Overview of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual ...


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Overview of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual ...

  1. 1. Overview of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) and the Role of WIPO ASPAC/FSV/Pakistan 2007/Sem Flexibilities November 2007
  2. 2. I Background to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) ASPAC/FSV/Pakistan 2007/Seminar TRIPS
  3. 3. Overview of the TRIPS Agreement <ul><li>This multilateral Agreement constitutes Annex IC of the Marrakesh Agreement establishing WTO </li></ul><ul><li>Introduces Intellectual Property as an integral part of the multilateral trading system </li></ul><ul><li>Defines minimum standards: </li></ul><ul><li>- subject matter to be protected </li></ul><ul><li>- rights to be conferred and permissible exceptions to those rights </li></ul><ul><li>- minimum duration of protection </li></ul>
  4. 4. Overview of the TRIPS Agreement <ul><li>It provides for transitional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>- Developed countries (January 1, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>- Developing countries (January 1, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>- Least developed countries (January 1, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li> (On 27 June 2002, TRIPS Council approved a decision extending until 2016 the transition period during which least-developed countries do not have to provide patent protection for pharmaceuticals.) </li></ul><ul><li>It sets standards for enforcement of IP rights </li></ul><ul><li>It establishes dispute settlement mechanism </li></ul>
  5. 5. TRIPS Basic Rules <ul><li>Rights conferred : Establishes minimum standards of IP protection (incorporating substantive provisions of Paris, Berne, Rome Conventions, and Washington Treaty) </li></ul><ul><li>National treatment : each member shall accord to the nationals of other members treatment no less favorable than that it accords to its own nationals (art.3) </li></ul><ul><li>Most-Favored-Nation treatment : Any advantage granted by a Member to the nationals of any other country shall be accorded to the nationals of all other Members (art.4) </li></ul>
  6. 6. TRIPS Principles <ul><li>Principles: In formulating/amending laws, Members may adopt measures to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protect public health and nutrition, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promote public interest in sectors of vital importance to the socio-economic and technological development (art.8 ) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. TRIPS Ojectives <ul><li>Objectives: the protection and enforcement of IPRs should contribute to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>promotion of technological innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transfer and dissemination of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the mutual advantage of producers and users of technological knowledge and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare, and to a balance of rights and obligations (art.7) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Standards of IP Rights Part II <ul><li>Copyright and related rights (Section 1) </li></ul><ul><li>- Provisions of Berne Convention incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>- Computer programs are protected as literary works (art.10) </li></ul><ul><li>- Data compilations are protected as such (art.10) </li></ul><ul><li>- Minimum 50-year term for copyrighted works (art.12) </li></ul><ul><li>Trademarks (Section 2) </li></ul><ul><li>- Provisions of Paris Convention incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>- Strengthen the protection of well-known marks (art.16) </li></ul><ul><li>- Clarifies non-use (art.19) </li></ul><ul><li>- Prohibits compulsory licensing (art.21) </li></ul><ul><li>- Minimum 7-year protection, renewable indefinitely (art.18) </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Indications (Section 3) </li></ul><ul><li>- Protection for wines and spirits strengthened (art.23) </li></ul><ul><li>- Ongoing negotiations to extend same level of protection to other GIs (art.24) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Standards of IP Rights Part II <ul><li>Patents (Section 5) </li></ul><ul><li>- Provisions of Paris Convention incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>- Protection for inventions, products & processes in all fields of technology (Art.27(1)) (allowed exceptions - Article 27.3) </li></ul><ul><li>- Protection of plant breeders’ rights (either by patent or sui generis ) </li></ul><ul><li>- Compulsory licensing (Conditions: Article 31) </li></ul><ul><li>- Minimum 20-year protection length from filing date (Art.33) </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial designs (Section 4) </li></ul><ul><li>- Explicit protection for textile designs (art.25.2) </li></ul><ul><li>- Minimum 10-year protection (art.26) </li></ul><ul><li>Undisclosed information (Section 7) </li></ul><ul><li>- Trade secrets protected against unfair methods of disclosure </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Enforcement of IP Rights Part III </li></ul><ul><li>- General obligations (Section 1): enforcement procedures </li></ul><ul><li>must be available under the national laws </li></ul><ul><li>- Civil and administrative procedures for infringing activity (Section 2) </li></ul><ul><li>- Border measures (Section 4) Customs Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>- Criminal procedures and penalties (Section 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Dispute settlement Part V </li></ul><ul><li>- WTO dispute settlement procedures apply (art.64) </li></ul>Enforcement & Dispute Settlement
  11. 11. II. WIPO’s Legal and Technical Assistance for the Implementation of the TRIPS Agreement 11
  12. 12. OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Nature and Types of Assistance 3. Specific Activities Under the WIPO-WTO Agreement 4. Conclusion
  13. 13. <ul><li>Article 4 of WIPO Convention provides that it shall, inter alia, “ offer its cooperation to States requesting legal-technical assistance in the field of intellectual property. ” </li></ul>1. Introduction
  14. 14. WIPO - WTO Agreements <ul><li>1996 - WIPO-WTO Agreement entered into force </li></ul><ul><li>- Assistance to developing countries : Legal-technical assistance and technical cooperation (art. 4) </li></ul><ul><li>- Notification and collection of IP legislation (art. 2) </li></ul><ul><li>- Notification of emblems (art. 3) </li></ul><ul><li>1998 - Joint Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>- technical cooperation to assist developing countries to meet the January 1, 2000 deadline for conformity with the TRIPS Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>2001 - Joint Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>- technical cooperation to assist least developed countries to meet the January 1, 2006 deadline for conformity with the TRIPS Agreement </li></ul>14
  15. 15. 2. Nature and Types of Assistance offered by WIPO <ul><li>1. Legislative advice (art.2) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Awareness building and human resource development (HRD)(art.4) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Institution building and modernization of the IP system (art. 4) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Enforcement (art.4) </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1. Legislative Advice <ul><li>At the request of the country concerned </li></ul><ul><li>Covers all Intellectual property: Industrial Property, Copyright and Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>The objective : assist developing countries to strengthen their IP legislative framework in consonance with international standards </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1. Legislative Advice <ul><li>Takes into account </li></ul><ul><li>all the flexibilities including those confirmed by Doha Declaration </li></ul><ul><li>the legal, political and cultural situation of the country concerned </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereign Member State takes the final decision </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1. Legislative Advice <ul><li>It is an interactive, confidential process with no obligation on part of the Member States </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of preparation and submission of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new draft laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>draft provisions to amend and modernize existing IP laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comments and suggestions on draft laws </li></ul></ul>● After reactions from the country concerned, WIPO provides . Further written comments . Holds discussions with Government officials . Suggests further revisions
  19. 19. 1. Legislative Advice <ul><li>It also consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of general legal information on intellectual property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reply to questions concerning the interpretation of some IP International treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reply to questions concerning some IP notions and concepts included in the national laws </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 1. Legislative Advice <ul><li>Since 1996, the Member states have to notify their intellectual property legislation to the Council for Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)   of the World Trade Organization (WTO) - under Article 63(2) of the TRIPS Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>- and subsequently WTO should communicate this legislation to WIPO - under Article 2(4) of the Agreement between WIPO and the WTO  of December 22, 1995. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1. Legislative Advice <ul><li>All these texts are centralized in the Collection of Laws Section in a documentation and information service. </li></ul><ul><li>Since September 1999, the obligation of  WIPO  to publish these laws has been done progressively through the Collection of Laws for Electronic Access (CLEA) an electronic database of intellectual property legislation published under the WIPO website. </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1. Legislative Advice <ul><li>Collection of Laws for Electronic Access (CLEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of an international data basis including IP national laws. </li></ul><ul><li>WIPO makes a valuable contribution to the development of intellectual property laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by collecting legislation and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>making available up-to-date information on intellectual property legislation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1. Legislative Advice <ul><li>The Collection of Laws Section is responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>providing information and documentation service in the field of IP legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>publishing texts of laws and treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assisting in translation of laws </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 2. Awareness Building & Human Resource Development <ul><li>Organize meetings at national, sub-regional and regional level for different target groups </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange study visits for government officials to WIPO and selected countries </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct on-the-job training </li></ul><ul><li>Make use of national and regional institutions for awareness-building and training purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare studies and reference materials </li></ul><ul><li>Promote IP teaching and research in universities, tertiary institutions, training centers, etc. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 3. Institution Building & Modernization of the IP System <ul><li>Develop industrial property information services </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation of automation plans , including provision of the necessary hardware and software to the national office </li></ul><ul><li>Advisory missions to give advice on modernizing management systems and streamlining administrative procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor study visits by government officials to IP offices in industrialized countries to study various aspects of modernization of the IP system </li></ul>
  26. 26. 4. Enforcement <ul><li>Promote contacts among national focal points for enforcement Task force </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange orientation and study programs for senior custom officials to act as trainers and resource persons </li></ul><ul><li>Organize training courses and special meetings on the enforcement provisions of the TRIPS Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Organize colloquia for judges, and arrange interaction among judges, prosecutors and attorneys </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Article 6 ter of the Paris Convention (art.3) </li></ul><ul><li>Laws and regulations (art.2) </li></ul>3. Specific Activities Under the WIPO-WTO Agreement <ul><li>Joint activities of WIPO and WTO (art.4) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Laws and Regulations <ul><li>Refer to the above </li></ul>
  29. 29. Article 6 ter of the Paris Convention <ul><li>Communication of emblems and transmittal of objections </li></ul><ul><li>Under Article 3 of the WIPO-WTO Agreement: </li></ul><ul><li>the communication of emblems and transmittal of objections under the TRIPS Agreement are to be administered by the International Bureau of WIPO in accordance with the procedures applicable under Article 6 ter of the Paris Convention. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Article 6 ter of the Paris Convention <ul><li>Since January 1, 1996, the International Bureau has made the following communications: </li></ul><ul><li>communication to WTO Members not party to the Paris Convention of all the emblems so far communicated to the States party to the Paris Convention; and </li></ul><ul><li>communication of emblems for which protection has been requested since January 1, 1996, by States or IGOs. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Jointly organized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>symposia, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>workshops, seminars and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>training courses on the TRIPS Agreement </li></ul></ul>Joint Activities of WIPO and WTO
  32. 32. <ul><li>Under Article 4 of the WIPO-WTO Agreement: Legal technical assistance and technical cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>These activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attending each other’s meetings as an observer, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing resource persons, in each other’s symposia, workshops, seminars and training courses and, in particular, jointly organizing symposia. </li></ul></ul>Joint Activities of WIPO and WTO
  33. 33. <ul><li>Objective : to implement the TRIPS Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Scope : all developing and least developed countries (LDCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Programs and activities : awareness creation, institution-building, human resource development and legislative advice </li></ul><ul><li>Approach : demand-driven, country-specific (tailor-made) and cost-effective </li></ul><ul><li>Tools of delivery : NFAPs, meetings, training courses, management visits, expert missions, studies, IT equipment supply, teaching, fellowships, etc. </li></ul>Conclusion
  34. 34. <ul><li>TRIPS already 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Did it achieve its goals ? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it implemented ? </li></ul><ul><li>Problems ? Solutions </li></ul>Conclusion
  35. 35. Thank you for your kind attention ( http://www.wipo.int f.simon-vianes@wipo.int)