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The Christian Empire (Late Roman and "Byzantine")

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This PowerPoint slide show was created to accompany a lecture on the Christianization of the Roman (and later "Byzantine") Empire from Diocletian's "Great Persecution" to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

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The Christian Empire (Late Roman and "Byzantine")

  1. 1. The Christian Empire
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I PART II PART II The Triumph of Christianity The Clash of Creeds The “Byzantine” Empire (284-313) (313-395) (395?-1453)
  3. 3. The Triumph of Christianity
  4. 4. TERMS LIST (All terms can be referenced online) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Diocletian Tetrarchy Great Persecution Constantine Battle of the Milvian Bridge 6. Labarum [Chi Rho] 7. Edict of Milan
  5. 5. Diocletian (r. 284-305) • “Great Persecution” • Tetrarchy [Next Slide] Coin Photo by Ingsoc
  6. 6. Diocletian (r. 284-305) Coin Photo by Ingsoc
  7. 7. Tetrarchy Map Credit: Coppermine Photo Gallery
  8. 8. Tetrar chy • What do you see? What do you think these statues represent? Be specific.
  9. 9. Constantine vs. Maxentius Battle of the Milvian Bridge
  10. 10. “CONQUER BY THIS.”
  11. 11. Roman Coin: Constantine Front / Labarum Back Compare to Julian
  12. 12. Toleration • Edict of Milan (313 AD) – Toleration for Christians – End of persecution
  13. 13. The Clash of Creeds
  14. 14. TERMS LIST (All terms can be referenced online) 1. Byzantium 2. Constantinople 3. Heresy 4. Arianism 5. Trinity 6. Council of Nicea 7. Creed 8. Orthodoxy 9. Julian the Apostate 10. Apostasy Galileans 12. Natural Religion 13. Revealed Religion 14. School Edict [Julian] 15. Theodosius 16. State Religion 17. Thessalonica Massacre 18. Ambrose of Milan 19. Excommunication 20.Penance
  15. 15. PRIMARY SOURCE: Julian the Apostate, Against the Galileans Complete the following in the Bell Ringer section of your notebook: 1. Who was Julian referring to when he wrote of the “Galileans”? Why would he use this term? 2. What were Julian’s chief criticisms of the “Galileans”? 3. How would you characterize Julian’s own views of religion?
  16. 16. Constantinople
  17. 17. Council of Nicea • Edict of Milan • Toleration for all religions (including Christians)
  18. 18. Council of Nicea • 325 A.D. • Called by Constantine – Address Divisions – Arianism – Trinity • Nicene Creed • Orthodoxy
  19. 19. Death of Constantine 337 A.D. Constantine accepted Christian baptism on his deathbed. © Konstantin Tunc Used with permission
  20. 20. PURGES Constantine’s death resulted in purges of possible heirs to the throne. Some rights reserved by Albion Europe ApS
  21. 21. Julian “the Apostate” • Against the Galileans – Pamphlet against Christianity • School Edict – Teachers approved by gov • “You have won, Galilean!” 360-363
  22. 22. Roman Coin: Julian Front / Bull Back Compare to Constantine
  23. 23. Theodosius (r. 379-395) • LAST sole ruler of a united Roman Empire – [East/West divide after death] • Christianity as the OFFICIAL religion • Closes Pagan temples – sends home Vestal Virgins
  24. 24. Massacre in Thessalonica Ambrose (Bishop) of Milan) – PENANCE Saint Ambrose and Emperor Theodosius, By Anthony van Dyck
  25. 25. THE “BYZANTINE” EMPIRE
  26. 26. TERMS LIST 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fall of Rome [476] Byzantine Justinian Theodora Nika Riots 6. Corpus Juris Civilis 7. Hagia Sophia 12. Hellenization 13. Basileus 14. Theme System 15. Icons 16. Iconoclast 17. Iconodule 18. Irene 19. Seventh Ecumenical Council 9. Belisarius 20. Fall of Constantinople 10. “Last of the Romans” [1453] 8. Renovatio Imperii 11. Heraclius
  27. 27. 476 A.D. Fall of rome
  28. 28. Justinian I • • • • • • Renovatio Imperii Belisarius “Last of the Romans” Corpus Juris Civilis Hagia Sophia Sainthood (r. 527-565)
  29. 29. Renovatio Imperii Map Credit: http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/262/268312/art/figures/KISH_07_149.gif
  30. 30. Theodora Wife of Justinian • Courtesan • Street-smart – A key advisor • Also a saint
  31. 31. NikA Riots • High Taxation • Nika Riots – Justinian murdered 30,000 to restore order
  32. 32. Hagia Sophia • “Holy Wisdom” • Completed 537 A.D. • 1453-1935: Mosque • 1935-Present: Museum Online Resources: Icon Slideshow The Deesis Mosaic
  33. 33. Heraclius (r. 610-641) • Hellenization – Docs: Latin  Greek – Note: Still “Roman” – Basileus [Title] • Incessant Wars – Sassanid Empire • Theme System – Civil and Military Gov Merged • Contemporary of Muhammad
  34. 34. Iconoclast controversy (Eighth Century) Iconodules Icon Lovers vs. Iconoclasts Icon Breakers
  35. 35. Iconodule Adulation (to adore or worship)
  36. 36. ICONOCLAST In modern usage, someone who challenges established dogmas or conventions Some rights reserved by BitBoy
  37. 37. Chludov Psalter They gave me Vinegar to drink.
  38. 38. Iconodules win
  39. 39. The Contrast St. George Greek Orthodox Cathedral (Greenville, SC) Iconoclast Art in the Hagia Irene (Constantinople) Click photo for an e-tour.
  40. 40. Interested in Icons? The Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. John the Baptist (Washington, DC) is covered with them. CLICK for an e-tour
  41. 41. SEVENTH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL (787 a.d.) Restored the use of icons
  42. 42. SEVENTH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL (787 a.d.) LAST Church Council accepted by both Eastern and Western Churches
  43. 43. Irene The Empress, Irene, who ruled in her own right after the deaths of her sons, was canonized as a saint for her role in restoring the use of icons. (r. 797-802)
  44. 44. Double Eagle A Symbol of the Byzantine emperors Symbolism: Church and State East and West
  45. 45. The Decline An Animated Map Map Credit: Varana
  46. 46. 1453 Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks

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