PICO Research Question


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PICO Research Question

  1. 1. How to formulate an answerable research question?<br />Using the PICO model to formulate a search question<br />
  2. 2. Hierarchy of Evidence<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Why are research questions important?<br />“Well-crafted questions guide the systematic planning of research. Formulating your questions precisely enables you to design a study with a good chance of answering them.”<br /> -- Light, Singer, Willett, By Design (1990)<br />
  6. 6. Start at the beginning<br />A good research project generally begins in the mind of the doctor. <br />Most research questions are too broad at first. The narrower the focus, the easier the question is to research.<br />
  7. 7. An example of a research question …<br />“What is the usefulness or accuracy of the current 1-10 pain scale assessment in treating a patient’s pain, and what are other options that may prove more useful?”<br />Is this question researchable? <br />
  8. 8. Characteristics of a Good Study Question<br />“FINER”<br /> F= Feasible<br /> I= Interesting<br /> N= Novel<br /> E= Ethical<br /> R= Relevant<br />
  9. 9. Asking “the Question”<br />The PICO format:<br /> P Population<br /> I Intervention or Interest area<br /> C Comparison intervention or status<br /> O Outcome<br />
  10. 10. What is PICO?<br />A useful model to help structure an answerable question<br />Used to formulate clinical questions<br />Breaks down the question into four key elements<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Patient, Population, Problem<br />Patient or patient group (gender, race, age)<br />Disease or condition<br />Stage of the illness<br />Care setting<br />
  13. 13. Intervention<br />Type of treatment (drug, procedure, therapy)<br />Intervention level (dosage, frequency)<br />Stage of intervention (preventative, early, advanced)<br />Delivery (who delivers the intervention? where?)<br />
  14. 14. Comparison<br />Alternative interventions (standard treatment, placebo, another intervention)<br />There may not always be a comparison<br />
  15. 15. Outcome<br />The outcome or effects you are interested in, for example<br />Improvement of symptoms, healing<br />Side effects<br />Improved quality of life<br />Cost effectiveness and benefits for the service provider<br />
  16. 16. Remember…<br />Including more search terms will narrow your search <br />Use for very specific questions and larger databases to make number of results more manageable<br />For a broader search, less specific details are needed<br />Use for broader questions and smaller databases which bring back fewer results<br />
  17. 17. A good research question will…<br />be clearly linked to overall project goal<br />allow the target population to be identified<br />guide the appropriate choice of study subjects<br />
  18. 18. A good research question will…<br />identify the outcome variables and key predictors of those variables<br />determine what type of study is needed (e.g. descriptive, relational, experimental)<br />identify background characteristics that might influence outcomes<br />
  19. 19. A good research question will…<br />raise questions about how to best collect data<br />influence the number of participants in the study<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li>Is it interesting?
  21. 21. Is it researchable?
  22. 22. Is it significant?
  23. 23. Is it manageable?</li></li></ul><li>Poorly formulated question:<br />What drugs should be used to treat patients with neck wounds?<br />
  24. 24. Identifying the key concepts<br />Example search scenario: <br />What evidence is there to support “honey” therapy for the treatment of neck wound dehiscense rather than conventional debridement therapies?<br />What evidence is there to support “honey” therapy for the treatment of neck wound dehiscenserather than conventional debridement therapies?<br />
  25. 25. Using the PICO model<br />P Neck wound dehiscence(problem)<br />IHoney therapy (proposed intervention)<br />C Conventional debridement therapies (comparative treatment)<br />O Wound healing (outcome)<br />
  26. 26. How to formulate an answerable research question?<br />Using the PICO model to formulate a search question<br />