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The U.S. Constitution: Framing, Principles, & Ratification

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The U.S. Constitution: Framing, Principles, & Ratification

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This PowerPoint presentation provides an introduction to the U.S. Constitution, focusing on the Philadelphia Convention, the Constitution's core principles (federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, etc.), and the ratification debates between the Federalists and the Antifederalists.

For more PowerPoint presentations and instructional materials, visit www.tomrichey.net!

This PowerPoint presentation provides an introduction to the U.S. Constitution, focusing on the Philadelphia Convention, the Constitution's core principles (federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, etc.), and the ratification debates between the Federalists and the Antifederalists.

For more PowerPoint presentations and instructional materials, visit www.tomrichey.net!

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The U.S. Constitution: Framing, Principles, & Ratification

  1. 1. The U.S. Constitution Framing, Principles, & Ratification
  2. 2. USHC 1.4 Analyze how dissatisfactions with the government under the Articles of Confederation were addressed with the writing of the Constitution of 1787, including the debates and compromises reached at the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification of the Constitution.
  3. 3. Stated Purpose: Amend the Articles Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy.
  4. 4. Statistics From the 1790 Census State Population Percentage of Total Regional Population Number of Slaves Percentage of Population New Hampshire 141,885 4% 158 0% Massachusetts 378,787 10% 0 0% Connecticut 237,946 7% 2,759 1% Rhode Island 68,825 2% 152 0% NEW ENGLAND 23% 827,443 New Jersey 184,139 5% 11,423 6% New York 340,120 9% 21,324 6% Pennsylvania 434,373 12% 3,737 1% MIDDLE STATES 958,632 NORTH OF MASON/DIXON LINE 49% 1,786,075 39,853 6% Delaware 59,096 2% 8,887 15% Maryland 319,728 9% 103,036 32% Virginia 747,610 20% 293,427 39% North Carolina 393,751 11% 100,572 26% South Carolina 249,073 7% 107,094 43% Georgia 82,548 2% 29,264 35% SOUTHERN STATES 51% 1,851,806 642,280 94% TOTAL POPULATION 3,637,881 SLAVE POPULATION 681,833 15% Sources: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004986.html http://manyeyes.alphaworks.ibm.com/manyeyes/visualizations/slave-population-of-us-states-and-te
  5. 5. new jersey plan William Paterson Unicameral Legislature One Vote Per State VIRGINIA PLAN James Madison Bicameral Legislature Based on POPULATION View Census Data
  6. 6. Hamilton’s Plan The convention heard his plan, but did not debate it. For a national government Hamilton State Sovereignty
  7. 7. “GREAT COMPROMISE” Roger Sherman (CT) House of Representatives Lower House Senate Upper House Based on POPULATION Two Votes Per State Elected by Voters (DIRECT) Appointed by State Legislatures (INDIRECT) View Census Data
  8. 8. QUESTION: Should slaves be counted for purposes of representation in the lower house of Congress? Consider the interests of your assigned state when answering. View Census Data
  9. 9. The “Three-Fifths” Compromise A “Not So Great” Compromise FOR THE SOUTH FOR THE NORTH For purposes of representation in Congress, slaves would count for 3/5 of a person. After 20 years, Congress has the power to regulate (or outlaw) the international slave trade.
  10. 10. Electoral College • # of Electors = Senators + Representatives • Effect of 3/5 Compromise? Each state will send electors to cast votes for President.
  11. 11. Source: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election/2008/
  12. 12. Source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com...electoral.college.map.2012.v.final.gif
  13. 13. The Articles States Federal States States 1 Vote Per State 2/3 UNANIMOUS The Constitution Shared Federal Federal & State Federal (Interstate) State (Intrastate) Proportional (House) Two Each (Senate) Concurrent Majority + President’s Signature 2/3 + 3/4 A COMPARISON Sovereignty? Foreign Relations? Taxation? Commerce & Trade? Representation? To Legislate? To Amend?
  14. 14. Limiting the Government BACK to Table of Contents USHC 1.5 Explain how the fundamental principle of limited government is protected by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, including democracy, republicanism, federalism, the separation of powers, the system of checks and balances, and individual rights. Federalism Checks and Balances The Bill of Rights
  15. 15. FEDERALISM Delegated Powers Powers given to the Federal Government Reserved Powers Powers kept by the states and people Concurrent (Shared) Powers Powers shared by both levels of gov. Sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central authority and states.
  16. 16. From The Federalist, No. 45 The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government, are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace, negotiation, and foreign commerce… The powers reserved to the several States will extend to all the objects which… concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people… Source: http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa45.htm MADISON
  17. 17. Federal States
  18. 18. Federal [Delegated] State [Reserved] Federalism AMENDMENT X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. Concurrent View Completed Chart Graphic Organizer 3.3
  19. 19. Federalist 39 NATIONAL FEDERAL Ratification Congress Electoral College Operation of the government Powers of the government Amendments
  20. 20. Separation of Powers Montesquieu –French Philosopher –The Spirit of the Laws (1748) Montesquieu THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT LEGISLATIVE (Congress) EXECUTIVE (President) JUDICIAL (Courts)
  21. 21. Power Which Branch Has The Power? Which Branch's Power is Being Checked? (Could be more than one) 1) Create and pass legislation. 2) Veto bills. 3) Ratify treaties. 4) Appoint Federal judges. 5) Impeachment of federal officials. 6) Confirm presidential appointments. 7) Declare laws unconstitutional. 8) Override Presidential Vetoes. 9) Judges are appointed for life. 10) Controls appropriations of money. Graphic Organizer 3.4
  22. 22. The Veto • From Latin: “I Forbid” • President checks Congress’ legislative power • 2/3 Vote of Both Houses to Override – 1845 – First Veto Overridden
  23. 23. View Completed Chart Graphic Organizer 3.4 VETO
  24. 24. Ratifying the Constitution 1787-1788 USHC 1.4 Analyze how dissatisfactions with the government under the Articles of Confederation were addressed with the writing of the Constitution of 1787, including the debates and compromises reached at the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification of the Constitution.
  25. 25. Federalists Antifederalists Supported Opposed Ratification (Approval)
  26. 26. A Federal Process – State Conventions – Legislatures – States necessary to ratify: ______ • Interactive Ratification Map Ratification
  27. 27. Leading Antifederalists Patrick Henry (VA) Samuel Adams (MA) Richard Henry Lee (VA) George Clinton (NY)
  28. 28. Antifederalist Pseudonyms Brutus Federal Farmer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pseudonyms_used_in_the_American_constitutional_debates
  29. 29. Antifederalist Positions Fears Platform Tyranny “Special Interests” Aristocracy Excessive Taxation Autocratic Government Term Limits (Rotation in Office) Bill of Rights States’ Rights Federal Taxation Recall Agrarianism
  30. 30. The Federalist (aka, The Federalist Papers) James Madison Alexander Hamilton John Jay
  31. 31. Federalist Positions Fears Platform “The Mob” Unstable Government Rebellions Civil War Humiliation Abroad Strong Central Government National Greatness Commerce Bill of Rights
  32. 32.  One of the First Consuls of the Roman Republic  Valerius saves the Republic  Cognomen Publicola,  “The People’s Friend”
  33. 33. The Ratification Debate Federalists Antifederalists Reservationists Irreconcilables Ratify Constitution “as is” Ratify Constitution with Amendments (i.e., Bill of Rights) Don’t Ratify Constitution
  34. 34. The Federal Pillars http://teachingamericanhistory.org/ratification/federalpillars.html
  35. 35. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/us.capitol/s1.html
  36. 36. Ratification of the Constitution Date State Votes Yes No 1 December 7, 1787 Delaware 30 0 2 December 12, 1787 Pennsylvania 46 23 3 December 18, 1787 New Jersey 38 0 4 January 2, 1788 Georgia 26 0 5 January 9, 1788 Connecticut 128 40 6 February 6, 1788 Massachusetts 187 168 7 April 28, 1788 Maryland 63 11 8 May 23, 1788 South Carolina 149 73 9 June 21, 1788 New Hampshire 57 47 10 June 25, 1788 Virginia 89 79 11 July 26, 1788 New York 30 27 12 November 21, 1789 North Carolina 194 77 13 May 29, 1790 Rhode Island 34 32
  37. 37. • Partly National, Partly Federal – State Conventions – Legislatures – States necessary to ratify: ______ • Interactive Ratification Map Ratification
  38. 38. THE BILL OF RIGHTS 1ST Speech, Press, Assembly, Religion, Petition [Expression] 2ND Bear Arms 3RD Quartering Troops in Peacetime 4TH Unreasonable Searches and Seizures 5TH Rights of Accused Persons Self-Incrimination 6TH Speedy and Public Trial / Right to Counsel (Criminal) 7TH Trial By Jury in Civil Suits 8TH Cruel and Unusual Punishments Excessive Bails 9TH Protection of Un-enumerated Rights 10TH Powers of States and People

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