U.S. Legal Research  Presented by: Shikha Sharma [email_address]
Primary and Secondary Sources of Law  <ul><li>Primary Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations </l...
Vocabulary <ul><li>Decision = Judgment = Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Law = Act = Statute </li></ul>
Jurisdiction <ul><li>Federal:  agriculture, bankruptcy, immigration, certain crimes (such as drug trafficking across state...
Where to Start? <ul><li>Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black’s Law Dictionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(7 th  ed...
U.S. Court System CT Superior Court U.S. District Court Trial Court CT Appellate Court U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal (CT i...
How are Cases Published <ul><li>Federal cases : </li></ul>Name of the Reporter and its Abbreviation Court United States Re...
How are the Cases Published <ul><li>State Cases are published in official state reporters and in commercial “regional repo...
How to Read a Case Citation <ul><li>Wallace v. Jaffree,  472 U.S. 38, 105 S.Ct. 2479, 86 L.Ed. 2d 29 (1985) </li></ul>Name...
How are Laws Made <ul><li>At both State and Federal levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes are first introduced as “bills” in ...
How are Laws Published <ul><li>At both the federal and state level, statutes are published in three different formats in t...
Chronologically Arranged Session Laws may.. <ul><li>Affect an existing statute by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adding a section ...
To Find a Current Version of a Statute use… <ul><li>Code:  All public laws are then arranged by subject and published in a...
United States Code is organized in broad  subject categories called titles. The 50 titles are in rough alphabetical order....
Sample Statutory Citations <ul><li>Sessional Laws: </li></ul><ul><li>Federal: </li></ul><ul><li>CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, P.L....
Sample Statutory Citations <ul><li>Codified Laws: </li></ul><ul><li>Federal: </li></ul><ul><li>17 U.S.C.  §  104 </li></ul...
Regulations <ul><li>What are Regulations? </li></ul><ul><li>Are also called administrative rules and are a form of delegat...
How are Regulations Published? <ul><li>Like statutes, regulations are published both chronologically and topically.  </li>...
Regulation Citation Form <ul><li>Federal Register: </li></ul><ul><li>44 Fed. Reg. 29375 (May 18, 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>C...
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Finding Journal Articles

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Finding Journal Articles

  1. 1. U.S. Legal Research Presented by: Shikha Sharma [email_address]
  2. 2. Primary and Secondary Sources of Law <ul><li>Primary Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedias </li></ul><ul><li>Law Review Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Treatises </li></ul>
  3. 3. Vocabulary <ul><li>Decision = Judgment = Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Law = Act = Statute </li></ul>
  4. 4. Jurisdiction <ul><li>Federal: agriculture, bankruptcy, immigration, certain crimes (such as drug trafficking across states), customs, copyright, patents, postal service, social security, and trademark </li></ul><ul><li>State: child custody, divorce, wills, crimes (in most cases), landlord-tenant, real estate, motor vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Both State & Federal: consumer protection, taxation, employment, environmental protection, health law, labor law, transportation, subsidized housing, veterans’ benefits and welfare law </li></ul>
  5. 5. Where to Start? <ul><li>Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black’s Law Dictionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(7 th ed.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedias: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Jurisprudence, 2d </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. U.S. Court System CT Superior Court U.S. District Court Trial Court CT Appellate Court U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal (CT is in the 2 nd circuit) Intermediate Appellate Court CT Supreme Court U.S. Supreme Court Court of Last Resort State Federal
  7. 7. How are Cases Published <ul><li>Federal cases : </li></ul>Name of the Reporter and its Abbreviation Court United States Reports (U.S.) – official version. United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers’ Edition (L.Ed., L.Ed.2d) Supreme Court Reporter (S.Ct.) U.S. Supreme Court Federal Reporter (F., F.2d, F.3d) U.S. Circuit Court of Appeal <ul><li>Federal Supplement </li></ul><ul><li>(F. Supp., F.Supp.2d) </li></ul>U.S. District Courts
  8. 8. How are the Cases Published <ul><li>State Cases are published in official state reporters and in commercial “regional reporters”. </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut court cases are published in: </li></ul>Name of the Reporter and its Abbreviation Court <ul><ul><li>Connecticut Supplement (Conn.Supp.) – official reporter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic Reporter (A., A.2d) </li></ul></ul>Connecticut Superior Court <ul><ul><li>Connecticut Appellate Reports (Conn. App.) – official reporter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic Reporter (A., A.2d) </li></ul></ul>Connecticut Appellate Court <ul><ul><li>Connecticut Reports (Conn.) – official reporter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic Reporter (A., A.2d) </li></ul></ul>Connecticut Supreme Court
  9. 9. How to Read a Case Citation <ul><li>Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38, 105 S.Ct. 2479, 86 L.Ed. 2d 29 (1985) </li></ul>Names of the Parties Vol. No. Name of the Law Report Starting Page Number of the decision Parallel citations
  10. 10. How are Laws Made <ul><li>At both State and Federal levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes are first introduced as “bills” in a session of Congress (proposed legislation). </li></ul><ul><li>Committee hearings may be held and amendments to the bill may be made. </li></ul><ul><li>To become law, the bill should then be passed in identical form by both houses of the Congress and signed by the President, or passed over his veto. </li></ul><ul><li>Once a bill becomes law, it is referred to as a session law or a public law. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How are Laws Published <ul><li>At both the federal and state level, statutes are published in three different formats in the following order: </li></ul><ul><li>Slip Law : This is the first version of an enacted statute and is issued by itself on a single sheet or as a pamphlet. </li></ul><ul><li>Session Laws : All laws passed in a given session are then published chronologically in bound volumes referred to as the session laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: U.S. Statutes at Large </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut Public and Special Acts (state) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Chronologically Arranged Session Laws may.. <ul><li>Affect an existing statute by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adding a section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing language of a section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repealing a section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>re-numbering a section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>doing all of the above </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. To Find a Current Version of a Statute use… <ul><li>Code: All public laws are then arranged by subject and published in a set of books known as a code. The purpose of codification is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bring all laws on the same topic together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminate all repealed or expired statutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unite amendments with the original statute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: The United States Code (USC) – official version </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States Code Annotated ( USCA )– published by West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States Code Service ( USCS ) – published by Lexis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Statutes of Connecticut – official version </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connecticut General Statutes Annotated – published by West </li></ul><ul><li>As each new law is passed, the relevant sections of the code are modified and updated, both in the printed codes and in the online databases. </li></ul>
  14. 14. United States Code is organized in broad subject categories called titles. The 50 titles are in rough alphabetical order. The Legislative Process
  15. 15. Sample Statutory Citations <ul><li>Sessional Laws: </li></ul><ul><li>Federal: </li></ul><ul><li>CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, P.L. 108-187,117 Stat 2699 (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut: </li></ul><ul><li>PA-98-110, Conn. Acts </li></ul>Public Law, 108 th Congress, law # 187 U.S. Statutes at Large , vol. 117, page 2699 Connecticut Public and Special Acts , 1998; Public Act #110
  16. 16. Sample Statutory Citations <ul><li>Codified Laws: </li></ul><ul><li>Federal: </li></ul><ul><li>17 U.S.C. § 104 </li></ul><ul><li>17 U.S.C.A. § 104 (a) </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut: </li></ul><ul><li>Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 21a-190b </li></ul>United States Code Annotated , Title 17, section 104, subsection a United States Code , Title 17, section 104 Connecticut General Statutes Annotated , Title 21a, Section 190, paragraph b
  17. 17. Regulations <ul><li>What are Regulations? </li></ul><ul><li>Are also called administrative rules and are a form of delegated legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Are promulgated by Executive Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Provide detailed instructions on how to comply with a statute </li></ul>
  18. 18. How are Regulations Published? <ul><li>Like statutes, regulations are published both chronologically and topically. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Regulations are published in: </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Register in chronological order </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Federal Regulations arranged by subject titles </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut Regulations are published in: </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies (a loose-leaf service that is constantly updated) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Regulation Citation Form <ul><li>Federal Register: </li></ul><ul><li>44 Fed. Reg. 29375 (May 18, 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Federal Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>42 C.F.R. § 124.501 (1991) </li></ul>Title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations , section 124.501 Federal Register , vol. 44, page 29375 Publication date

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