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BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENTSESSION 2 - BPMN<V1.0>
1/15/2013                         2Contents•   Recap of Session 1•   Why a Process Decomposition•   Exceptions•   BPM Nota...
1/15/2013                        3            Recap of Session 1
1/15/2013                                           4Principles of BPM• Organize around outcomes not tasks• Correct and im...
1/15/2013                                  5Business Drivers of BPM• Perceived or Expected Benefits:  • Reduce staff and o...
1/15/2013                                              6Why Model Processes     Understand and control existing processes ...
1/15/2013                                                         7Charting v/s Modeling• Flowcharting creates a graphical...
1/15/2013        8       Process LevelsWHAT                            HOW
1/15/2013                                          9BPM Life Cycle                           Design                Re-    ...
1/15/2013                                           10                Important thing to remember            Make Processe...
1/15/2013                                                               11        Do you have visibility into your process...
1/15/2013                             12            Why a Process Decomposition
1/15/2013                                           13Process Decomp• Process Decomposition is the break up of a process t...
1/15/2013                     14Example of a Process Decomp
1/15/2013                15            Exceptions
1/15/2013                                            16Exception Handling• Always account for Exceptions, business is not ...
1/15/2013                   17            BPM Notations
1/15/2013                                            18BPM Notations• BPMN helps to explain business processes both intern...
1/15/2013                                                19Flow Objects• Flow objects define the behavior of the          ...
1/15/2013                                                     20Connection Objects• Connections are used to connect two or...
1/15/2013                                                 21 Artifacts• Artifacts are  • Group – to put similar activities...
1/15/2013                                             22What is an Event• An Event is something that happens during the co...
1/15/2013                                                                   233 Stages of Life of an Event• Events have Th...
1/15/2013                                                    24Naming Convention - EVENT•   An event marks the beginning a...
1/15/2013                                                25What is an Function• Functions indicate the tasks or activities...
1/15/2013                                                            26Naming Convention - Function• The convention for a ...
1/15/2013                                                            27Naming Convention - Function • Activity is a piece ...
1/15/2013                                                28Naming Convention - Function• Functions are activities that hav...
1/15/2013        29BPMN Notations
1/15/2013   30
1/15/2013                                          31Rules• ARIS has three basic rules: AND, XOR & OR.• While XOR & OR are...
1/15/2013                                                      32   OR OperatorOR Following a Function              OR Pre...
1/15/2013                                                             33   XOR OperatorXOR Following a Function           ...
1/15/2013                                                          34   AND OperatorAND Following a Function              ...
1/15/2013                                                              35Split Rule• To join back the branches split by a ...
1/15/2013                                                      36Do’s and Don’ts• Avoid OR/XOR following an Event.• Functi...
1/15/2013                                                             37Artifacts• BPMN provides three Artefacts that help...
1/15/2013   38
1/15/2013                      39            Model Structures
1/15/2013                                                       40Introduction to Model Structure• Tools like ARIS provide...
1/15/2013                                                                 41  EPC – Event Driven Process Chain• EPC’s are ...
1/15/2013                                                         42VACD – Value Added Chain Diagram• The VACD represents ...
1/15/2013                                               43FAD – Function Allocation Diagram• Function Allocations in the E...
1/15/2013                                                         44FAD            Relationship between Function and its e...
1/15/2013                         45Incorrect FAD                Customer Service Advisor                is a position in ...
1/15/2013   46
1/15/2013                                                 47Model Hierarchy• The models to be used for these 4 levels are:...
1/15/2013                        48Level 1 Process - VACD• Also known as MEGA Processes
1/15/2013                                            49Level 2 Process - VACD• Level 1 – Buy Process is decomposed into Le...
1/15/2013                                         50Level 3 Process – VACD can besupported by FAD• Level 2 – Introduce Ass...
1/15/2013                                           51Level 4 Process – VACD can besupported by FAD• Level 3 – Construct A...
1/15/2013                                               52Level 5 Process• Level 5 is modelled using an EPC.• This is an o...
1/15/2013             53            SAMPLES
1/15/2013                        54Organization Structure in ARIS
1/15/2013                               55VACD            Value Added Chain Diagram
1/15/2013                       56Order Booking Process in ARIS
1/15/2013                                57EPC            Event Driven Process Chain
1/15/2013                                            58Recap• Processes generally begin with an Event and flow through  to...
1/15/2013                                            59Assignment• Business Scenario  • The company is into selling Furnit...
1/15/2013   60
1/15/2013                                          61                                    Please contact:Session 3Process D...
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Business Process Management Training session 2

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Business Process Management Training session 2

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Business Process Management Training session 2

  1. 1. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENTSESSION 2 - BPMN<V1.0>
  2. 2. 1/15/2013 2Contents• Recap of Session 1• Why a Process Decomposition• Exceptions• BPM Notations• Model Structure• Samples
  3. 3. 1/15/2013 3 Recap of Session 1
  4. 4. 1/15/2013 4Principles of BPM• Organize around outcomes not tasks• Correct and improve processes before (potentially) automating them• Establish processes and assign ownership• Standardize processes across the enterprise• Enable continuous change• Improve existing processes, rather than build radically new or ‘perfect’ processes
  5. 5. 1/15/2013 5Business Drivers of BPM• Perceived or Expected Benefits: • Reduce staff and office overhead numbers • Process business critical activities faster • Reduce the number of errors and exceptions • Reduce overall IT costs • Reduce duplications • Increase visibility into operational efficiencies and bottlenecks • Reduce business risks • Improve customer service and retention
  6. 6. 1/15/2013 6Why Model Processes Understand and control existing processes Measure time, cost and resources needed to existing processes Improve current processes Streamline, identify missing process steps, rationalize existing processes Design new processes Realize business requirements and design new processes Based on changing business environment, new processes may be needed Communicate existing and new processes Automate processes
  7. 7. 1/15/2013 7Charting v/s Modeling• Flowcharting creates a graphical representation of the sequence and key elements of a business process• Process modeling extends this by • Mapping dependencies and related flows • Adding data intelligence to the steps • Enabling simulation of flows to check for efficiencies and bottlenecks • Enabling reuse of mapped chart elements • Supporting future monitoring of improved processes
  8. 8. 1/15/2013 8 Process LevelsWHAT HOW
  9. 9. 1/15/2013 9BPM Life Cycle Design Re- Modeling Engineering Business Process Management Optimizatio Execution n Monitoring
  10. 10. 1/15/2013 10 Important thing to remember Make Processes ASAP ASAP = AS SIMPLE AS POSSIBLE This helps maintain AGILITY and reduce RISK MANAGEMENT
  11. 11. 1/15/2013 11 Do you have visibility into your processes and corporate objectives?
  12. 12. 1/15/2013 12 Why a Process Decomposition
  13. 13. 1/15/2013 13Process Decomp• Process Decomposition is the break up of a process to activity level• Every project should have a Process Decomp• Process Decomp helps at later stages when improvisation has to be implemented• Process Decomp keeps a running score of all the processes under a function
  14. 14. 1/15/2013 14Example of a Process Decomp
  15. 15. 1/15/2013 15 Exceptions
  16. 16. 1/15/2013 16Exception Handling• Always account for Exceptions, business is not a blue sky scenario – there are always exceptions in every process• Exceptions have to be handled – we have to define the process to resolve the exceptions• If you don’t find Exceptions in the process – somebody has not shared info or something’s not right
  17. 17. 1/15/2013 17 BPM Notations
  18. 18. 1/15/2013 18BPM Notations• BPMN helps to explain business processes both internal and external through a Business Process Diagram.• BPMN helps organizations the ability to communicate the processes in a standard manner.• BPMN helps to bridge the understanding ‘GAP’ between various departments internal / external. For example the gap in understanding business processes by IT developers
  19. 19. 1/15/2013 19Flow Objects• Flow objects define the behavior of the Name process• Flow Objects are • Activities – are the actions that are carried out Activity as part of business Name • Event – are the process triggering objects that affect the flow of the process and have a cause and a result Event • Gateways – are the controlling objects that diverge or converge the flow Name Gateway
  20. 20. 1/15/2013 20Connection Objects• Connections are used to connect two or more objects in a process• Connection Objects are Sequence • Sequence Lines – to show in which order the Flow activities are performed • Associations – are used to associate a role, text, Association artifact to a flow object • Message Lines – represents how message flows between the objects Message Flow
  21. 21. 1/15/2013 21 Artifacts• Artifacts are • Group – to put similar activities under a Group group • Annotations – are used to proved additional text information Text Annotation • Data Objects – are used to show how data is required or produced at each step
  22. 22. 1/15/2013 22What is an Event• An Event is something that happens during the course of a business process and affects its execution Event• An Event has a CAUSE and an IMPACT• All activities are triggered by an Event. for example purchase order received. This is an Event
  23. 23. 1/15/2013 233 Stages of Life of an Event• Events have Three stages • Start Event - begins the process • Intermediate Event - these happen during the process, between Start and End Events • End Events - terminate the event If we use a tool like ARIS, we can avoid the multiple notations by using the standard Event notation
  24. 24. 1/15/2013 24Naming Convention - EVENT• An event marks the beginning and end of any process.• It’s a trigger that initiates the process.• Each process should start with an event and end in an event.• It indicates the changing state of the world as the process proceeds.• Events usually follow functions unless they are trivial and do not convey anything significant.• Events describe the function is completed.• Events do not indicate the next function.• The convention for an event is Noun-Verb, written in simple past tense. For example: Order Entered or Price Calculated.
  25. 25. 1/15/2013 25What is an Function• Functions indicate the tasks or activities that are carried out in the business process. Function• Functions have inputs (material or information) and outputs (different material or information) and usually utilize resources. Thus, they are carried out by either people or systems.• Functions should not convey unambiguous information to the reader; it should be specific and convey the right information. The usage of short forms such as ent. instead of enter should be avoided.
  26. 26. 1/15/2013 26Naming Convention - Function• The convention for a function is Verb-Noun. For example: Enter Order or Calculate Price.• It is written as Action (such as Enter, Calculate) followed by the Information Item (such as Order, Price).• The function is to be written in active voice, do not write the Functions in passive voice, for example Route Planning is Done Plan the Route
  27. 27. 1/15/2013 27Naming Convention - Function • Activity is a piece of work performed within a business process. • There are two types of Activity • Tasks - is atomic within a business process. For example Take Order • Sub Process - an activity that can be decomposed into other smaller activities. For example Generate Bill, this is when you take the items ordered list, check the price, apply promotions, apply other discounts • As a rule - Sub Processes ALWAYS begin with a NONE START EVENT and end with a NONE END EVENT
  28. 28. 1/15/2013 28Naming Convention - Function• Functions are activities that have to be carried out, do not word them as Events (outcome in past tense).• For example, With Authorization Cancel SO after SO is cancelled Authorization
  29. 29. 1/15/2013 29BPMN Notations
  30. 30. 1/15/2013 30
  31. 31. 1/15/2013 31Rules• ARIS has three basic rules: AND, XOR & OR.• While XOR & OR are used in making decisions, AND is used to split and join branches.• When to use the three rules, depends on whether they follow or precede the function.
  32. 32. 1/15/2013 32 OR OperatorOR Following a Function OR Preceding a FunctionSingle Input – Multiple Output Multiple Input – Single OutputOR Decision OR TriggerOne or many possible paths will be Any one Event, or combination of Events,followed willas a result of the decision trigger the Function
  33. 33. 1/15/2013 33 XOR OperatorXOR Following a Function XOR Preceding a FunctionSingle Input – Multiple Output Multiple Input – Single OutputXOR Decision XOR TriggerOne, but only one, of the possible paths One, but only one, of the possible Eventswill willbe followed be the trigger
  34. 34. 1/15/2013 34 AND OperatorAND Following a Function AND Preceding a FunctionSingle Input – Multiple Output Multiple Input – Single OutputAND Branch AND Branch TriggerProcess flow splits into two or more All Events must occur in order to triggerParallel thepaths following Function
  35. 35. 1/15/2013 35Split Rule• To join back the branches split by a rule, use the same end object (event/function) on all the split branches preceding the rule.• The object (event/function) following the join must be different from the one used preceding the join. For eg., if there are events preceding the join, the object that follows after the join is a function and vice-a-versa, as shown below:
  36. 36. 1/15/2013 36Do’s and Don’ts• Avoid OR/XOR following an Event.• Functions taking the decision are always followed by Rules. AND split is usually made after an Event and recombined after events, though you can recombine and then insert a single event at times.• The “Join” should be made using the same Rule that was used for the “Split”.• Avoid “Do Nothing” paths, shown below:
  37. 37. 1/15/2013 37Artifacts• BPMN provides three Artefacts that help us to add extra information to the models WHERE WHAT WHO • Text Annotation - text added to the diagram to increase understanding • Group - a way to group together parts of a process • Data Objects - Way to show data and documents that are changed by the process Always attach Notes, RASCI to the key functions for traceability
  38. 38. 1/15/2013 38
  39. 39. 1/15/2013 39 Model Structures
  40. 40. 1/15/2013 40Introduction to Model Structure• Tools like ARIS provide more than 150 pre-defined models to work with• The models available are • EPC: Detail modelling of processes at various levels of hierarchy • FAD: For defining the relationship between a Function and the resources needed to execute it and the data it transforms • Organization Chart: A hierarchical model of the business organization • Technical Terms Model: Models the hierarchical and relational structure of information used by the business • Value Added Chain Diagram (VACD): Models a hierarchy of high- level functions that add value to the business along with the organizational units that have a role in those functions
  41. 41. 1/15/2013 41 EPC – Event Driven Process Chain• EPC’s are an accurate representation of the real world• Important rules to bear in mind when constructing an EPC: • Every EPC model should have a start event and an end event. The models cannot start or end with a function. • Functions and events alternate. Avoid connecting functions to functions, except at times when the events are trivial and do not convey something significant and could be skipped. Events should never connect to events. • Avoid bringing-in additional Events/ triggers in middle of a process; it leads to lots of interconnections and confusion. Check whether the process is really dependent on this trigger in order to proceed or if this Event could lead to triggering a separate new EPC. • A function or event can have ONLY ONE arrow coming in and/or going out. Whereas, Rules/ connectors such as XOR & OR can have either: • Multiple incoming connections and a single outgoing connection • A single incoming connection and multiple outgoing connections • Connectors cannot have multiple incoming and outgoing connections.
  42. 42. 1/15/2013 42VACD – Value Added Chain Diagram• The VACD represents a high-level view of the functions that add value to a business and the rough order in which they proceed. In addition to the rough process flow, we can also represent some of the high level hierarchy associated with these functions.• The main objects in a VACD are functions, but with a different symbol as compared to those used in the EPC. Function Function In EPC In VACD• But you can copy and paste theses functions back and forth between VACD and EPC, the symbol will automatically change depending on the model in which they are used.• The difference is that the functions in a VACD are connected together• without intervening events or rules.
  43. 43. 1/15/2013 43FAD – Function Allocation Diagram• Function Allocations in the Event-Driven Process Chain (EPC) models enable the EPC to be put in context with the resources required to deliver the process and the environment in which it operates.• Thus, FADs can be assigned at the right places in the process (but only to functions), to indicate the relationship between the Business Process and environment/ resources such as organization, systems, documents and technical terms as shown below.
  44. 44. 1/15/2013 44FAD Relationship between Function and its environmental components and resources
  45. 45. 1/15/2013 45Incorrect FAD Customer Service Advisor is a position in the Sales Department and it is incorrect to show both responsible for the function
  46. 46. 1/15/2013 46
  47. 47. 1/15/2013 47Model Hierarchy• The models to be used for these 4 levels are: • Level 1- VACD • Level 2- VACD • Level 3- VACD supported by FAD to model RACI, Risks, SOP, KPI • Level 4- EPC or VACD • Level 5- EPC (where level 4 is a VACD)
  48. 48. 1/15/2013 48Level 1 Process - VACD• Also known as MEGA Processes
  49. 49. 1/15/2013 49Level 2 Process - VACD• Level 1 – Buy Process is decomposed into Level 2 • Introduce Assortment • Master Data Maintenance • Vendor Management Strategy
  50. 50. 1/15/2013 50Level 3 Process – VACD can besupported by FAD• Level 2 – Introduce Assortment Process is decomposed into Level 3 • Construct Assortment and Planogram • Edit Assortment and Planogram
  51. 51. 1/15/2013 51Level 4 Process – VACD can besupported by FAD• Level 3 – Construct Assortment and Planogram Process is decomposed into Level 4 APPLICATIO N ROLES
  52. 52. 1/15/2013 52Level 5 Process• Level 5 is modelled using an EPC.• This is an optional level which can be used when the 4 Levels are not enough to decompose the process to the desired detail.• If there is a Level 5 in the process decomposition in that case level 4 has to be a VACD.
  53. 53. 1/15/2013 53 SAMPLES
  54. 54. 1/15/2013 54Organization Structure in ARIS
  55. 55. 1/15/2013 55VACD Value Added Chain Diagram
  56. 56. 1/15/2013 56Order Booking Process in ARIS
  57. 57. 1/15/2013 57EPC Event Driven Process Chain
  58. 58. 1/15/2013 58Recap• Processes generally begin with an Event and flow through to Business Results• All tasks / activities are assigned to a ROLE• A model should display how data / objects are transferred and where they are going• Process can be modeled in a hierarchical manner – sub processes
  59. 59. 1/15/2013 59Assignment• Business Scenario • The company is into selling Furniture • Company sells through Store, Catalogue, Online • Customer books order, pays and await delivery • Customers can call the call center for • Quotes • Delivery Updates • Installation appointment • Complaints • Returns Create a Process Decomp for this business – Level 4
  60. 60. 1/15/2013 60
  61. 61. 1/15/2013 61 Please contact:Session 3Process Design Naval VithalaniProcess Cost Analysis tonaval@yahoo.comProcess OptimizationSession 4 Thank YouARIS - Introduction

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