanical Clean-Up
  53. 53. Mechanical Clean-Up BP designed and fabricated five purpose built “Sand Sharks” Designed to lift and sift sand to remove oil while minimizing actual sand removal The unit was self-contained and did not require any supporting machinery
  54. 54. Marsh Clean-up
  55. 55. Marsh Clean-up
  56. 56. Marsh Clean-up Several established techniques included:  Vacuum/pumping – removes pooled oil on marsh sediment or on the surface of the water  Low-pressure flush – pushes oil towards collection points where other equipment can recover the oil  Vegetation cutting – selective plants are cut and removed so that other techniques may be employed  Bioremediation – a low-impact cleaning technique using microorganisms and their enzymes to facilitate decomposition of the oil
  57. 57. Marsh Clean-up  BP developed a “small spill” approach utilizing over 2,500 workers divided into task forces of 16 to 20 responders  BP also developed and adapted new tools and techniques for more effective and non-invasive clean-up
  58. 58. Marsh Clean-up For example, BP utilized concrete pumping arms to inject water deep into marshes to accelerate natural flushing of the oil
  59. 59. New Ideas and Proposals
  60. 60. M/V: A WHALE or a Whale of a Ride?
  61. 61. M/V: A WHALE or a Whale of a Ride? Unfortunately the Vessel only collected negligible amounts of oil and was dubbed a bust
  62. 62. The BIG GULP and LITTLE GULP
  63. 63. “You’re a Fool to Believe in Something You Have Never Seen” (Waterworld 1995)
  64. 64. V16 Centrifuge and Trans Rec 150 Skimmer The system was built in 10 days BP ordered 32
  65. 65. Other Ideas
  66. 66. Gelling Agents
  67. 67. Hay is for Horses
  68. 68. A Hairy Situation
  69. 69. What’s All The Buzz About?
  70. 70. Pine Shavings
  71. 71. Oil Eating Mushrooms
  72. 72. And Finally…..
  73. 73. 2011 Lillehammer Energy Claims Conference BP Macondo Well Incident U.S. Gulf of Mexico Pollution Containment and Remediation Efforts Presented By: J. Steven Butler

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