The fears for genetically modified athletes!

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The fears for genetically modified athletes!

  1. 1. Tommy Razarino bin Rasino
  2. 2. Highlights  Case study  Gene Doping  The Experiments  Implication  Perspectives http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_PQKTRN9N7s/S4xO7ynA5hI/AAAAAAAAGiI/ml8dIsClS aU/s320/gene+doping+needle.jpg
  3. 3. Case Study Genetically modified athletes: Forget drugs. There are even suggestions some Chinese athletes’ genes are altered to make them stronger http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article2181873/Genetically-modified-athletes-Forgetdrugs-There-suggestions-Chinese-athletesgenes-altered-make-stronger.html
  4. 4. Case Study      Ye Shiwen Swimming 400 meter category 16 years old Swim the last 50 meters faster than Ryan Lochte (the men’s champion)  John Leonard, American director of the World Swimming Coaches Association described as ‘suspicious’, ‘disturbing’ and ‘unbelievable’  Jiang Zhixue (China’s anti-doping official) claims completely unreasonable. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article2181873/Genetically-modified-athletes-Forgetdrugs-There-suggestions-Chinese-athletesgenes-altered-make-stronger.html
  5. 5. Gene Doping  According to World Anti-Doping Agency: “the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance”  In 2003, gene doping is banned by WADA. Ref: “Prohibited List 2013, International Standards” (The World Anti-Doping Code)
  6. 6. Ref: Gaffney, G. R and Parisotto, R. (2007) Gene doping: a review of performance-enhancing genetics, Pediatric Clinics of North America. Vol .54 , pp 807-822.
  7. 7. Ref: Gaffney, G. R and Parisotto, R. (2007) Gene doping: a review of performance-enhancing genetics, Pediatric Clinics of North America. Vol .54 , pp 807-822.
  8. 8. Does Gene doping really works? In 2005, Ronald Evans (hormone expert), showed how genetic modification can increase the athletic power of mice: 1. Produce a group of GM mice with an increase amount of slow-twitch muscle fibre. 2. The fibre associated with strong cardiovascular muscles and boosts an athlete’s endurance. http://www.hhmi.org/news/evans4.html http://cdn.zmescience.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/11/strong-mouse.jpg
  9. 9. Result of GM Mice The GM mice could run for an hour longer than the normal mice (cardiovascular/endurance) 2. The GM mice were resistant to weight gain no matter what they fed on (resistant) 3. The GM mice remained at peak fitness even when they took no exercise (stabilizer) 1. http://www.hhmi.org/news/evans4.html http://www.phgfoundation .org/file_gateway?link_ID= 2939&resize=200&resize_a xis=x
  10. 10. Belgian blue cow http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/ne0000/ne0 000/ne0000/ne0000/54787/10.1038_ng099771_mid_1.jpg http://futurismic.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/belgianblue-cow.jpg Double muscled animals have an increase in muscle mass of up to 20% greater than normal animals. The increased muscle is due to the fact that these animals have a mutation in a specific gene that normally is involved in muscular hypertrophy. http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetic-inequality-human-geneticengineering-768
  11. 11. Implications of Gene Doping
  12. 12. Sporting events WADA defines the ‘spirit of sport’ using a long list of words (World Anti-Doping Agency, 2003a): (1) Ethics, fair play and honesty (2) Health (3) Excellence in performance (4) Character and education (5) Fun and joy (6) Teamwork (7) Dedication and commitment (8) Respect for rules and laws (9) Respect for self and other participants (10) Courage (11) Community and solidarity. http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&sou rce=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=x_CoQTWWHo9FqM& tbnid=wjjVyRj__GbyaM:&ved=&url=http%3A%2F%2Fpla ytrue.wada-ama.org%2Ffeatures%2Ffinnish-recognitionaward-forwada%2F&ei=2KptUa2IEKer0AWouYHQAw&bvm=bv.45 175338,d.d2k&psig=AFQjCNGTaumSWJ6NHcvpEByns34 mhrgnhA&ust=1366228056567794 Ref: Foddy, B. and Savulescu, J. (2007) Ethics of Performance Enhancement in Sport: Drugs and Gene Doping.
  13. 13. Athletes Ref: Fallahi, A. A, Ravasi, A. A. and Farhud, D. D. (2011) Genetic Doping and Health Damages, Iranian Journal Public Health, Vol. 40, No.1, 2011, pp.1-14
  14. 14. Society  The role model effect that elite athletes have on society, particularly on children and teenagers.  Preventing fans and consumers of sport from being “cheated”.  Upholding the integrity of sports as an independent matter. Ref: Foddy, B. and Savulescu, J. (2007) Ethics of Performance Enhancement in Sport: Drugs and Gene Doping. https://encryptedtbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT6aeOp ka_WIpgTNfQ25BLcX6caIYHr6UXKtAXcc9KTE6zKfLU
  15. 15. A brief History of anti-doping  1928 – IAAF is the first International Sport Federation (IF) to ban doping (use of stimulating substances)  1966 – UCI (cycling) and FIFA (football) were among the first IFs to introduce doping tests in their respective World Championships.  1967 – IOC set up its first list of prohibited substances.  1968 – First drug test introduced at the Olympic Winter Games in Grenoble (France) and at the Olympic Games in Mexico  1970 – Most International Sport Federations introduce drug testing.  1974 – a reliable test for anabolic steroids established due to wide spread misuses of anabolic steroids before. http://www.wada-ama.org/en/About-WADA/History/A-Brief-History-of-Anti-Doping/
  16. 16. World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)  was established in 1999 as an international independent agency composed and funded equally by the sport movement and governments of the world.  to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against doping in sport in all its forms. https://encryptedtbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSho2EloPwAJX lDglKLJ8oQHdwWkvzdHFtjH3jCNXNUYht2QezNZA https://encryptedtbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQNW2L63uIwLS AABQTTpMHQsnj8mS_EWVmtxFJypQs26Tu1vPRFLQ
  17. 17. Government Representation on WADA's Foundation Board and Executive Committee  Government representation is allocated according to      the five Olympic Regions Africa: 4 members (South Africa, Botswana, Seychelles & Egypt) Americas: 4 members (Peru, Canada, USA & Panama) Asia: 4 members (Japan, China, Saudi Arabia & Malaysia) Europe: 5 members (Russia, Luxembourg, Ireland, Portugal & France) Oceania: 2 members (Australia & New Zealand) http://www.wada-ama.org/en/About-WADA/Governance/Government-Representation/
  18. 18. Funding by Government  WADA's funding was decided through this governmental process whereas the governments agreed to fund 50 percent of WADA's budget.  It was decided that for the five Olympic regions of the world, WADA's regional budget allocation for governments was agreed to be apportioned as follows: Africa: 0.5% Americas: 29% Asia: 20.46% Europe: 47.5% Oceania: 2.54% http://www.wada-ama.org/en/World-Anti-Doping-Program/Governments/Funding/
  19. 19. WADA vs Gene Doping     2001 – first debate about Gene doping 2003 – gene doping listed as banned method 2005 – gene doping project 2009 – The World Anti-Doping Code ‘biological passport’ – this keeps track of the athlete’s overall physiological profile, and triggers alarm if anything about it changes in a suspicious manner ‘blood samples’ – they will keep medal-winners’ blood samples for eight years, so they can subject them to new tests when they developed. http://www.wada-ama.org/en/Science-Medicine/Athlete-Biological-Passport/
  20. 20. http://www.wadaama.org/Documents/Resources/Publications/PlayTrue_Magazine/PlayTrue_2005_1_Gene_Doping_EN.pdf
  21. 21. http://www.wada-ama.org/en/Science-Medicine/Science-topics/Gene-Doping/
  22. 22. WADA Website
  23. 23. Others WADA Strategies  Through education (youth zone, outreach     programmes) Publish of books for children - ‘Always picked last’ (8 – 12 years old) - ‘Track star’ ( 12 years old and above) Digital library ( for coach, teachers, sport physicians etc) Play True Challenge (online game) Play True Quiz (available in 26 languages) http://www.wada-ama.org/
  24. 24. IOC & IPC vs Gene Doping  The International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) are responsible for the testing process, based on the Code (The World Anti-Doping Code 2009), during the Olympic and Paralympic Games, respectively. Ref: http://www.wada-ama.org/en/Anti-Doping-Community/IOC--IPC/  The IOC and IPC banned gene doping in the year 2003  These include other governing bodies the World Triathlon Corp., the Federation of International Lacrosse and the International Federation of Bodybuilders. http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/is-gene-doping-ethical
  25. 25. FIFA vs Gene Doping The FIFA TUE (Therapeutic Use Exemptions) Policy is based on the following documents: (1) FIFA Anti-Doping Regulations (ADR), effective from 1 April 2010; (2) World-Anti Doping Code (WADC), effective from 1 January 2009; (3) International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions (lSTUE), effective from 1 January 2011 http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/administration/01/56/40/71/circularno.12882012prohibitedlistinternationalstandardfortherapeuticuseexemptionsandfifatuepolicy.pdf
  26. 26. FIFA vs Gene Doping  The physical and mental health of the athlete may be severely compromised by the use of banned substances.  The practice of doping is thus considered unethical by most international sports federations, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).  Sanctions are applied to athletes who transgress the rules as set out by WADA and adopted by the sports federations that are signatories to the World AntiDoping Code. Ref: Derman, W. (2010) Current perspectives of doping in football and the 2010 list of prohibited substances, May 2010 Vol.28 No.5
  27. 27. Dvorak, J., Graf-Baumann, T., D’Hooghe, M., Kirkendall, D., Taennler, H., Saugy, M. (2006) FIFA’s approach to doping in football, Br J Sports Med 2006;40
  28. 28. Dvorak, J., Graf-Baumann, T., D’Hooghe, M., Kirkendall, D., Taennler, H., Saugy, M. (2006) FIFA’s approach to doping in football, Br J Sports Med 2006;40
  29. 29. New FIFA policy  A new doping control policy for FIFA competitions was introduced at the FIFA U-17 World Championship in New Zealand in 1999.  Since then, during tournaments, two players from each team are randomly selected to undergo doping tests after each match. Dvorak, J., Graf-Baumann, T., D’Hooghe, M., Kirkendall, D., Taennler, H., Saugy, M. (2006) FIFA’s approach to doping in football, Br J Sports Med 2006;40
  30. 30. Year 1994 – 2005  3327 doping controls (men and women) were performed.  FIFA world cups, Olympic games, Women’s world cup, FIFA U-19, FIFA U-17, FIFA Confederations Cup, FIFA Club World Cup, FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup, U-20 World Cup, FIFA World Championship in Futsal, World Cup 2006 preliminaries  Only four samples tested positive during this period.  This reflects an overall incidence of 0.12% positive cases over the past 11 years. Dvorak, J., Graf-Baumann, T., D’Hooghe, M., Kirkendall, D., Taennler, H., Saugy, M. (2006) FIFA’s approach to doping in football, Br J Sports Med 2006;40
  31. 31. Perspectives of Gene Doping “but in the future, as gene-therapy techniques become more refined, it becomes more likely, although I think we are many years away from that” (Professor Steve Harridge, an expert on muscle physiology at King’s Collage London) http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/general/others/the-cheat-gene-could-the-next-step-in-sportingfraud-come-from-manipulating-dna-8073605.html “There is a real possibility, however, that this will work for athletes in the future because we have some of the best brains in medicine working on it” (Professor Dominic Wells, a gene therapy researcher) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2181873/Genetically-modified-athletes-Forget-drugs-Theresuggestions-Chinese-athletes-genes-altered-make-stronger.html
  32. 32. “This is a disturbing trend because not only is gene doping in sport wrong, it can also be extremely dangerous.” (Professor Arne Ljungqvist, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden’s most well-known anti-doping expert and chairman of WADA’s (World Anti-Doping Agency) Health, Medical and Research Committee) http://www.wada-ama.org/en/media-center/archives/articles/media-invitation---gene-dopingsymposium-press-conferences/
  33. 33. Conclusion “Because doping is illegal, the pressure is to make performance enhancers undetectable, rather than safe. Performance enhancers are produced or bought on the black market and administered in a clandestine, uncontrolled way with no monitoring of the athlete’s health.” Ref: Foddy, B. and Savulescu, J. (2007) Ethics of Performance Enhancement in Sport: Drugs and Gene Doping. https://encryptedtbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcStygZW mV7Vp1tdG8DTg4ZAZN1F24yXjydwhU7cu8qrSmwdY3Ehg
  34. 34. Conclusion Gene doping is possible method in modern sports. The more advance the technologies, the more problems will it create. Ref: http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=7bqRdM8GsxAB2M&tbnid=qy9itC1poJ xFbM:&ved=&url=http%3A%2F%2Fvolleyballengland.org%2Fperformance%2Fanti_doping&ei=1YhtUeavJYy20QWu8IH4Dw&bvm =bv.45175338,d.d2k&psig=AFQjCNF3P39nuA2GUSEknqaZHP0KgsWpbw&ust=1366219350334399

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