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Efficient Buildings. Antonio GandíA GóMez


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Efficient Buildings. Antonio GandíA GóMez

  3. 3. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY CONTENTS M11BLD REVIEW PAPER ________ ¡Error! Marcador no definido. FOREWORD_______________________________________ - 4- INTRODUCTION AND STRUCTURE ______________ - 6- PASSIVE HOUSE CONCEPT ______________________ - 8- POPULAR VERSION _________________________________________ - 9 - SCIENTIFIC VERSION________________________________________ - 9 - WARM CLIMATES VERSION _________________________________ - 9 - COMPARISON _____________________________________________ - 10 - BASIC PRINCIPLES _____________________________ - 11 - OPTIMIZE WHAT IS ESSENTIAL _____________________________ - 12 - MINIMIZE LOSSES BEFORE MAXIMIZING GAINS______________ - 12 - ENERGY SAVING __________________________________________ - 12 - COMFORT _________________________________________________ - 12 - FINANCIAL BENEFITS ______________________________________ - 12 - PRINCIPLES OF PASSIVE HOUSE ______________ - 13 - INSULATION OF OPAQUE BUILDING ELEMENTS ______________ - 14 - REDUCING WINDOW HEAT LOSSES _________________________ - 14 - THERMAL BRIDGE REDUCTION _____________________________ - 15 - AIR TIGHTNESS ____________________________________________ - 15 - VENTILATION AND HEAT RECOVERY _______________________ - 16 - SPACE HEATING AND COOLING_____________________________ - 17 - SOLAR HEAT WINS_________________________________________ - 17 - WINDOW SHADING AND SOLAR CONTROL __________________ - 17 - OTHER MEANS OF PASSIVE HEATING _______________________ - 18 - OTHER MEANS OF PASSIVE COOLING _______________________ - 20 - DOMESTIC HOT WATER (SOLAR) HEATING __________________ - 20 - ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION & ENERGY EFFICIENT APPLIANCES _ - 22 - ENERGY SYSTEM & RENEWABLE ENERGIES __ - 23 - PRINCIPLES OF HYDROGEN ENERGY __________ - 25 - HYDROGEN PROPERTIES ___________________________________ - 26 - HYDROGEN STORAGE & DISTRIBUTION _____________________ - 27 - HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS ___________________________________ - 28 - HYDROGEN IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ____ - 29 - ENERGY FOR OWN USE_____________________________________ - 30 - ENERGY FOR HEAT AND ELECTRICITY ______________________ - 30 - HYDROGEN HOUSE ________________________________________ - 31 - CONCLUSION ___________________________________ - 32 - REFERENCES____________________________________ - 34 - PASSIVE HOUSE ___________________________________________ - 35 - HYDROGEN ENERGY _______________________________________ - 36 - -2-
  4. 4. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY M12BLD FINAL DISSERTATION_________________ - 39 - FOREWORD______________________________________ - 40 - ABSTRACT ______________________________________ - 41 - PROJECT STATEMENT__________________________ - 44 - INTRODUCTION AND STRUCTURE _____________ - 46 - BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN SPAIN __________ - 48 - THE CITIZEN´S EDUCATION_________________________________ - 49 - BUILDING MEMBERS CONTRIBUTION _______________________ - 49 - BUILDING PROBLEMS CONSTRUCTION IN SPAIN _____________ - 51 - PASSIVE BUILDING SOLUTIONS _____________________________ - 51 - PRINCIPAL DISPOSITIONS OF PASSIVE BUILDINGS- 53 - HE´s DESCRIPTION. ________________________________________ - 54 - HE´s ANALYSIS.____________________________________________ - 55 - MAXIMUM ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN CONSTRUCTION._________ - 58 - THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE. ___ - 58 - BUILDINGS ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS AND PASSIVE DESIGN________________________________ - 59 - CLIMATE __________________________________________________ - 60 - LATITUDE _________________________________________________ - 62 - ORIENTATION _____________________________________________ - 62 - OPTIMUM BUILDING SHAPE ________________________________ - 63 - INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DISTRIBUTION __________________ - 64 - EXAMPLE OF PASSIVE BUILDING IN SPAIN ___ - 65 - TECHNICAL SYSTEMS ______________________________________ - 67 - COOLING__________________________________________________ - 68 - VENTILATION _____________________________________________ - 68 - RENEWABLE ENERGIES ____________________________________ - 69 - ENERGY PERFORMANCE ___________________________________ - 70 - USER ACCEPTANCE ________________________________________ - 70 - ENERGY BUILDIGNS PROBLEMS _______________ - 71 - HYDROGEN RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE ___ - 73 - HYDROGEN ENERGY IN HYBRID BUILDINGS __ - 75 - PROBLEMS TO SOLVE __________________________ - 77 - PROMOTING A HYDROGEN-BASED SOCIETY __ - 79 - IMPLEMENTATION OF HYDROGEN ENERGY IN PASSIVE BUILDINGS IN SPAIN _________________ - 81 - CONCLUSION ___________________________________ - 87 - ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS _________________________ - 89 - REFERENCES____________________________________ - 92 - PASSIVE BUILDINGS _______________________________________ - 92 - -3-
  5. 5. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY HYDROGEN ENERGY _______________________________________ - 94 - FOREWORD -4-
  6. 6. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY This work is inside of the Final Project Dissertation of the Master Degree in European Construction carried out during the academic course 2006/2007. My project is part of a huge project call Efficient Buildings in collaboration with Oscar Sánchez Ortiz, based on the idea of create and to apply in Spain an innovative and more efficient constructive system due to the current problems that presents the Construction sector in our country (difficult access to the housing due to the high costs, labour accidents rate in the construction, lack of a practical sense instead of economic, etc...) with the objectives of an optimum relationship quality/price in the housing that rebounds positively in the final user, maximum energy efficiency to reduce the contamination and building maintenance and reduction of construction time to reduce production costs, labour accident rate, etc... The main pillars of the project Efficient Building are Project Management (Partnering, E-Procurement...), Construction (Prefabricated elements, innovative materials...) Bioclimatic Standards (Passive House & Hydrogen energy as a renewable application source) and Building Design (Location, place, distribution…). The methodology that I have used in the realization of the following project has been search of books in the library and digital information in Internet, meetings with my tutor Regner Bæk Hessellund and workmate and meetings with specialist people in the topics that I have tried: Lars Yde (Manager of the Hydrogen Innovative Research Center) and Olav Langenkamp (Specialising within the field of passive house technologies) The purpose of write about Passive House is because this topic adopt ingenious and novel solutions for the energy saving of housing as well as an improvement in the quality on the current constructive system that together with the renewable energy sources, in this case, Hydrogen, the fuel of the future for its readiness limitless and inexhaustible, easy storage and distribution, simplicity of production and great energy power, believe a new and more efficient constructive and energy -5-
  7. 7. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY system, respectful with the environment and with an inferior global economic costs in comparison with the current pattern. INTRODUCTION AND STRUCTURE -6-
  8. 8. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY We can say that the bioclimatic architecture was born with the own human development. The construction process is completely conditioned by the territory, for the presence of specific materials, the climate and the morphologic adaptation that improves the existent influences between the inhabitant and its climate. The basic idea of the Passive House is to improve the energy efficiency of building components very much, such the building essentially heats and cools itself, allowing for simplifications of the building services system that reduce investment cost. Differences between countries concerning climate, current construction practice and available components become clear. A list of possibly useful energy-saving techniques for both heating and cooling has been derived from additional sources. Another important aim of this report is renewable energy sources. Solar panels and Hydrogen Energy. Solar power electricity is used to split ordinary water into H2 and O2- hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is vented into the atmosphere and the hydrogen is used in fuel cells that can produce energy in the form of electricity and heat given the power to the people of produce their own energy demand. We are talking about a new economic area and can be the third industrial revolution after coal and oil. This project is structured in two main parts; Passive House concept and Renewable Energy sources: Hydrogen Energy and Solar panels electricity. In the first one I am going to analyse the basics of Passive House and the main principles. In the second part I will focus my attention on the energy system, principles of hydrogen energy and the relation in building construction. This review paper has been developed by the student of the Master Degree in European Construction 06/07 Antonio Gandía Gómez in the University of Virus Bering, Horsens (Denmark) for the Professors Regner Hessellund and Olav Langenkamp. -7-
  10. 10. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY POPULAR VERSION The term ‘passive house’ in Europe refers to a “specific construction standard for buildings. This standard implies good comfort conditions during winter and summer, without traditional heating systems and without active cooling. Typically this includes very good insulation levels, very good air tightness of the building, whilst a good indoor air quality is guaranteed by a mechanical ventilation system with highly efficient heat recovery” [5]. SCIENTIFIC VERSION The scientific term Passive House refers to a “specific building standard for buildings with good comfort conditions during winter and summer, without traditional heating systems and without active cooling. Typically this includes very good insulation levels, very good air tightness of the building, whilst a good indoor air quality is guaranteed by a mechanical ventilation system with highly efficient heat recovery. Thereby the design heat load is limited to the load that can be transported by the minimum required ventilation air. However space heating does not have to be carried through the ventilation system. For European latitudes, these are the main characteristics: • The total energy demand for space heating and cooling is limited to 15+15 kWh per m² treated floor area and year; • The total primary energy use for all appliances, domestic hot water and space heating and cooling is limited to 120 kWh per m² treated floor area and year. A Passive House has a high level of insulation with minimal thermal bridges, good air thignes, low infiltration and utilizes passive solar gains and heat recovery to accomplish these characteristics. Consequently renewable energy sources can be used to meet the resulting energy demand” [2]. WARM CLIMATES VERSION “In terms of climate and scale especially in Southern Europe and Mediterranean region. In these countries the problem of household energy use is not only of providing warm houses in winter but also, and in some cases more importantly, of providing cool houses in summer while reducing energy requirements to a minimum” [3]. -9-
  11. 11. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY COMPARISON More than 85 percent of the energy consumption of residential buildings is attributed to heat and cooling. So reducing this demand implies important total energy savings. Even compared to low energy buildings, where more than 50 percent of the total energy demand is still attributed to heating, passive houses perform significantly better. Passive House definition for the Mediterranean regions has been determined yet, there is agreement that the useful energy consumption for heating and cooling should be on the order of 15+15 kWh/(m²a). Secondly, a list of possibly useful energy-saving techniques for both heating and cooling has been derived from additional sources. It must be mentioned that, particularly in cooling dominated climates of Southern Europe, the passive regulation of summer internal temperatures relies on a careful balance of a number of factors. Comparison of specific energy consumption and levels dwellings. [1] - 10 -
  13. 13. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY OPTIMIZE WHAT IS ESSENTIAL We are looking for a concept of building with the optimalized energy demand for years. This happens too often by experimenting with complicated technologies. The beauty of passive house is in simplicity. As the name already indicates, the energy savings can be mainly realized by means of passive strategies. Optimizing the necessary elements a conventional heating system becomes superfluous. MINIMIZE LOSSES BEFORE MAXIMIZING GAINS − Reduce drastically the heat losses in the first place. Transmission heat loss can be reduced by better insulation of building shell. Ventilation heat loss can be reduced by extreme air-tightness in combination with mechanical ventilation system and highly efficient heat recovery. − The passive heat inputs can be delivered externally by solar irradiation through the well dimensioned and oriented windows. Moreover, the heat inputs provided internally by the heat emissions of appliances and occupants give a useful contribution to the remaining heating demand. ENERGY SAVING Passive houses need about four times less energy than new average buildings designed according to the current standards. COMFORT The passive house standard offers a cost-efficient way of minimizing the energy demand of new buildings, while at the same time improving the comfort experienced by building occupants. Both in the winter and in the summer comfortable indoor climate dominates without needing neither conventional heating or cooling system. FINANCIAL BENEFITS The cost-benefit analysis of the passive house is not indisputable and can strongly differ project to project. However, ”the foreign studies has shown, that when designing in an integrated way, and after integration in the market the total costs (investments in the building plus running costs over a period of 30 years) will not exceed those of an average new house. It is especially due to the obsolete heating system and related energy bill. This negative costs cause tunnel effect in the cost- benefit analysis” [1]. - 12 -
  15. 15. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY INSULATION OF OPAQUE BUILDING ELEMENTS The thermal envelope of a Passive House is the most prominent measure required to meet the Passive House criteria. Super insulation and maximal air tightness minimize the heat loss through the envelope. It also reduces the cooling load in summer as long as the thermal mass is still coupled to the interior. With an increase of the thermal isolation of the walls a decrease of the heating losses is achieved of between the 20 and 50%, according to the degree of increment of the thermal resistance with regarding the initial situation. Existing passive houses show U-values ranging from 0.09 to 0.15W/(m2K). This diversity indicates that within local constraints, such as building tradition, availability of components and regulation, solutions that comply with the Passive House standard are possible. Thermal envelope details of Common Practice examples [5] REDUCING WINDOW HEAT LOSSES The window like architectural element has evolved due to the development of the technology of the glass and to the necessity of opening the constructions to the environment to be able to obtain visual, natural illumination and contributions of solar radiation. According to climate conditions, the window qualities vary a lot from country to country. Total solar transmittance is typically about 0.87 for single glazing, 0.77 - 14 -
  16. 16. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY for simple double glazing, 0.63 for low-e double glazing, 0.52 for low-e triple glazing. The U-values refer to the total window including the frame. With regard to glazing and window frames, the performance of the common practice shows a fair distance to the Passive House standard of 0,8 W/(m2K). THERMAL BRIDGE REDUCTION A thermal bridge-free construction is a basic Passive House measure. Linear thermal conductivity should be lower than 0,01 W/(mK) for connections in the thermal envelope in reference to external dimensions. Attention must be paid to correct detailing and execution, especially around connections with window- doorframes, floors, and roofs. Standard buildings in all countries suffer from frequent thermal bridges, although the construction types differ considerably. Thermal bridge reduction examples [7]. AIR TIGHTNESS In the construction of Passive Houses a great deal of attention must be paid to air tightness of the building envelope, especially at connections between different elements, such as windows and doors. “Old buildings are prone to damages because humidity from indoor air may condense while the air is exfiltrating - 15 -
  17. 17. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY through leakages, resulting in mould growth on the humid surfaces or even in structural damage. Leakages are not suitable for providing ventilation. If the infiltration is high enough for a sufficient air change rate in spring or autumn, users will experience draft in winter and in windy weather. Poor sound protection and high heat losses are also, at least partly, due to leaky building envelopes” [5]. The value range for n50 encountered in Passive House are from 0.2 to 0.61 h-1. VENTILATION AND HEAT RECOVERY Fresh air is one of the prerequisites of healthy living. Ventilation can basically be realized by the following means: - Infiltration: Buildings which are old enough to provide a sufficient air change rate simply by infiltration generally do not correspond to today’s comfort requirements. - Windows: By opening and closing windows, the occupants can adjust the ventilation rate according to their requirements. This means that users have to become active, it also often implies both unnecessarily high energy losses and periods with bad air quality. Opening windows is also a means of creating high air change rates for night flushing in summer. - Mechanical ventilation systems: Mechanical ventilation can provide the required air change rates even if the inhabitants are absent or sleeping. If combined with heat recovery, it can significantly reduce the space heat demand and the requirements for cooling. - Controlled natural ventilation: Pressure regulated trickle ventilators can also help to assure sufficient ventilation in winter. The use of automatic vent opening devices (actuators) and simple controls are a viable way of providing controlled natural ventilation. Balanced ventilation [5] - 16 -
  18. 18. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY SPACE HEATING AND COOLING In order to reach a comfortable indoor climate in a Passive House, a limited capacity heater is needed to provide the small heating demand that remains. There are different methods in which to produce this heat, for example by heating ventilation air. One thing that these systems have in common is the small capacity that is required. The advantage of heating ventilation air is that no additional infrastructure is needed to transport the heat. SOLAR HEAT WINS The passive processes of solar heating can be classified in three groups: systems of direct, indirect, and independent contributions. Each one of them is defined by the relationship among the solar radiation, the thermal storage and the inhabited atmosphere. Each one of these groups systems works thanks to the greenhouse effect. It is important to point out that the passive systems are, during the day, always in operation, since they capture any radiation that arrives to the glass direct or diffuse, for that not alone good results are obtained in sunny climates, but also in the cloudy ones with great diffuse radiation in those that the active systems lose effectiveness. Solar radiation may provide a significant fraction of the heat that is required to keep the building warm in winter. Passive use of solar energy by large south-facing windows is a relatively cost-efficient measure because the same windows can also be used for day lighting and ventilation. Net solar gains during the short heating period of a high efficiency home can only be achieved if the type of glazing and window frames is properly chosen. Use of passive solar energy and living comfort due to sunny and light rooms often complement one another. WINDOW SHADING AND SOLAR CONTROL “By placing windows with a high solar energy transmittance (and a low g-value and U-value) in the residence and optimal orientation of the dwelling (windows towards the South), maximal advantage can be achieved from passive solar gains. (If applicable, well-dimensioned overhangs or awnings can be applied, to let the - 17 -
  19. 19. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY low winter sun enter the home, while in summer the window is shaded to avoid overheating.)” [5] Generally besides a high solar energy transmittance, the windows usually have triple low emittance glazing and well insulated frames, which let in more solar heat than is consequently lost again. The value range encountered for solar energy transmittance of windows in the Passive House examples lies at 45% and higher. Solar loads are among the most important reasons for overheating in houses. Reducing the amount of sunlight that gets into the building through the windows is one of the aspects of solar control. Possibilities to reduce solar gains are e.g. antisun glass, appropriate window sizes, overhangs, blinds and shutters, favourable orientation. Indirect heat gains due to solar radiation on opaque building elements also contribute to heat gains in summer. Roofs are most important, because they often are exposed to a lot of sunshine in summertime, have high solar absorption and are poorly insulated. Window shading and application of overhangs in summer & winter [6] OTHER MEANS OF PASSIVE HEATING Buffer spaces The buffer spaces serve essentially for pre-heating the air that is used in the dwelling, apart from the effective response to the functional agenda of the building. The central staircase is designated a buffer space, too. - 18 -
  20. 20. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY Buffer spaces in passive house building [4] Trombe walls / transparent insulation System based on greenhouse effect. The solar radiation impacts in a thermal mass located between a glass and the space to heating, the radiation absorbed by the mass becomes thermal energy that is transmitted in a slow way toward the interior for conduction, or combined by a natural convection. For their composition, the storage area will be built with materials of high thermal capacity and conductivity, concrete, solid bricks, concrete blocks of gravel, etc. had by its external face, with paintings or surfaces of high absorbency. System to use when it is necessary to renovate important quantities of air. It presents two small floodgates, a superior in the internal area of the wall for where the air of the camera that ascends for loss of density when warming the second floodgate that will be installed in the inferior area of the glass will enter. Recycling the internal air, combining the drive of day hot air, with the night distribution for radiation. Subsoil earth to air heat exchangers These systems, “…also known as buried pipes are used in a number of Passive Houses in Germany, Austria, Norway, etc. They can be used in buildings with mechanical ventilation to preheat the ambient air. If combined with a high efficiency heat recovery, the effect of the subsoil heat exchanger on the heat balance is generally small. The systems are typically designed to provide ambient air with temperatures above freezing in order to eliminate the need for defrosting the heat exchanger” [4]. - 19 -
  21. 21. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY OTHER MEANS OF PASSIVE COOLING External surface colour and infrared emissivity The radiation balance of roofs, but also of walls, significantly influences the energy balance of buildings in summer. Solar gains through opaque building elements can be reduced by choosing light surface colours. 47% of the total solar radiation is in the near infrared, so white paint normally still has an absorption coefficient of about 0.4. Selectively coloured paints, with high infrared reflectance and high emissivity, provide a technical solution for reducing solar gains and increasing heat loss in warm climates. Thermal mass and phase change materials. Constructions with high thermal inertia are commonplace in Southern Europe. They even out temperature fluctuations on a timescale of one day, but also up to two weeks. High thermal mass helps to eliminate temperature peaks and to reduce the indoor temperature in short, hot periods. The possibility to store heat in the building structure is also an important prerequisite for warmer nights. Heavy exterior building elements also attenuate the fluctuations of heat flow into the building, shifting part of the solar load from the day into the night. Night ventilation Using the low temperatures of the ambient air during the night is a promising approach in many climates. “High ventilation rates can be achieved if windows or other openings can be left wide open during the night, and if openings on different façades (cross ventilation) and at different heights (stack ventilation) can be used. The stack effect is particularly reliable because it does not depend on wind as a driving force and provides high air change rates whenever the temperature difference between indoor and ambient air is high” [4]. DOMESTIC HOT WATER (SOLAR) HEATING The use of solar collectors for the heating of water is the application of the direct solar energy more extended in the world and it can be considered at the moment like a reality at commercial level for its application in housings, as well as in buildings, and industrial uses and of services. In our latitudes, with a surface of - 20 -
  22. 22. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY reception of 6 m2, they can cover the necessities of a family of 4-5 people and around 250 l of hot water/day. Like any other type of residence, the Passive House requires a system that provides DHW. It is important that the system energy efficient has a small capacity that meets demand. Generally the DHW heating system in a Passive House is combined with the source for the space heating system. “If the space heat demand has been reduced to the order of 15 kWh/(m²a), domestic hot water is the dominant heat consumption. A relatively cost-efficient means to reduce the energy consumption for DHW are solar thermal collectors” [4]. Domestic Hot Water Installation [6] - 21 -
  23. 23. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION & ENERGY EFFICIENT APPLIANCES Energy efficiency is a basic principle of the Passive House concept, but despite its importance, efficiency of household appliances is designated as an optional Passive House solution. As indicated above, household appliances account for a large portion of energy use. Applying energy efficiency requirements to household appliances will therefore have significant impact on energy use in a residence. To influence efficiency of household appliances and lighting, the EU has responded with two complementary sets of legislation: • “EU labelling schemes: Seen that the market of household appliances are highly visible to the consumer, the intention is to increase consumer’s awareness on the real energy use of household appliances through a liable and clear labelling in their sales points”. • “Minimum Efficiency Requirements: Compulsory minimum efficiency requirements will encourage producers of household appliances to improve the product design in view to lower the energy consumption at their use” [5]. Standard regarding energy efficiency is an energy use reduction of 50% with respect to common practice. (This requirement partly coincides with the Passive House definition of a maximum total energy demand of around 42 kWh/m2.) The goal of end-use efficiency of household appliances is especially true for Southern European climates where cooling becomes important: Low electricity consumption corresponds to low internal gains and improved comfort in summer. - 22 -
  25. 25. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY Most of the world’s energy comes from fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas. Other sources like nuclear power and different renewable sources also supplies energy. How many work positions can be generated if we change the nuclear and the coal energy markets for Hydrogen & Solar energy? It is necessary to manufacture the solar panels, the silicon wafers, photovoltaic cells, design the production systems of hydrogen, the hydrogen factories, hydrogen tubes, fuel cells…Thousands or millions of work positions. Renewable against fossil energy, it can already be used by any citizen. It is in the shops. We can already used. Is it expensive? Is the Guggenheim of Bilbao, the Palace of the Sciences of Valencia? What does it mean expensive or cheaper? We have the solution in our hands: the solar and hydrogen energy production. - 24 -
  27. 27. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY HYDROGEN PROPERTIES Hydrogen was discovered in 1766 by the English chemist and physicist H. Cavendish. Reacts with many different materials and is one of the most abundant elements in the universe, 90% of the atoms in the known universe are hydrogen. Hydrogen can be produced from a various types of sources. The most important source is water, which can be split into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis. These can be combined again in a fuel cell, creating power, heat and water as the only emission. In long term electrolysis of water with renewable energy will be the most important hydrogen production technology. The great challenge of hydrogen production is to mature the technology and scaling up production thus lowering the hydrogen production price. Hydrogen is as dangerous as gasoline, but perhaps safer because it is lighter than other elements, has low density, diffuses faster through air than other gas fuels, is odourless, tasteless, colourless and non toxically, the ignition temperature is higher than gasoline and it is difficult to explode in open air. The main reasons for hydrogen are that is as safe as gasoline and gas, it is a zero emission energy system, can be produce competitive with fossil fuels, can be produce by everybody with access to sun or wind and can innovate our energy technology creating jobs. Hydrogen chain [11] - 26 -
  28. 28. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY HYDROGEN STORAGE & DISTRIBUTION When the hydrogen is produced the next step is to store and distribute it. Hydrogen has one proton and one electron making it the smallest and lightest of all elements. This makes hydrogen the element that contains most energy compared to its weight but the least when compared to volume. Hydrogen can be stored in three different ways, gas, liquid and material. Increasing the storage pressure of gaseous hydrogen will decrease the storage volume needed. Hydrogen today is typically stored under 200 bars pressure but car manufacturers are already using 700-900 bars, giving an even higher energy density. When hydrogen is cooled down to -253 degrees Celsius it becomes liquid giving it a quite high energy density. Extensive safety test of the pressure tanks shows that it is safe to store hydrogen, even under such high pressure. mCHP Hydrogen storage [8] - 27 -
  29. 29. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS Fuel cells convert the chemical energy in a fuel, mostly hydrogen, into electricity and heat without any noise and mechanical movement. The only emission of the reaction in the fuel cell is pure water. A fuel cell is like a battery with the only difference that it will continue to provide power as long a fuel is provided. Fuel cells are very scaleable and flexible in design giving a vide range of possibilities of usage. A fuel cell can power a small mobile phone, a car, or even be used for large central power plant. “The basic principle of a fuel cell is a chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen that produces power and heat. Hydrogen and oxygen (air) is supplied on each side of a cell. The cell consists of an electrolyte membrane with a catalyst layer on each side. When hydrogen is lead to the first catalyst layer, the anode, the hydrogen molecules are split into their basic elements, a proton and an electron. The protons migrate through the electrolyte membrane to the second catalyst layer, the cathode. Here they react with oxygen to form water. At the same time the electrons are forced to travel around the membrane to the cathode side, because they can not pass the membrane. This movement of electrons creates an electrical current”. [11] Basic principle Fuel cells [9] Fuel cells hold some advantages with great potentials like high electrical and total efficiency potential, variable loads, zero emission, low maintenance, low noise, combined heat and power production. And some disadvantages like large research and development challenges, few fuel cell suppliers, missing fuelling infrastructure, low life time and not enough operation experiences - 28 -
  31. 31. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY ENERGY FOR OWN USE Hydrogen is a reality for the society of the future. We can develop from a depending society of fossil energy to a hydrogen-based, independent, and pollution free community. Hydrogen is freedom, clean energy, and creativity and innovation: - “Freedom because the citizens are independent of oil. They produce and store their own fuel in the form of hydrogen”. - “Clean energy because hydrogen is produced from renewable energy sources: sun and wind. And the only exhaust product left over when it is used is water”. - “Creativity and innovation because demands a close cooperation between the private and the public sector and cooperation between people who work with technology, architecture, design and transportation”. [8] ENERGY FOR HEAT AND ELECTRICITY Renewable energy is available to everybody and can be produced on small decentralised plants, e.g. solar panels on house roofs. Fuel cells installed in houses give the opportunity to produce electricity and heat from hydrogen if available. “Every household will have renewable energy production technologies installed producing their own energy. At the same time they use a fuel cell installed in the house to produce electricity from hydrogen. Whenever the power grid needs power, the house can sell power to the grid. And when the house needs more power than it can produce itself, it buys power from the grid. So the idea is to construct the power grid as the Internet, consisting of small decentralised units connected to one big power pool. The Power Pool will also contain decentralised hydrogen production, with e.g. an electrolyser installed in each house, producing hydrogen for our own car, or supplying hydrogen for a hydrogen pipeline system”. [10] Work is also going on to control each power consuming device in the house, so that when power prices are high during the day, devices can be shut down. The Power Pool will give more security to our energy system. If one production unit breaks down, there will be plenty of units to takeover, furthermore bringing more competition into the energy market enabling lower energy prices, as everybody competes with each other to supply the best price. - 30 -
  32. 32. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY HYDROGEN HOUSE Hydrogen house is the answer for the society of the future, where citizens will produce the energy they need for themselves. Our consumption of energy will always have to strike a balance between our need for it and the cost of providing it. In contrast, hydrogen energy system is based upon self-sufficiency, clean energy, and a constructive partnership between the public and private sector. Hydrogen house will work to secure and enhance our welfare in a way that balances our energy needs with the cost to the environment and our climate of producing this energy. This is how it works: “The renewable energy comes from solar or wind power and is used to split H2O-ordinary water- into H2 and O2- hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is vented into the atmosphere, which already contains about 20% of O2. The hydrogen is used in fuel cells that can produce energy, for instance in the form of electricity and heat. In the fuel cell, the energy is created by silent electromechanical processes with no pollution. The only product left over when the hydrogen is used up, is pure water. During periods with low energy demands, we can storage the hydrogen. Then, the wind is not blowing and the sun is not shining, we can use the storage hydrogen”. [9] Hydrogen energy house plus passive house concept can create a completely self-sufficient with energy house. The heat comes from solar panels that also can produce hot water and electricity. If we want to create a communal residence, we can create also a central energy producer where people don not need to be concerned about where the energy comes from. People get electricity and heat from the central energy supply. Hydrogen energy house plus passive house concept [13] - 31 -
  34. 34. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY The passive house is a more efficient form of building a house paying bigger attention to those sensitive constructive elements that do not take care too much in the traditional construction (insulation, heat losses, thermal bridges, air- tightness...), they intend ingenious solutions that improve the habitability conditions (ventilation, buffer spaces, solar control,...) and feel new ways to reduce to the maximum the consumption of the two main resources of a housing (water and electricity). It seeks to decrease to the maximum the energy expense and the contamination in the housing that produces 50% of the planet contamination and it is involved in an energy system completely conditioned by the lobby of the petroleum and the interests of the current governments that create unjustified energy dependence. The renewable energy is the natural solution because do not contaminate and creates liberation in the world energy market where each citizen can produce their own energy. Of among all the renewable sources, the Hydrogen energy ( join with solar or eolic )is the one that presents a bigger potential because it comes from an inexhaustible natural source (water) always available, you can store easily in fuel cells of fuel and it has an energy power comparable to the current fossil fuels. - 33 -
  36. 36. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY PASSIVE HOUSE BACKGROUND INFORMATION [6] ANÁLISIS, COMPARATIVA Y SOLUCIONES CON CRITERIOS BIOCLIMÁTICOS EN VIVIENDAS UNIFAMILIARES, December 2006. Concha Hurtado Badenas, Proyecto Final de Carrera. CEPHEUS – COST EFFICIENT PASSIVE HOUSES AS EUROPEAN STANDARDS. July 2001. Project information Nº 38. Stadtwerke Hanover AG. BU/127/DE/SE/AT DENMARK, THE PASSIVE HOUSE, May 2004. National publication of Promotion of European Passive Houses DESIGN OF PASSIVE COOLING BY NIGHT VENTILATION: EVALUATION OF A PARAMETRIC MODEL AND BUILDING SUMULATION WITH MEASUREMENTS, September 2003. Jens Pfafferott, Sebastian Herkel, Martina Jäschke, Energy and buildings. Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstraße 2, 79098 Freiburg, Germany [3] EXPANDING THE PASSIVE HOUSE CONCEPT TO WARMER CLIMATES AND WIDER IMPLEMENTATION, January 2005. Passive On Project. [2] PASSIVE HOUSES WOLDWIDE: INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS, 2006. Henk Kaan, ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten, The Netherlands. PASSIVE HOUSES WOLDWIDE: INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS, 2006. Isolda Strom, DHV Building and Industry, P.O. Box 80007, 5600 JZ Eindhoven, The Netherlands [5] PROMOTION OF EUROPEAN PASSIVE HOUSES, May 2006. Intelligent Energy Europe DHV_WP1.2 European Comisión EIE/04/030/S07.39990 [4] REVIEW OF EXISTING LOW ENERGY AND PASSIVE BEST PRACTICE, PASSIV HAUS INSTITUT, April 2006. WP1: Existing Low Energy and Passive Best Practice. PHI ⋅ Rheinstraße 44/46 ⋅ D-64283 Darmstadt REVIEW OF EXISTING LOW ENERGY AND PASSIVE BEST PRACTICE, PASSIV HAUS INSTITUT, TASK 1.2: GUIDELINES FOR BUILDING SECTOR, April 2006. WP1: Existing Low Energy and Passive Best Practice. PHI ⋅ Rheinstraße 44/46 ⋅ D-64283 Darmstadt [1] THE REFLEX FOR PASSIVE & LOW-ENERGY HOUSES, June 2006. Passiefhuis - Platform vzw, Gitschotellei 138 - 2600 Berchem - 35 -
  38. 38. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM EXCESS POWER IN SMALL HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLATIONS, August 2004. Z. Yumurtacia, E. Bilgenb. International Association for Hydrogen Energy 29 (2004) 687-693, . Ecole Polytechnique, University of Montreal, C.P. 6079, centre ville, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3A7 [8] H2PIA, VISION FOR THE HYDROGEN SOCIETY OF THE FUTURE WHERE CITIZENS WILL PRODUCE THE ENERGY THEY NEED FOR THEMSELVES, 2007. Hydrogen innovation & Research Centre, Birk Centerpark, 40. Herning (Denmark) [10] INTRODUCTION TO HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELLS, 2006. A short introduction. miniHYDROGEN™ and H2 Logic ApS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY, 2007. Hydrogen innovation & Research Centre, Birk Centerpark, 40. Herning (Denmark) PRODUCCIÓN DE HIDRÓGENO A PARTIR DE ENERGÍA SOLAR, 2005. Montes, A.Abánades, J.M.Martínez-Val. Centro de Análisis de Desarrollo Energético Sostenible, FFII Grupo de Termotecnia, ETSII- UPM WEB LINKS [12] [13] - 37 -
  42. 42. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY This work is the Final Project Dissertation of Antonio Gandía Gómez for the Master Degree in European Construction carried out during the academic course 2006/2007. This paper is part of a huge project call Efficient Buildings. . The methodology that I have used in the realization of the following project has been search of books in the library and digital information in Internet, meetings with tutor Regner Bæk Hessellund and workmate and meetings with specialist people in the topics that I have tried: Lars Yde (Manager of the Hydrogen Innovative Research Center) and Olav Langenkamp (Specialising within the field of passive house technologies). The purpose of write about the implementation of Passive Buildings in Spain is because this topic adopt ingenious and novel solutions for the energy saving of buildings as well as an improvement in the quality on the current constructive system that together with the renewable energy sources, in this case, Hydrogen, the fuel of the future for its readiness limitless and inexhaustible, easy storage and distribution, simplicity of production and great energy power, believe a new and more efficient constructive and energy system, respectful with the environment and with an inferior global economic costs in comparison with the current pattern. ABSTRACT - 41 -
  44. 44. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY The building construction is the responsible in direct way of 42% of the emissions of CO2 in the world and indirectly, of approximately 50% of the world energy consumption. The building construction sector in Spain has not been developed with the step of the years and at the moment presents serious problems that could be solved innovating and with a more efficient construction process. Passive Buildings and renewable energies as the hydrogen is a solution to be more respectful with the environment and change the actual energy building situation. The intention of this project is to analyze the current situation of the building construction in Spain and to study the effectiveness and practical application of the passive buildings and the energy coming from the hydrogen in this country. - 43 -
  46. 46. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY This project is part of a huge project call Efficient Buildings based on the idea of create and to apply in Spain an innovative and more efficient constructive system and respectful education with the environment due to the current problems that presents the Construction sector in this country. This document is the continue of “Passive House & Hydrogen Generator” Review Paper that was handed on July 2007. Before I talked about theoretical concepts and its main principles and now I am going to talk about the practical application and implementation in Spain. - 45 -
  48. 48. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY This project is structured in two main parts: “Application of passive house concept to buildings in Spain” and the “implementation of renewable energies and hydrogen energy”. In the first part I am going to talk about the citizen’s education, building members contribution, building problems and possible passive building solutions in building construction in Spain chapter. I am going to do a description, an analyse and criticize of Spanish Saving Energy standards (HE´s). Talk about the maximum energy efficiency in construction and the main objectives of the sustainable architecture in principal dispositions of passive buildings chapter. I am going to do a study of the climate, location, orientation, optimum building shape and internal and external distribution in building environment conditions and passive design chapter. Finally I am going to talk about the technical systems, cooling, ventilation, renewable energies, energy performance and user acceptance in an example of passive building in Spain. In the second part I will focus my attention on the energy buildings problems, hydrogen as a renewable energy source, hydrogen energy in hybrid buildings, the problems to solve with hydrogen, promoting a hydrogen-base society and the implementation of hydrogen energy in passive buildings in Spain. This final dissertation has been developed by the student of the Master Degree in European Construction 2006/2007 Antonio Gandía Gómez in the University of Virus Bering, Horsens (Denmark) and in the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (Spain) for the Professors Regner Bæk Hessellund and Olav Langenkamp. - 47 -
  50. 50. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY In Spain it is promoting two construction types: massive promotion of buildings, and the promotion of quality construction that includes singular and administration buildings. The only objective of the massive promotion of buildings is to obtain the biggest possible amount of money. For it, any innovation that reduces the costs will be welcome, although it implies a quality reduction. On the other hand, the innovations that improve the well-being of people, if they suppose a rise in the price, in principle they won't be welcome. The biggest problem in the Spanish construction in the last years has been the easy business that supposes to invest in housings/buildings. The massive promotion of buildings seeks to get the maximum economic amount of money, and any thing that can’t get this it is a problem, included the environmental respect. Another problem is the public administration; it doesn't stop to speak of sustainable development, although the architecture that promotes doesn't have anything of sustainable. There are other objectives. If we want to change the current situation, we should undertake a series of actions: THE CITIZEN´S EDUCATION The citizen's education will be necessary for provides social pressure on the promoter and he doesn't sell so easily flats of very few architectural quality. Education will force the administration to take out better normative, more effective, cheaper and better thought that the current ones. Finally, the citizen's education will be the one that forces promoters to construct a better and sustainable construction type. BUILDING MEMBERS CONTRIBUTION The action of the members involved in a building promotion is very important for getting the biggest degree of energy efficiency in the building. All project team members, should know the expected performance of the building well so as to set the design objectives and targets in advance. Each member is required to provide input to formulate the design brief, based on this design, the developers can appreciate the good practices of energy conservation to be implemented; All the elements contributing to the energy saving measures should - 49 -
  51. 51. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY be integrated with the comments and advice from the building managers as well as the end-users who will be the ultimate operators and users of the building. DEVELOPER´S CONTRIBUTION The developer should understand the most cost-effective measures in implementing energy efficient design for buildings at the very beginning of the project. An energy efficient design does not necessarily mean a costly design. In fact, the energy efficient design can be considered as a kind of investment. Most of these designs will not lead to substantial increase in the whole construction cost nor the life cycle cost. However, the gain in benefits will be great, not only on savings due to the reduction of operating costs, but also in projecting a better image of the developer in public. ARCHITECT CONTRIBUTION Architects can have great influence on space planning, selection of building materials, building orientation, shading devices, building envelope, and so on. Once the building is constructed, their design will affect the whole life of the building in respect of energy consumption. With their expertise, the built environment can meet the end-user´s need while achieving the target of energy efficiency and conservation. In most of the projects, architects also play a leading role in building design which will influence the selection of building services systems and equipment directly. ENGINEER CONTRIBUTION The energy consumption of building is mainly due to the operation of equipment/systems of various building services installations. A good building services engineering design will usually require contribution from all project team members. The building services engineer will act as the key person to collect the operational requirements from the developer and to coordinate with the architect on the space allocation of plant rooms. BUILDING MANAGER´S CONTRIBUTION It is recommended that the building manager should be involved in an early design stage if possible so that it can understand the design brief and provide advice in the early stage of the project. Energy audits are recommended to be conducted frequently to identify any energy management opportunities. - 50 -
  52. 52. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY END-USER´S CONTRIBUTION The end-user´s are the ones who actually consume energy. An energy-conscious end-user can save energy directly. For example turning off unused equipment, switching off lighting, using intelligent controls when carrying out any retrofit or renovation works… BUILDING PROBLEMS CONSTRUCTION IN SPAIN Architectural proposals that show the problems of the current building construction in Spain. 1. Plane and horizontal covers, without enough isolation and less thermal inertia of the necessary one. 2. Inadequate orientation of the spaces and glasses surfaces that provides enormous thermal earnings of the buildings in summer and losses in winter. 4. Inadequate space orientation of the building. 5. Inadequate typologies that waste space, resources and make more expensive the final cost of the building. 6. Constructive solutions with enormous thermal bridges. 7. The building structure is totally independent of the façade. The façade is unloaded to the maximum, which diminishes their thermal inertia. 8. Remove the glasses external surface carpentry in the façade. This practice reduces the solar protection of the glasses and it increases the thermal bridges. 9. The modulation used in the cover of façades, floors, walls, etc. The manufacturing companies have machinery to manufacture materials with some certain dimensions. When the architect design in an arbitrary way to get some visual objectives, is evident that this certain modulation of the material it is generating an enormous quantity of residuals. PASSIVE BUILDING SOLUTIONS We can solve the problems of the current construction, without a higher cost and in the more efficient way from an energy point of view carrying out the following measures: - Necessary, enough and appropriate architectural elements to each typology, without unnecessary expenses, without superfluous elements and with the appropriate materials. - Architectural typologies much simpler and more flexible. - Less quantity of glass in the façades. - 51 -
  53. 53. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY - The architectural structure should be focused to obtain the maximum use of the natural resources: heat, wind, coolness. It should be obligatory a south architectural orientation. - Flexible spaces, well measured, simple and economic. - Constructive systems with a big quantity of industrialization and prefabrication components. - Dry assembling of the different architectural components, for a better optimization of the design, later reutilization and the elimination of possible residuals. - Bigger robustness in the aspect of the buildings, like evidence of their high thermal inertia. - Use of technological devices for the use of alternative energy sources. - Use of natural, recovered, recycled and beneficial for the health construction materials. - Architectural design to make satisfy the final user and to be in balance with the environment. Building members contribution [9] - 52 -
  55. 55. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY The implementation of the European Directive 2002/91/EC in Spain is included in the Technical Building Code (CTE: Código Técnico de la Edificación) in the Basic Document HE´s (“Saving of Energy”). The appropriate use of HE´s guarantees compliance with the basic requirements. These documents contain procedures, technical rules and examples of solutions for determining whether a building complies with the stipulated performance levels. HE´s DESCRIPTION. The Spanish Basic Document HE concerns in Energy Saving and consists of the following topics: HE1: Energy demand Limitation “Buildings shall feature a set of characteristics capable of adequately limiting the energy demand necessary to ensure human thermal comfort in accordance with the local climate, the use of the building, and the summer and winter regime as well as their characteristics of insulation and inertia, air permeability and exposure to solar radiation, reducing the risk of superficial and interstitial humidity that may affect their characteristics, with appropriate treatment of the thermal points to limit heat losses or gains and to avoid any hydrothermal problems therein.” [1] HE2: Efficiency of thermal installations “Buildings shall feature appropriate thermal installations to ensure human thermal comfort by regulating the efficiency of said installations and their equipment. This requirement is currently being developed in the prevailing Regulation of Thermal Installations and Buildings (RTIB, known by the Spanish acronym ‘RITE’) and its application shall be defined in the plan of the building.” [1] HE3: Energy efficiency of lighting installations “Buildings shall feature adequate lighting installations for the needs of their users; installations shall also be energy efficient, with a control system to adjust the light to the actual occupancy of the area, as well as a regulation system to optimize the supply of natural light in areas that meet certain conditions.” - 54 -
  56. 56. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY HE4: Minimum solar contribution to domestic hot water “In buildings with foreseen demand for hot water or the conditioning of a covered swimming pool, in which, as established in this TBC, part of the thermal energy needs derived from said demand shall be covered by incorporating systems for the collection, storage and use of low temperature solar energy suitable for the global solar radiation of their location and the hot water demand of the building. The values derived from this basic requirement shall be considered minimum values, without prejudice to stricter values that may be established by the competent authorities which contribute to sustainability, in compliance with the specific characteristics of their location and territorial limits.” [1] HE5: Minimum photovoltaic contribution to electric power “In buildings thus defined in this TBC shall be incorporated systems for the collection and transformation of solar energy into electric power by photovoltaic processes for proprietary use or supply to the network. The values derived from this basic requirement shall be considered minimum values without prejudice to stricter values that may be established by the competent authorities which contribute to sustainability, in compliance with the specific characteristics of their location and territorial limits.” [1] HE´s ANALYSIS. If we analyze HE´s (Saving of Energy) standards of the Código Técnico de Edificación, CTE (Spanish Technical Code of Construction), we will observe the enormous mistakes that take place in it. - The article HE 1 is more restrictive than in the previous document for the values of the limit of floors, covered and facades transmittance, but it is not written about the ecological characteristics of the materials, constructive solutions, shading controls, etc. All this will benefit directly to the thermal isolations and air conditioned makers, not to the buildings and their occupants. If you isolate much more the walls, floors, and covers…it will escape less energy in winter…But in summer, buildings are going to be very reheated (because there is nothing in the norm to avoid this), they won't be possible to refresh at night, so whole day the flat would - 55 -
  57. 57. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY be heating and is going to foment the use conditioned air installations. Surely decrease the necessary energy for heating, but it will increase the necessary energy of conditioned air. Inside this section, there are two points appear to analyse because of their extreme graveness: - Point 5.2. “The architect will control the execution of the work in site” or, nobody will control what is made in the work. - Point 5.3 “Control of the finished work in site” it is said literally that final tests are not prescribed. So, with independence of what puts in the project…This means that many paper works will be made, many records will be stuffed in the projects… but NOBODY will control neither what puts in brief, neither what is made in fact and with independence of the project. - The article HE 2 specifies how should be the heating and illumination facilities. It will imply the adoption of more energy efficiency boilers. - The article HE 3 speaks about how should be the systems of natural and artificial illumination. At the moment all new building construction fulfils the stipulations of the code perfectly. It is also fomented big natural illumination surfaces but not the correct distribution, so this article continues fomenting the indirect use of conditioned air installations and it is deduced that there is not going to be any energy saving. - The articles HE4 and HE5 should not be included with the title of “Energy Savingquot;, because the code is not fomenting the saving and the energy efficiency, simply the use of alternative energy as thermal and photovoltaic panels. That is to say, there won't be saving, it will be less paid to the traditional energy companies but we will be paid more to the makers of thermal and photovoltaic solar panels. In this articles it is fomenting a passive concept not well understood because it is talking about make a building with a bad orientation and distribution, arbitrary and wasteful design… but with solar panels. There will be fewer emissions to the environment, but with this mistaken model, it will go up the final - 56 -
  58. 58. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY cost of the buildings and their technical complexity very much and we won't obtain the wanted energy efficiency. As a conclusion, the CTE in the construction is consolidating a not very effective and very expensive model of sustainable construction where: - The saving of the energy consumption will be imperceptible and it will produce a change from the picks of energy consumption of winter to summer. - It is only spoken of isolation and equipment and in any moment of the design, interior and external distribution or orientation of the building. - There will be big economic benefits for the makers of isolations, boilers, illumination systems, air conditioned installations and solar panels. - An unreal and unjustified increase of the price of the buildings will take place - The administration is fomenting a bad, incomplete, not very effective and very expensive of energy saving. Passive Buildings in Valencia [9] - 57 -
  59. 59. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY MAXIMUM ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN CONSTRUCTION. “We can obtain an energy efficiency of among 50% to 90%, with a maximum over cost of 15% and without any reduction of the architectural quality of the project without any lack of well-being degree of their occupants, choosing the typology, materials and building orientation more efficient, correct disposition of their spaces and types of windows and design of the façades and more appropriate technologies”. [2] We can have more than 40 actions that we can carried out to make a 100% sustainable construction, we can classify in three groups: - A. 25 actions (Orientation, distribution, crossed ventilation…) that doesn’t suppose any significant overcost in the construction (0-2% of the total cost), and you can achieve an energy efficiency of until 60%. - B. 10 actions (Increase of the building thermal inertia, mechanical systems of natural ventilation…) that imply a moderate overcost (2% to 5%) and you can achieve an energy efficiency of until 30% more. - C. 5 actions (Photovoltaic panels, radiant floors…) that imply a substantial overcost (5% to 15%) and you can get an additional degree of energy efficiency of 10% approximately. It is curious that the actions that are being carried out at the present ,time are centred in the group C, the most expensive actions and with fewer environmental improvement. It is the case of the placement of thermal, photovoltaic solar panels, intelligent systems of conditioned air, absorption systems, radiant floors, domotic systems, etc. The worst of all is that these actions are a perfect promoter’s excuse to increase the building final costs. As we have seen, it is possible to carry out a high energy efficiency buildings degree without any overcost and only with simple actions. THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE. 1. Optimization of the resources and materials 2. Energy decrease consumption and renewable energy development. 3. Decrease of residuals and emissions 4. Decrease of the maintenance, exploitation and use of the buildings 5. The increase of the building’s occupant’s quality of life. [2] - 58 -
  61. 61. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY Spain is a country with different climatic varieties but in general, we can say that except in some areas of the peninsular centre, in the rest of Spain it is more important to be isolated against the heat that against the cold. At climatic level, it will be detected the best elements that can we take advantage and of those we should take cautions. We should locate the latitude, to be able to determine the angles of the solar radiation intensity incidence and, and the duration of the day (sun/hours). It will be necessary to carry out a topography study of the surrounding to determine the land and the received shades variables. Once we have all these data, the design stage of the building begins, putting into operation the interrelation of parameters that determine the increase or decrease of the energy consumption for a level of comfort. These options will also define the geometry and the characteristics of the location and size of the openings of the building. We want that the own architectural element acts as captor, accumulator and distributor of the produced energy received. We will offer the North orientation to the tightest adornments and the rooms of limited stay or those we don't use heating, locating the biggest openings and the sedentary areas toward the South, being able to use these spaces as a greenhouse to generate hot. This energy captured is distributed and it accumulates in the interior, in accordance with the characteristics of the façade and they act as climatic modifier of the inhabitable space. I will develop the more important factors corresponding to the constructive process in the design stage. CLIMATE In the north of Spain there is an Oceanic climate due to Atlantic Ocean in which the majority of the year it is raining. In the centre we have a continental climate in which is very hot in summer and very cold in winter. In the close areas to the Mediterranean Sea, the temperatures are soft in winter and very hot and humid in summer. In the south we have subtropical climates with warm temperatures in winter and very hot and humid temperatures in summer. - 60 -
  62. 62. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY The climate of a region is determined by a series of elements that act as an advantage in the thermal conditions of the building and its comfort, but also presents important inconveniences. The climatic elements and their influences are: -Intensity of direct or diffuse radiation. It determines the orientation of the façades, protection, the glass proportion and the ways of solar reception. -Temperature of the air. With their daily and seasonal variations it influences in the evaporation, radiation and movement of the air. It determines the constructive system in function of their thermal inertia. -Humidity of the air. Related with the precipitations and evaporation. Show the radiation intensity (fog, cloudy, etc...) -Cloudy. It influences in the transmission of the radiations, in those that we received (day) like in those emitted (night). -Speed and direction of the winds. It is decisive part of the orientation of the façades and in the way of the building. The dimension of the windows and distribution of the internal and external uses. [3] In general we will design to obtain earnings of heat in winter, avoiding losses for renovations and infiltrations. We will avoid earnings of heat in summer and we will obtain losses of heat with the land, with circulations of air, cooling for radiation and for evaporation. Passive house design [9] - 61 -
  63. 63. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY LATITUDE “To more latitude, minor will be the received radiation and the days will be shorter. It will determine the possible orientations of the building, the inclination of the surfaces and the measurement of the protection elements. As the position of the sun it is constantly varies in the sky, we will take an angle that offers the biggest perpendicularity to the incident rays in the building”. [3] Passive building design [9] ORIENTATION Due to we are in the north hemisphere, the façades guided to the south will receive bigger quantity of solar radiation, and those guided to the north won't receive direct radiation, being also affected by cold winds. The East orientation could have smaller radiation for the presence of morning fog; the west façade receives the sun in the afternoon, being necessary to foresee some protection type to avoid overheatings. The buildings that we will build will have the biggest glass surface guided toward the South, relapsing on this orientation all the stays we will stay longer. - 62 -
  64. 64. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY OPTIMUM BUILDING SHAPE The ideal form is the lengthened East-West axis plant; a bigger surface will be exposed toward the South during the winter capturing bigger radiation. The South façade receives three times more radiation in winter than the East or West orientation facades. The walls mediators to the East or West buildings are the most efficient in earning sun radiation. Although the constructions lengthened East-West axis plant, are the most efficient speaking, the proportion of the lengthening depends on each particular climate. It is relevance to point out the thermal importance of the cover. By the surface of the roofs, are carried out strong exchanges of heat (high earnings during the day in summer and strong losses for radiation in the winter nights) Due to, it is better to reduce the cover surfaces designing the buildings with two levels, what allows also, circulations and natural thermal exchanges between the hot air and the interior atmosphere. The cover can also be used to diminish the surface of the North facade (not sunny in winter and attacked by the cold winds); this aerodynamic volume allows the action of the sun turn on the lands to the North of the building, maintaining them drier. Passive building project [9] - 63 -
  65. 65. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DISTRIBUTION The movement of the Sun during the day and the climate conditions of the environment in the winter station points out the design rules to decide the internal space distribution. During the winter the North facade is the coldest, for what the spaces of sporadic use will relapse to it (toilets, corridors, laundries, garages…) or heat producing rooms (kitchen, boiler room, etc). The areas of the building that give to the South façade are the best to locate spaces of day occupation (living room, dining room, offices, etc). The facades East and West receive the same radiation level approximately; nowadays the West façade will be more heat because of the adding of the air temperature in the afternoon. These approaches have been kept in mind in our example building and like we can appreciated in the following plane: Internal and external plant disribution [3] It is advisable that the areas that generate more heat during the day are distributed in inferior levels, allowing that the hot air ascends toward the superior spaces in a natural way (termosifonic effect), loading the thermal mass of the high plant, what will allow a restitution of night heat. As for the adjacent external spaces of the building, besides keeping in mind the shades of the environment of the construction, it is convenient to endow of transition spaces among external and interior that protect of the rains or winds, but at the same time it is open to receive the solar rays of the afternoon and midday. These spaces can be used practically during the whole year, except in the very cold or windy days. - 64 -
  67. 67. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY The example that we are going to analyse is a building of 6 floors above ground and 3 below ground with a three-body form elliptical ground plan in all oriented north-south with a stepped section towards the south, to optimise the energy, natural lighting and ventilation as well as to eliminate the direct sunlight at workstations. The building technology is based on a prefabricated solution, not only in the structure of the reinforced concrete pillars and beams, but also in the precast concrete hollow core units in the flooring, as well as raised floors. This facilitates future demolition work and re-use and recycling, apart from the energy saving entailed in these systems. The façade consists of a stainless steel and glass construction designed to be taken to pieces and recycled. The building in general, is constructed using only eight materials, all chosen because they can be recycled. SANITAS building view [4] - 66 -
  68. 68. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY TECHNICAL SYSTEMS The building utilizes several energy saving technologies. Selective artificial lighting coordinated with natural lighting admitted through the atriums and glass façade; low consumption lamps with electronic switchgear in the offices. Minimum water usage, taps and toilet cisterns with low water consumption. The control is descentralized and hot water is heated by heat recovery controlled by computer equipment with operates 24 hours/day. Sectorised air conditioning system without CFC. Air conditioning by selective false floor flooding. The latest generation Building Management System (BMS) for permanent control of energy and comfort. Other technologies: Interior details [4] - Compost plant to be provided - High performance gas boilers with condenser - Lifts with very low energy consumption and low speed - Heat radiant floor in patios - Free-cooling of water and air - Humidity control in offices - 67 -
  69. 69. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY COOLING “Apart from the fresh-feeling due to the natural ventilation, the fresh air enters the atrium through low level intakes and is precooled by evaporative cooling from the water features and by fan assisted circulation through the basement chamber labyrinth. This helps to lower the air temperatures in summer. The building is also provided with roller blinds and canopies on the east and west façades, terraces and patios for direct solar protection. Glazing is also treated with ultra violet protection. The building has a high thermal mass due to its construction materials. The office ceilings incorporate cool radiant panels as an active energy efficient system. The humidity in these rooms is constantly controlled above the dew point temperature to avoid condensation”. [4] VENTILATION “Due to its geographic location, the ventilation strategy used is through indoor patios like atriums with vegetation where natural ventilation is encouraged. The air circulates from the lowest layers up to the highest levels where it is extracted. Prevailing winds are taken into account with regard to the aerodynamics of the building. In winter, in order to improve the air quality and the patio ventilation, the patio underfloor heating is operating, so that the hot air rises and the desired air movement is generated. - 68 -
  70. 70. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY The stack effect ventilation in atriums assists natural ventilation in all offices. The offices have manually operated opening windows on the lower and the upper parts of the façades. The air is regenerated through convection movement from the lowest windows towards the upper ones. The building also has a double ventilated façade on the north and south ends, and the supply of outdoor air is based on the occupancy levels”. [4] Façade details [4] RENEWABLE ENERGIES “The lowest part of the canopies are covered with photovoltaic panels, whereas the upper part comprises solar protected glass which lets the diffuse natural light from the north pass through it. It also provides effective protection from solar heat gains. Photovoltaic lamps are also used in the exterior landscape”. [4] - 69 -
  71. 71. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY ENERGY PERFORMANCE “The annual reduction of CO2 emissions is calculated in excess of 37 tons. The building guarantees a saving of 35% of its consumption in extreme conditions in comparison with a conventional building with the same usage, due partly to the energy saving system based on a cold-heat accumulation. It can even achieve a global saving of 60% of its consumption due to the favourable orientation, and the opacity of the east-west façades”. [4] North façade [4] USER ACCEPTANCE “The general user opinion is quite positive, the Sanitas building rates well in almost all comfort parameters, especially noise insulation and natural lighting due to materials like pine wood, and the atrium design. However the building scores poorly on temperature in summer, as the natural ventilation and cooling are sometimes inadequate”. [4] - 70 -
  73. 73. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY Energy is crucial to the development of modern society. We need enormous energy resources to create a habitable indoor environment in commercial and residential buildings. The efficient use and conservation of energy, as well as the minimisation of the environmental impact due to energy production and use should be promoted. We are always on the watch for the changing global energy supply and demand situation and seek for the balance among achieving economic development, satisfying the need of society and protecting our precious environment. View of Benidorm (Spain) [10] The energy demand of the 160 million buildings in the EU accounts for over 40% of its annual energy consumption. The building sector offers the largest single potential for energy efficiency in the EU. Studies show that more than one-fifth of the present energy consumption and up to 30-45 million tonnes of CO2 per annum could be saved by 2010 by applying more ambitious standards to refurbishments and new passive building projects. - 72 -
  75. 75. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY Clean production of hydrogen while exploiting a renewable energy source, such as wind power (although solar energy or biomass could also have been considered), to overcome, on the one hand, the problem of storing surplus energy (so frequent with renewable energy sources) and, on the other hand, the production of clean hydrogen that effectively meets the demands of an energy sector that is compatible with sustainable development. The most efficient possibility, and that which most respects the environment, is the integration of renewable energies with hydrogen technology, which permits the production, storage and use of the same to generate electricity. Special attention must also be paid to the design of the accompanying water electrolysis unit. Potable water is considered to be another rare commodity, with an increasing energy cost at national and international level. In summary we can design, construct and assessment the self sufficient energy systems, in such a way that wind or solar power can be used to generate hydrogen, electricity and water, with the characteristics of hydrogen as an energy being used to this end. These types of systems could be implemented in the more or less near future in any region with a high renewable potential to produce and commercialize hydrogen and to meet the demand for electricity and water. Renewable energy sources [10] - 74 -
  77. 77. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY Building power use is increasing as the intensity of our electronics use rises. Thus increasing energy efficiency in buildings enables us to satisfy increased electronics use with a smaller amount of energy input for every kilowatt hour of power generated. While hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid buildings are still more expensive than traditional grid power per kilowatt hour generated, their continuing innovation provides an alternative to hooking up to the local utility’s grid to hybrid buildings: “Ultimately, we will see hybrid buildings powered by combinations of grid power and alternative power sources, such as fuel cells, wind turbines and solar energy – without the need for multiple conversions of AC to DC at each device. The result will be energy that is more abundant, less dependent on foreign sources, safer and more reliable than grid power alone. Similar to the pick-up in efficiency hybrid vehicles deliver versus the internal combustion engine alone.” [5] Hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid buildings will not replace traditional grid-powered buildings quickly, both because of higher cost and because of the installed base advantages (and associated high switching costs) of the grid. However, as hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid buildings provide increasingly commercially viable alternatives to traditional grid distribution, building managers are more likely to choose to install them to decrease their energy use rate and to provide the benefits of reliable, cleaner power. Hydrogen fuel cell [10] - 76 -
  79. 79. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY Electrolyser and hydrogen gas handling and storage plant will be integrated into a compact filling station. There are management problems associated with this area relating to standardisation of gas pressures, adoption of dispensing hardware and adaptation of technical and safety standards on an international basis to aid the development of a universally acceptable hydrogen infrastructure model. The technology is costly; although costs are falling fast a dominant technology has still to emerge. Hydrogen storage is still an issue, with standardisation of pressures to be agreed, as a minimum. Nano-technology may provide an answer to the problem of storage through the use of carbon nanotubes, although this technology is still under research. Notwithstanding the technical issues remaining with individual elements of the demonstration, in order to allow an integrated system to emerge, the practical use and technical interfaces need to be addressed, optimised and demonstrated. This aspect will give valuable experience in introducing the hydrogen economy, with the attendant requirements for recognition to maintain public safety and develop public acceptance. Hydrogen electrolysis and power plant [10] - 78 -
  81. 81. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY The main problem we have with Hydrogen technology is the number of vertical factors such as production, storage, distribution and applications. Above that we have society, the end-user, with a number of horizontal concerns such as safety, codes and standards and the environmental impact. In between we have some non-defined barriers. The main objective is to prepare an action plan to overcome this non-define barriers, develop the necessary technology and educate society to establish a hydrogen-based society. The next step will be to assess the non-technical barriers that may confront the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier in European society. In addition to the socioeconomic issues of the impact of hydrogen on society, the codes, standards and cost of infrastructure implementation and public safety concerns, there are questions about public perception of hydrogen and the reaction to its introduction in European Society Hydrogen Action Plan - 80 -
  83. 83. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY Based on a real Danish case, I am going to apply the Hydrogen Energy in a Spanish Passive building. Denmark has gone from being 99% dependent on foreign oil sources becoming completely energy self sufficient, nowadays is the nation ahead in the use of renewable energy technology and leads the way in the wind energy industry and in future technologies such as hydrogen and fuel cell. One of the main objectives in the energy area is to promote the use of renewable energy and every year, increase the total part of the energy consumption. Several research projects have been launched in order to investigate the potential usage of hydrogen, as the future energy carrier, both in the area of buildings and vehicles usage. The most important difference of applying a Danish case in Spain is the climate. While in Denmark center the interest in how to heat a building, in Spain is almost more important as cooling it in Summer than to heat in Winter. Today many private buildings get natural gas to produce heat and hot water and electricity for light and electrical devices, wasting a lot of energy and contaminating too much. Actual energy system [11] The combination of Renewable Energy Sources (wind, solar,…), Passive Buildings, Fuel Cells and Micro CHP (combined heat and power) units could be the better solution to save energy, earn money and respect the environment. - 82 -
  84. 84. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY Efficient system [4] CHP unit is a highly efficient fuel energy technology which puts to use waste heat produced as a product of the electricity generation process. Fuel cells have been designed to combine hydrogen and oxygen to form electricity, heat and water. These can be used for providing heat and power to individual or multiple homes and for powering cars. The production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources offers the potential to create an almost zero emission energy chain. CHP unit [11] - 83 -
  85. 85. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY I am going to explain the process from outside to inside as we can see in the following graph: Hydrogen energy system [8] We will use pure water and electric power coming from the general grid or of any renewable energy source (wind, solar, hydro, biomass, waves…) to put into operation the Hydrogen electrolysis generator. This will produce hydrogen, electricity and heat and water and oxygen like waste products. The water will be reused, the oxygen is liberated to the atmosphere, the high pressure hydrogen is stored and the electricity is sold to the general grid or reused. Hydrogen electrolysis generator [8] - 84 -
  86. 86. PASSIVE HOUSE & HYDROGEN ENERGY The high pressure hydrogen stored is transform into low pressure; we use this hydrogen to filling station vehicles and the CHP units of passive buildings. Hydrogen different uses [8] Once inside the building, the low pressure hydrogen and the renewable electric energy (we are also connecting to general grid) feeds the CHP unit. Thanks to the oxygen, a chemical reaction produces electricity, pure water and hot air about 180ºC. CHP is smaller than a traditional boiler but it produce more and highest efficient energy. mCHP internal design [8] We reuse pure water and the high temperature air, heat the sanitary water. We use the hot water for the radiant floor and the ventilation units that will maintain the housing acclimatized during whole year with a temperature of between 18-25ºC. - 85 -