Presenters: Jootaek(Juice) Lee  University of Miami Law Library (jlee1@law.miami.edu) Kumar Percy Jayasuriya  Georgetown L...
 
<ul><li>Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>I. Evaluating Websites </li></ul><ul><li>II. Examples of Internet Legal Resour...
I. Evaluating Legal Research Tools <ul><li>Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><l...
Coverage <ul><li>What is the depth and breath of coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the source provide more than a few ye...
Currency <ul><li>Is the information up to date? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When was the code last updated? </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Accuracy <ul><li>Can you identify any missing documents? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the secondary source provide verifiable in...
Value Added Features <ul><li>Search Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for a known citation (find a document) </li></ul...
Authority <ul><li>Can you identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the qualifications of the ...
Other Ways to Evaluate a Source <ul><li>Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it clear who the intended audience is </l...
Cost <ul><li>What is the overall cost </li></ul><ul><li>How does the cost compare to other online </li></ul><ul><li>How do...
Presentation and Design <ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jakob Nielsen,  Top Ten Mistakes in Web Design </li...
Usability Mistakes <ul><ul><li>Lack of consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not behaving the same, not easy to becom...
 
 
Summary <ul><li>Using the previous factors will lead to different answers for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend for purchase...
II. Examples of Internet Legal Resources <ul><li>Review  a few specific free and low-cost sources of legal information </l...
Free Caselaw Resources <ul><li>Altlaw </li></ul><ul><li>Findlaw </li></ul><ul><li>Justia </li></ul><ul><li>LexisOne </li><...
Free Online Caselaw Sources  <ul><li>Rich with recent caselaw </li></ul><ul><li>No site is really comprehensive </li></ul>...
PreCYdent <ul><li>Sample search:  http://www.screencast.com/users/kumarj/folders/Jing/media/9697b52b-74f7-4fe8-8e26-1225d7...
PreCYdent Search
Search Features
PreCYdent Result
PreCYdent Citator
PreCYdent <ul><li>Coverage, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for federal cases,  weak for state law and statutes </li></ul></ul...
PreCYdent <ul><li>Value added features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: West citations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: Pinpoint...
PreCYdent <ul><li>Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for sophisticated researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost <...
Justia <ul><li>Pro:  Great content </li></ul><ul><li>Pro: Good Browse features </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: hard to identif...
Justia Circuit Searching
Statutes on Legal Information Institute
Low Cost <ul><li>Low Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastcase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loislaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lex...
Low-Cost Services <ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable - Usually noted up front </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accuracy...
Fastcase Search Features
Fastcase Citator
 
Google search
Combining Resources <ul><li>Use free and low-cost databases early on, along with print secondary sources </li></ul><ul><ul...
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  • The Global financial crisis has been discouraging legal researchers and practitioners from accessing high-cost databases such as Westlaw and Lexis. On the other hand, internet legal research provides great benefits to researchers in that it is free or less expensive than Westlaw and Lexis. The necessity of teaching law students internet legal research skills is imminent. In this session, the effective ways of approaching and evaluating internet legal resources will be discussed. Additionally, a variety of authoritative internet legal resources for different primary and secondary sources will be introduced.
  • According to 2008 Legal Technology Survey Report by the American Bar Association, 82.6 percent of 755 lawyers regularly and occasionally use free internet services for legal research. [1] Lawyers are regularly using the free internet services with the same percentage of 52 % as print sources. [2] [1] Legal Tech. Res. Ctr, Am. Bar Ass’n, 2008 Legal Technology Survey Report V-1, V-21 (2008). [2] Id. at V-23. Top five topics, which lawyers researched using free internet services, are general news, lawyers, companies, legal news, and public records. While more than fifty percent of lawyers are using subscription databases for researching federal case law, the attorney’s own state case law, other state case law, legal Citators, and other state legislation/statutes, a number of lawyers are still researching federal case law(15%), the attorney’s own state case law(22.8%), other state case law(22.9%), legal Citators(11.3%), and other state legislation(35.9%), using free online services. [1] [1] Id. at V-23-41.
  • Usability According to the Research-Based Web Design &amp; Usability Guidelines developed by the U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services(HHS), [1] “users define ‘usability’ as their perception of how consistent, efficient, productive, organized, easy to use, intuitive, and straightforward it is to accomplish tasks within a system.” [1] U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services(HHS), Research-Based Web Design &amp; Usability Guidelines developed, 3 (2006) For example, the GPO Access Website is lack of consistency. This website does not follow the familiar conventions. There is no typical navigation bars either on the left or top, the lists were not listed by importance. The search box is strangely located at the bottom using the name “Catalog.” American Law Sources Online is a good example of a web site, which is not scannable. The site does not provide the headings, but make users to read the prose, instead of scanning. &lt;Refer to Nielsen, F-Shaped Pattern for Reading Web Content , June 5, 2009, http://www.useit.com/alertbox/reading_pattern.html&gt; Trac Immigration site is an another example of a web site which not only provides a non-scannable text, but also this provide the bad searching. It does not provide the search box and when you click the one of the link, which you can find by hovering the mouse point, it does not change the color of the link you have visited, and it is hard to tell where you are. Many courts provide only pdf files for online searching. Only way to searching the relevant opinions through the website is to look at the pdf files, which giving the users hard to navigate. The pdf files are only good for printing and did not following web writing guidelines.
  • Consistency is one of the most powerful usability principles: when things always behave the same, users do not have to worry about what will happen. [1] “Users can have expectations based on their prior experience. . . . users acted on their own expectations even when there were indications on the screen to counter those expectations.” [2] The U.S. Copyright Office Website meets the users’ expectations by creating a consistency by using familiar conventions. Search box is provided on top of screen with no distraction. The links in the navigation bar are prominently displayed in red colors and consistently applied through out the pages, and the titles of each topic are consistently displayed in bold, dark green colors. There are no distractions, either. As such, users will become easily familiar with this site, and users, when revisiting this site, won’t be confused by the links and titles. [1] They know what will happen based on earlier experience. Nielsen, Top Ten Mistakes in Web Design, June 5, 2009, http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9605.html. [2] U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services(HHS), Research-Based Web Design &amp; Usability Guidelines developed, 3 (2006)
  • Another good example of a website, which provides a good usability, is lexisOne. In lexisOne, you can search for federal and state court cases. Even if you should register by creating an account, the service in lexisOne is free. Searches in this website is simple and visible in that shortly after the simple introduction of the database coverage, as you can see on the horizontal line, the website provides a search box, which users are looking for at the first time. The website is also very consistent in that things in this website behave the same, and the website minimized the usage of colors with black, grey, and white and with the red underlined hyperlinks. Furthermore, you can simply choose your scope of search by selecting from scroll down menu. In this website, you don’t need to go back and forth from page to page when you start searching.
  • Introducing and Integrating Free Internet Legal Research Into ...

    1. 1. Presenters: Jootaek(Juice) Lee University of Miami Law Library (jlee1@law.miami.edu) Kumar Percy Jayasuriya Georgetown Law Library (kumarj@law.georgetown.edu) Introducing and Integrating Free Internet Legal Research Into Classroom
    2. 3. <ul><li>Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>I. Evaluating Websites </li></ul><ul><li>II. Examples of Internet Legal Resources </li></ul><ul><li>III. Considerations for Incorporating Free Research Tools into a Research Strategy </li></ul>
    3. 4. I. Evaluating Legal Research Tools <ul><li>Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Value Added Features </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Design- Usability </li></ul>
    4. 5. Coverage <ul><li>What is the depth and breath of coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the source provide more than a few years of coverage? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you search for older cases? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a caselaw database are there missing cases or missing courts? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there statutes or regulations as well as cases? </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Currency <ul><li>Is the information up to date? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When was the code last updated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the most recent case loaded to the database? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the revision cycle of the database? </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Accuracy <ul><li>Can you identify any missing documents? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the secondary source provide verifiable information with citations? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there errors in the documents? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you verify that the document has not been altered since publication? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GPO authentication signature on FDsys.gov </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Value Added Features <ul><li>Search Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for a known citation (find a document) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search multiple databases (multiple jurisdictions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Table of Contents / Index / Popular Names Table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citator (or a way to search for all cases that cited to a known case or statute or regulation). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sort Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control how you review results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Document Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinpoint Pagination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinks within document </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Authority <ul><li>Can you identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the qualifications of the author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to contact the publisher / producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>verifiable citations to the documentation behind the statements </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Other Ways to Evaluate a Source <ul><li>Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it clear who the intended audience is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the language, illustrations, and format adequate for the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the goal of the source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a bias or is it objective </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Cost <ul><li>What is the overall cost </li></ul><ul><li>How does the cost compare to other online </li></ul><ul><li>How does it compare to print </li></ul><ul><li>Consider speed as a cost </li></ul>
    11. 12. Presentation and Design <ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jakob Nielsen, Top Ten Mistakes in Web Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services(HHS), Research-Based Web Design & Usability Guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nielsen, F-Shaped Pattern for Reading Web Content </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Usability Mistakes <ul><ul><li>Lack of consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not behaving the same, not easy to become familiar, and lots of distractions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of scannability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not providing lists or headings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad searching design: Not visible and not simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not providing the search box, not showing the scope of search, and not showing results by importance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not changing color of visited links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF files for online searching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening new browser windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< Jakob Nielsen, Top Ten Mistakes in Web Design & U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services(HHS), Research-Based Web Design & Usability Guidelines > </li></ul></ul>
    13. 16. Summary <ul><li>Using the previous factors will lead to different answers for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend for purchase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend for use for a particular client </li></ul></ul>
    14. 17. II. Examples of Internet Legal Resources <ul><li>Review a few specific free and low-cost sources of legal information </li></ul><ul><li>Consider how to integrate them into a research strategy </li></ul>
    15. 18. Free Caselaw Resources <ul><li>Altlaw </li></ul><ul><li>Findlaw </li></ul><ul><li>Justia </li></ul><ul><li>LexisOne </li></ul><ul><li>PreCYdent </li></ul><ul><li>Public Law Library </li></ul><ul><li>Each fully evaluated through the Georgetown Research Guide of Low-Cost and Free Legal Research Tools. </li></ul>
    16. 19. Free Online Caselaw Sources <ul><li>Rich with recent caselaw </li></ul><ul><li>No site is really comprehensive </li></ul><ul><li>Limited search features </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary sources are severely limited </li></ul>
    17. 20. PreCYdent <ul><li>Sample search: http://www.screencast.com/users/kumarj/folders/Jing/media/9697b52b-74f7-4fe8-8e26-1225d71a3ecb </li></ul><ul><li>Sample results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.screencast.com/users/kumarj/folders/Jing/media/90f7b4d9-5e85-4d25-a7b1-72e5550621c0 </li></ul></ul>
    18. 21. PreCYdent Search
    19. 22. Search Features
    20. 23. PreCYdent Result
    21. 24. PreCYdent Citator
    22. 25. PreCYdent <ul><li>Coverage, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for federal cases, weak for state law and statutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good but hard to tell, especially for statutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to tell -- Cases look different from what we are used to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: Some information about the source of cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness: No authority for statutes </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. PreCYdent <ul><li>Value added features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: West citations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: Pinpoint pagination pre 2004 fed cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: Some advanced search features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: Find a citation feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: Citator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness: cannot sort citator results by subject level of analysis </li></ul></ul>
    24. 27. PreCYdent <ul><li>Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for sophisticated researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Design Usability </li></ul>
    25. 28. Justia <ul><li>Pro: Great content </li></ul><ul><li>Pro: Good Browse features </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: hard to identify search features </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: limited standardized or pinpoint citations </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: no easily identified citator </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: no federated searching </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness: no way to sort results </li></ul>
    26. 29. Justia Circuit Searching
    27. 30. Statutes on Legal Information Institute
    28. 31. Low Cost <ul><li>Low Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastcase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loislaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lexisONE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VersusLaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casemaker </li></ul></ul>
    29. 32. Low-Cost Services <ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable - Usually noted up front </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Value Added Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often better sorting features than Westlaw or Lexis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced search features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some pretty good citators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective/Design- Usability </li></ul>
    30. 33. Fastcase Search Features
    31. 34. Fastcase Citator
    32. 36. Google search
    33. 37. Combining Resources <ul><li>Use free and low-cost databases early on, along with print secondary sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To learn the basics of an area of law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To try out search strings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplement with Westlaw and Lexis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using advanced features such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>annotated codes, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>headnote searches and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>citators </li></ul></ul></ul>

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