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Schaefer10e ppt ch07

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Schaefer10e ppt ch07

  1. 1. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 1 SOCIOLOGY Richard T. Schaefer The Mass Media7
  2. 2. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 2 7. The Mass Media • Sociological Perspectives of the Media • The Audience • The Media Industry • Social Policy and Mass Media
  3. 3. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 3 Sociological Perspectives of the Media – The media: • Socialize us • Enforce social norms • Confer status • Promote consumption • Keep us informed about our environment • May act as a narcotic • Functionalist View
  4. 4. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 4 Sociological Perspectives of the Media • Media increases social cohesion by presenting common view of culture – Provide collective experience for members of a society – Socializing effects can promote religious as well as patriotic exchanges, uniting believers around the world – Socializing effect of media means programming can easily become controversial • Functionalist View – Agent of Socialization
  5. 5. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 5 Sociological Perspectives of the Media • Media reaffirm proper behavior by showing what happens to people who violate societal expectations – Conferral of Status • Singles out one from thousands of other similarly placed issues or people to become significant • Functionalist View – Enforcer of Social Norms
  6. 6. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 6 Sociological Perspectives of the Media • Media advertising – Supports economy – Provides information – Underwrites cost of media • Functionalist View – Promotion of Consumption
  7. 7. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 7 Sociological Perspectives of the Media Figure 7-1. Number of Hours per Week Spent with Media, 1997—2008 (projected) Source: Veronis Suhler Stevenson LLC 2003:166-167 for 1997; 2004:184-185 for all other data
  8. 8. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 8 Sociological Perspectives of the Media Table 7-1. Status Conferred by Magazines
  9. 9. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 9 Sociological Perspectives of the Media • Surveillance Function: collection and distribution of information concerning events in the social environment – Dysfunction: The Narcotizing Effect • Narcotizing Dysfunction: phenomenon in which the media provide such massive amounts of information that audience becomes numb and fails to act on the information • Functionalist View – Surveillance of the Social Environment
  10. 10. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 10 Sociological Perspectives of the Media – Gatekeeping: how material must travel through a series of checkpoints before reaching the public • Conflict View • Ethnicity • Social class – Conflict theorists emphasize that the media reflect and even exacerbate many of the divisions of our society and world, including: • Gender • Race
  11. 11. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 11 Sociological Perspectives of the Media • Dominant Ideology: set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests • Mass media serve to maintain the privileges of certain groups • Stereotypes: unreliable generalization about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group • Conflict View – Dominant Ideology: Constructing Reality
  12. 12. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 12 Sociological Perspectives of the Media • Globalization projects the dominating reach of the U.S. media into the rest of the world • Media cultural exports undermine the distinctive traditions and art forms of other societies and encourage their cultural and economic dependence on the U.S. • Conflict View – Dominant Ideology: Whose Culture? Nations that feel a loss of identity may try to defend against the cultural invasion
  13. 13. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 13 Sociological Perspectives of the Media – Feminists share conflict theorists’ view that the mass media stereotype and misrepresent social reality • Women underrepresented • Perpetuate stereotypical views of gender • Emphasize traditional sex roles and normalize violence against women • Feminist View
  14. 14. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 14 Sociological Perspectives of the Media – Interactionists especially interested in shared understandings of everyday behavior – Examine media on micro level to see how they shape day-to-day social behavior – Scholars increasingly point to mass media as source of major daily activity • Interactionist View
  15. 15. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 15 Sociological Perspectives of the Media Figure 7-2. The Internet Explosion Source: National Geographic 2005:21
  16. 16. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 16 Sociological Perspectives of the Media Table 7-2. Sociological Perspectives on the Mass Media
  17. 17. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 17 The Audience – Mass media distinguished from other social institutions by necessary presence of audience – Identifiable, finite group or a much larger, undefined group • Who Is In the Audience?
  18. 18. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 18 The Audience – Increasingly, media market themselves to a particular audience – The role of audience members as opinion leaders intrigues social researchers • The Segmented Audience Opinion leader: someone who, through day- to-day personal contacts and communication, influences opinions and decisions of others
  19. 19. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 19 The Audience – Response often influenced by social characteristics: • Occupation • Race • Education • Income • Audience Behavior
  20. 20. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 20 The Media Industry – Handful of multi-national corporations dominate publishing, broadcasting, and film industries • The Media’s Global Reach – Mass media have begun to create global village in terms of communication – Internet key to creating truly global network • Media Concentration
  21. 21. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 21 The Media Industry Figure 7-3. Media Penetration in Selected Countries Source: Bureau of the Census 2004a:870
  22. 22. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 22 Social Policy and Mass Media • What effect does movie and TV violence have on audiences? • Does violence in the media lead people, especially youth, to become more violent? • Media Violence – The Issue
  23. 23. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 23 Social Policy and Mass Media • We spend great deal of time with the media • Does watching hours of mass media with violent images cause one to behave differently? – Some studies linked exposure to media violence to subsequent aggressive behavior • Media Violence – The Setting It is important to recognize that other factors besides the media are also related to aggressive behavior.
  24. 24. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 24 Social Policy and Mass Media • If function of media is to entertain, socialize, and enforce social norms, can violence be part of that message? • Even if viewer does not necessarily become more violent from watching violent images, there could be desensitization • Media Violence – Sociological Insights
  25. 25. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 25 Social Policy and Mass Media • Conflict and feminist theorists are troubled that victims depicted in violent imagery are often: – Women – Children – Poor – Racial minorities – Citizens of foreign countries – Physically disabled • Media Violence – Sociological Insights
  26. 26. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 26 Social Policy and Mass Media • Interactionists especially interested in finding out if violence in media may then become script for real-life behavior • Media Violence – Sociological Insights
  27. 27. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 27 Reluctance to pass laws regarded as censorship Social Policy and Mass Media • Policymakers responded to links between violence depicted in media and real life aggression: – Public statements of support for family-oriented, less-violent media content • Media Violence – Policy Initiatives
  28. 28. McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 28 Social Policy and Mass Media Figure 7-4. Violence on Prime-Time Television, 1998—2002 Source: Parents Television Council 2003

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