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Overview of Immigration Issues Related to:


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Overview of Immigration Issues Related to:

  1. 1. Overview of Immigration Issues Related to: Family, Criminal, Business and Employment Law <ul><li>Washington County Continuing Legal Education Program </li></ul><ul><li>Washington County Law Library </li></ul><ul><li>April 28, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Julie A. Roorda </li></ul><ul><li>Ballou Law Partners </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Royee Vlodaver </li></ul><ul><li>Vlodaver Law Offices, LLC </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  2. 2. Basic Immigration Terminology <ul><ul><li>Alien </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent Resident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonimmigrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Homeland Security – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIS, ICE, CBP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal = Deportation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Employers <ul><li>Form I-9 (Employment Eligibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Must establish both identity and employment authorization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can accomplish both with one document: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. passport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resident alien or alien registration card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign passport or immigrant visa (with I-551 stamp) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Form I-766 (Employment Authorization) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Employers <ul><li>May establish each requirement individually </li></ul><ul><li>1) Establishing identity : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driver’s license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID card (with picture) issued by federal, state or local government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voter registration card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. military card </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Employers <ul><li>May establish each requirement individually </li></ul><ul><li>2) Establishing employment authorization : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Security Account Number card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification of Birth Abroad (Form FS-545) or Report of Birth (Form DS-1350) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth certificate (original or certified copy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. citizen ID card (Form I-197) or resident citizen in U.S. ID card (Form I-179) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Employers <ul><li>Must retain for period of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 years following date of hiring, OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 year after employment is terminated, whichever is later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324a(b)(3)-(4) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Must retain (physical or electronic): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form I-9 – signed/attested to by employee; AND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting documents – identity and employment authorization </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Employers <ul><li>Good faith compliance </li></ul><ul><li>“ [C]onsidered to have complied … if there was a good faith attempt to comply with the [I-9] requirement” </li></ul><ul><li>Expressly provides affirmative defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324a(a)(3), (b)(6) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Employers <ul><li>Received notification of violation; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was given a period of time to correct noncompliance (not less than 10 days); and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed to voluntarily comply within that period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ [H]as or is engaging in a pattern or practice” of violation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324a(b)(6)(B)-(C) </li></ul></ul></ul>Good faith exceptions – waived if employer:
  9. 10. Employers <ul><li>Federal Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Unlawful for “a person or other entity” to “hire, or to recruit or refer for a fee, for employment in the United States an alien knowing the alien is an unauthorized alien” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324a (a)(1)-(a)(1)(A) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Employers <ul><li>“Hired” includes use of a “contract, subcontract, or exchange” to obtain the labor </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324a(a)(3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful “to continue to employ” an alien that has become unauthorized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324a(a)(2) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Employers <ul><li>Knowledge – may be actual or constructive </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive: if fairly inferred from facts and circumstances </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 C.F.R. § 274a.1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of constructive knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>Improperly completed I–9 </li></ul><ul><li>Information indicating unauthorized to work (e.g., Labor Certification, Application for Prospective Employer) </li></ul><ul><li>Acting with “reckless and wanton disregard for the legal consequences of permitting another individual to introduce an unauthorized alien into its work force or to act on its behalf” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 C.F.R. § 274a.1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Employers <ul><li>Must avoid discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot base employment decisions on factors not related to employment authorization </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot infer unauthorized status based on “foreign appearance or accent” or national origin </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 C.F.R. § 274a.1; 8 U.S.C. § 1324b(a)(1) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Employers <ul><li>Penalty for IRCA violations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cease and desist order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ [O]ther remedial action as is appropriate” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324a(e)(4)(B) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Employers <ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal penalties: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If engaging in a “pattern or practice” of violating the Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to $3,000 per unauthorized alien; imprisonment for no more than six months (total); or both </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324a(f) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil penalties: </li></ul><ul><li>1 st offense: $250 – 2,000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each unauthorized alien “hired” or employed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd : $2,000 – 5,000 </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd or more: $3,000 – 10,000 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324a(e)(4)(A) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Starting a Business <ul><li>Basic requirement for forming a corporation or LLC (limited liability company) in MN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be “natural persons of at least 18 years of age” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minn. Stat. § 302B.105 (incorporators of a corporation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minn. Stat. § 322B.105 (organizers of an LLC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MN does not specifically require any particular citizenship or immigration status in order to form a business entity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Starting a Business <ul><li>Only express citizenship requirement is for S corporations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Revenue Code: S corporations prohibited from having any nonresident aliens as shareholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>26 U.S.C. § 1361(b)(1)(C) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>No other MN or IRC provisions restricting </li></ul><ul><li>citizenship of shareholders or owners of other </li></ul><ul><li>business organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implication: no citizenship requirements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Starting a Business <ul><li>HOWEVER* Potential concerns if a business partner (e.g., shareholder, LLC member) is an alien. Brd. of Governors? Brd. of Directors? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IRCA: harboring, concealing, or shielding? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the alien an “employee”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee: “an individual who provides services or labor for an employer for wages or other remuneration but does not [include] independent contractors ” - 8 C.F.R. § 274a(1) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, LLC members are not considered employees – unless actually employed by the LLC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other concerns: taxation, disclosures, fraud </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Business Issues <ul><li>The most common businesses we deal with that have such potential employment issues are family owned/operated businesses in the food/vending/service industry. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for vendors? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implications for customers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many times no business insurance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many times no contracts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many times no entity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Landlord/Tenant <ul><li>Can a landlord check immigration status </li></ul><ul><li>Can you choose not to rent to non-citizens, illegal immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidized housing vs. Private housing </li></ul><ul><li>Penalties for declaring you are a citizen on a rental application </li></ul><ul><li>Landlord considerations – commercial v. residential </li></ul>
  20. 21. Landlord/Tenant <ul><li>Numerous U.S. municipalities have enacted ordinances prohibiting leases to illegal aliens… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, Federal courts have consistently invalidated them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unconstitutional and preempted by Federal law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>No MN municipalities have enacted such ordinances. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Landlord/Tenant <ul><li>Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) may also govern landlord/tenant relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Crime for any person who “conceals, harbors, or shields from detection” an illegal alien </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires knowledge or “reckless disregard of the fact” that he/she is an illegal alien </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: attempting, aiding or abetting, and conspiracy to commit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324(a)(1)(A)(iii) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Landlord/Tenant <ul><li>Criminal penalty – concealing, harboring or shielding from detection (or, aiding or abetting) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fines (unspecified); up to 5 years imprisonment; or both </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324(a)(1)(B) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conspiracy to commit or committing such acts with the “purpose of commercial advantage or private financial gain” </li></ul><ul><li>Fines (unspecified); up to 10 years imprisonment; or both </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 U.S.C. § 1324(a)(1)(B) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Landlord/Tenant <ul><li>Jurisdictions have decided “harboring” cases vastly differently, yet few have described “substantial facilitation” </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent lack of clarity on the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Highly dependent on the particular facts and circumstances of the situation </li></ul>
  24. 25. Landlord/Tenant <ul><li>Desire to avoid IRCA violations results in difficulties in avoiding discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 – Fair Housing Act (FHA) </li></ul><ul><li>Unlawful to discriminate against “any person because of race, color, religion, sex, familial status, or national origin ” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>42 U.S.C. § 3604 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Landlord/Tenant <ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National origin: country where a person was born, or where a person’s ancestors came from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Congress did not intend the term ‘national origin’ to embrace citizenship requirements” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Espinoza v. Farah Mfg. Co., Inc. (interpreting national origin in the employment context) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several federal district courts (relying on Espinoza ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing discrimination/decisions based on citizenship is legally permissible </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Landlord/Tenant <ul><li>2001, U.S. Department of Housing & Urban Development (HUD) confirmed this notion </li></ul><ul><li>“ The [FHA] does not prohibit discrimination based solely on a person's citizenship status. Accordingly, asking housing applicants to provide documentation of their citizenship or immigration status during the screening process would not violate the Fair Housing Act.” </li></ul>
  27. 28. Landlord/Tenant <ul><li>Subsidized housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To qualify for federally subsidized housing an individual “must be a citizen or a non-citizen who has eligible immigration status.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 C.F.R. § 982.201(a) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizenship restrictions relating to subsidized housing apply to financial assistance under: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section 235 Program, Section 236 Program, Rent Supplement Program, HUD’s Public Housing, Section 8 Housing, Housing Development Grant Program </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Landlord/Tenant <ul><li>Ability to make housing decisions based on citizenship status is the same for private and subsidized housing </li></ul><ul><li>HUD: “In fact, such measures [to determine citizenship] have been in place for a number of years in screening applicants for federally-assisted housing.” </li></ul><ul><li>Landlords of either private or subsidized housing may inquire about citizenship status and consider this information in making its rental decisions </li></ul>
  29. 30. Landlord/Tenant - Review <ul><li>Can a landlord check immigration status? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can you choose not to rent to illegal immigrants? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subsidized housing v. private housing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial v. residential? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Penalties for declaring citizenship on rental application? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None. It can be considered in landlord’s decision. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Immigration and Family Law <ul><li>Practice Tips, Common Scenarios and What To Watch Out For </li></ul>
  31. 32. Domestic Abuse <ul><li>U Visas – Victims of Serious Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>VAWA </li></ul><ul><li>T Visa – Human Trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>Other issues </li></ul>
  32. 33. Immigration and Criminal Law <ul><ul><li>Padilla v. Kentucky , March 31, 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Points for Criminal Defense Attorneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deportation is a “penalty,” not a collateral consequence” of the criminal proceeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 6 th Amendment requires affirmative, competent advice regarding immigration consequences – silence is insufficient. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court endorsed “informed consideration” of deportation consequences by both the defense and prosecution during plea bargaining. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. General Information <ul><ul><li>“ Conviction” for immigration purposes = formal judgment of guilt entered by court, found guilty but adjudication withheld, plea of guilty or nolo contendre and person has admitted sufficient facts to warrant judgment of guilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term of imprisonment includes suspended time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A juvenile court disposition is not a conviction for immigration purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes include conspiracy and attempt to commit </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Removable Offenses <ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes of moral turpitude committed within five years (or 10 years if LPR) after the date of admission, and sentence of one year or longer may be imposed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crime of Moral Turpitude = Crime that is inherently base, vile or depraved and contrary to the excepted rules of morality. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple criminal convictions - any time after admission, two or more crimes involving moral turpitude, not arising out of a single scheme of criminal misconduct. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggravated felony (Note: life time bar to reentry) - Any alien who is convicted of an aggravated felony at any time after admission is deportable. DHS definition of “aggravated felony” can and often does differ from state and federal criminal statutes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Removable Offenses <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rape </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Murder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual abuse of a minor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes of violence (imprisonment of 1 year or mores </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug and firearms trafficking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money laundering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structuring money transactions derived from unlawful activity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theft offenses (imprisonment of 1 year or more) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gambling offenses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offense involving fraud or deceit in which loss to victims exceeds $10,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tax evasion where the revenue loss to govt exceeds $10,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial bribery (imprisonment of 1 year or more) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High speed flight from an immigration checkpoint </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to register as a sex offender </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. And the list continues…. <ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled substances convictions other than a single offense involving possession for one's own use of 30 grams or less of marijuana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug abusers and addicts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firearm offenses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic violence crimes, stalking, violation of protection order, crimes against children (abuse, neglect, abandonment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waiver for victims of domestic abuse – not limited to criminal court record (self-defense) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Espionage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sabotage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treason </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to register (Change of Address within 10 days) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Falsification of documents - fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other entry documents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. And Continues…. <ul><ul><ul><li>Falsely claiming citizenship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public safety and natural security grounds, terrorist activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in nazi persecution or genocide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serious violations of religious freedom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public charge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful voters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Thank you! <ul><li>Julie A. Roorda </li></ul><ul><li>Ballou Law Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Minneapolis </li></ul><ul><li>612-321-9800 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Royee Vlodaver </li></ul><ul><li>Vlodaver Law Offices, LLC </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Paul </li></ul><ul><li>651-690-9906 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Special Thanks To Peter Banick, William Mitchell 1L, </li></ul><ul><li>Law Clerk, Vlodaver Law Offices, LLC </li></ul>