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# Api 510 booklet

510 COURSE

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### Api 510 booklet

1. 1. API 510 Course
2. 2. (Calculations – Internal and External Inspection Intervals) I. Able to calculate; NOTE: These calculations can be open and/or closed book exams. II. Joint Efficiencies Determine; 2
3. 3. 3
4. 4. API 510 Calculations Required Thickness = Minimum Thickness = Short Term Corrosion Rate CRST = tprevious tactual # of years between tprevious & tactual Long Term Corrosion Rate CRLT = tinitial tactual # of years between tprevious & tactual Remaining Life RL = tactual trequired Corrosion Rate Internal Inspection Interval = Internal or Onstream Interval Lesser of 10 yrs or ½ Remaining life if remaining life is less than 4 yrs, full life up to 2 years Remaining life is 2 years or less, interval is FULL LIFE Section 7, par 7.1.1 External Inspection Interval =
5. 5. 5 Short Term Corrosion Rate CRST = tprevious tactual_LAST # of years between tprevious & tactual _LAST Variables for Thickness Calcs Long Term Corrosion Rate CRLT = tinitial tactual_LAST # of years between tInitial & tactual_LAST
6. 6. 6
7. 7. 7
8. 8. 8
9. 9. 9
10. 10. 10
11. 11. tinitial tlast = # of years between tinitial & tlast 11 tprevious tlast = # of years between tprevious & tlast Corrosion rate Section 7, par 7.1.1
12. 12. 12 Section 7, par 7.1.1
13. 13. 13 0.875 0.865 5 = tprevious = 0.875 tlast = 0.865 tprevious tlast = # of years between tprevious & tlast Corrosion rate inch/yr= 0.002 Section 7, par 7.1.1
14. 14. 14
15. 15. Thickness Years of service
16. 16. Determined by SHORT term or Long Term Calculations (API 510, par 7.1.1.2) Newly installed or Change in Service (API 510, par 7.1.2) 1. Calculated from data of vessels in similar service. 2. Estimated from Owner-User experience 3. Published Data 4. On-stream determination after 1000 hrs of service. May have different corrosion-rates for large vessels with multiple zones.(API 510, par 6.5.3) 19
17. 17. Mechanical fatigue is caused by; What material does not have an endurance limit?
18. 18. 24 Variables for Remaining Life Calcs Remaining Life RL = tactual_Last trequired Corrosion Rate Section 7, par 7.2.1
19. 19. 25 Section 7, par 7.2.1
20. 20. 26 tlast trequired = Corrosion rate tprevious 0.625 tlast 0.600 = ?????Corrosion rate Since the “CORROSION RATE is unknown, the 1st Step is to determine the Corrosion rate. Section 7, par 7.2.1
21. 21. 27 tprevious tlast = # of years between tprevious & tlast 0.625 0.600 8 = = 0.003 tprevious 0.625 tlast 0.600 tlast trequired = Corrosion rate
22. 22. 28 tlast trequired = Corrosion rate 0.600 0.575 = 0.003 = 8yrs trequired = 0.575 tlast = 0.600 = 0.003Corrosion rate
23. 23. 29
24. 24. (API 510 par 6.5.1.1) Internal or on-stream inspections shall not exceed oone half the remaining life of the vessel or 10 years, whichever is less. Whenever the remaining life is less than four years, the inspection interval may be the full remaining life up to a maximum of two years. (API 510 par 6.5.1.1) Interval not exceed the llesser of 5 years or the internal/on-stream interval.. Thickness Inspection Intervals Should be part of the inspection plan, but no interval requirements mentioned in API- 510 (API 510 par 5.5.1) CUI Inspection Intervals Should be part of the inspection plan, but no interval requirements mentioned in API- 510 (API 510 par 5.5.1) “SHALL” be considered for insulated vessels in “intermittent” service or operates between; 10oF and 350oF for carbon steel and alloy steels 140oF and 400oF for austenitic stainless steels 31 Section 6, par 6.5.1v Section 5, par 5.5.1
25. 25. 32 Section 6, par 6.5.1v
26. 26. 33 tlast trequired = Corrosion rate tprevious 0.625 tlast 0.600 = ?????Corrosion rate Since the “CORROSION RATE is unknown, the 1st Step is to determine the Corrosion rate. Section 7, par 7.2.1
27. 27. 34 tprevious tlast = # of years between tprevious & tlast 0.625 0.600 8 = = 0.003 tprevious 0.625 tlast 0.600 tlast trequired = Corrosion rate Section 7, par 7.1.1
28. 28. 35 tlast trequired = Corrosion rate 0.600 0.575 = 0.003 = 8yrs trequired = 0.575 tlast = 0.600 = 0.003Corrosion rate Section 7, par 7.2.1
29. 29. 36 Internal Inspection Interval = 4 years
30. 30. 37
31. 31. Section 6, par 6.4.1
33. 33. What is the temperature range that temper embrittlement occurs in low alloy steels ?
34. 34. Next inspection date = Last inspection date + interval 42
35. 35. Practice for “Simple” calculation 43
36. 36. 44 Remaining Life (yr) March 2000 March 1995 16 .324 .356
37. 37. Widely scattered pits can be ignored, if; 45 Vessel Thickness = 2.0” Depth of Pit = 1.06” Corrosion Allowance = 0.250 Retirement Thickness = 1.75” Remaining Thickness below pit is greater than ½½ the Required Thickness Rule # 1 Section 7, par 7.4.3
38. 38. Widely scattered pits can be ignored, if; 46 Area of the pitting below the corrosion allowance has an area less than 7 in2 within an 8” diameter circle. Rule # 2 Section 7, par 7.4.3
39. 39. Widely scattered pits can be ignored, if; 47 Rule # 3 Sum of the length of pits within any 8” line, must be less than 2” Section 7, par 7.4.3
40. 40. 48 Section 7, par 7.4.3
41. 41. 49 “Minimum allowed remaining thickness below the pit is ½ the required thickness”, Therefore, the minimum thickness allowed at the deepest pit is; ( ½ required thickness = 1.250”/2 = 0.625”) Corrosion allowance Required Thickness ½ of Required Thickness Remaining thickness below pit Section 7, par 7.4.3
42. 42. a. Pits can be ignored b. Pits are unacceptable based on sum of the pit dimensions along a 8” straight line. c. Pits are unacceptable due to total area of pitting within an 8” diameter circle. d. Pits are unacceptable due to insufficient remaining thickness below the deepest pit. Section 7, par 7.4.3
43. 43. Section 7, par 7.4.3
45. 45. 53
46. 46. 54
47. 47. 55
48. 48. 56
49. 49. 57 pH Scale Acidity Basic / Akalinity / Caustic StrongAcidity StrongAlkalinity Neutral WeakAcidity WeakAlkalinity
50. 50. 58 pH Scale Acidity Basic / Akalinity / Caustic StrongAcidity StrongAlkalinity Neutral WeakAcidity WeakAlkalinity
51. 51. A. Inspection plan must be established for all pressure vessels and pressure-relieving devices. B. Inspection plan developed by inspector or engineer. C. Corrosion-specialist must be consulted for inspection plan for vessels operating above 750oF. D. Inspection plan shall be evaluated based on present or possible types of damage mechanisms. E. Methods and extent of NDE shall be evaluated to assure they can adequately identify the damage mechanism and severity of damage. 59 Section 5, par 5.1
52. 52. F. Examinations must be scheduled at intervals that consider; A. Type of damage B. Rate of damage C. Tolerance of equipment to the damage D. Probability of the NDE methods to detect the damage E. Maximum intervals as defined in API 510 G. Minimum Contents of Inspection Plan A. Type of inspection needed B. Next inspection date for each type inspection (internal, external, etc) C. Describe inspection and NDE techniques D. Describe extent and locations of inspection and NDE E. Describe the cleaning requirements F. Describe the requirements of any needed pressure test G. Describe any required repairs 60 Section 5, par 5.1
53. 53. A. General Inspections should be conducted in accordance with the inspection plan Prior to performing an inspection, the inspector should be familiar with; Thorough understanding of the inspection plan Operating conditions since the last inspection (API 572 par 9.1) Applicable damage mechanisms Prior history New inspection intervals shall be established if operating temp increases, operating pressure increases or process fluid changes. (API 510 par. 6.2.2) 61 Section 5
54. 54. Interval is lesser of ½ remaining life or 10 years. If remaining life is LESS than 4 years, interval can be the full remaining life up to max of 2 years. (API 510 par 6.5.1.1). SHALL be conducted by the inspector (API 510 par 5.5.2.1) Primary reason for internal inspection is to find damage that cannot be found by external CML’s (API 510 par 5.5.2.1) Internal inspection performed inside the vessel (API 510 par 5.5.2.1) Internals may need to be removed to facilitate the internal inspection. Likely will not need to remove 100% of the internals. (API 510 par 5.5.2.2) Inspector should consult with Corrosion Specialist to determine if it is necessary to remove any linings and/or deposits (API 510 par 5.5.2.3) Vessels in non-continuous service, the interval is based on number of years of actual service, instead of calendar years, provided the vessel when idled is separated from process stream & not exposed to corrosive streams. 62
55. 55. C. On-stream Inspection Interval same as INTERNAL inspection. Should be conducted by either an inspector or examiner. (API 510 par 5.5.3.1) On-stream inspections performed by examiners shall be authorized/approved by the inspector (API 510 par 5.5.3.1) Inside of vessel inspected from outside vessel. (API 510 par 5.5.3.2) 63
56. 56. D. External Inspection Performed by inspector or qualified others (qualified with appropriate training). (API 510 par 5.5.4.1.1) Interval is lesser of 5 years or the internal interval. External inspections check; (API 510 par 5.5.4.1.2) Condition of Outside surface of vessel Condition of Insulation system Condition of Coating system Condition of Supports For leaks Hot spots Vibration damage Allowance for expansion Bulging, misalignment, distortion, etc Conditions discovered by others, must be reported to inspector. (API 510 par 5.5.4.1.3) 64
57. 57. E. Thickness Inspection Performed by inspector or examiner. (API 510 par 5.5.5.1) No required interval. Inspector should consult with corrosion-specialist when short term corrosion-rate changes significantly. (API 510 par 5.5.5.3) Owner-user is responsible for assuring individuals taking thickness readings are trained and qualified (API 510 par 5.5.5.4)
58. 58. F. CUI Inspection Performed by inspector or other qualified personnel (i.e. same as external) Shall be considered for; (API 510 par 5.5.6.1) Carbon steel and low alloy operating between 10oF and 350oF. Stainless steel operating between 140oF and 400oF. Usually causes localized corrosion damage (API 510 par 5.5.6.2) Susceptible locations include; (API 510 par 5.5.6.2) Insulation or stiffening rings Nozzles and manways Structural penetrations (ladder clips, pipe supports, etc) Damage insulation Insulation with failed caulking Top and bottom heads CUI inspection may require some or all insulation (API 510 par 5.5.6.3) Insulation may not need to be removed if; (API 510 par 5.5.6.3) Insulation is in good condition and there is no reason to suspect damage behind the insulation; CUI inspection can be performed with UT from ID of vessel. 66
59. 59. 67 Weld Joint CATERGORY is the ”location” of a “joint” in a pressure vessel Category A: All longitudinal welds in shell and nozzles All welds in heads, Hemi head to shell weld joint Category B: All circumferential welds in shell and nozzles Head to shell joint (other than Hemispherical.) Category C and D are flange welds and nozzle attachment welds respectively Longitudinal welds (Category A) are more critical than Circumferential welds (Category B) because they are under double stress. This the reason why in different part of ASME code we have stringent rules in category A joint compared to category B joint. Sub Section B, UW, General, UW 3
60. 60. Weld Joint Types 68 Sub Section B, UW, Design, UW 12
61. 61. Weld Joint Types 69 Sub Section B, UW, Design, UW 12
62. 62. 70 Type of Radiography Full – as required by the Code (see UW 11(a)), and UCS 57 Spot – Category B and C welds that are not required to be radiographed by UW 11(a)(5)(b). None Code Required RT (UW 11(a) and UW 11(b) Based on Service, Thickness or Welding Process User Specified RT The user can establish the type of joint and degree of examination when the rules of Code does not require radiography (see UW 12) Sub Section B, UW, Design, UW 11 Sub Section C, CCS, Design, UCS 57
63. 63. FULL RT – Required by CODE 71 FULL RT All butt welds in shell & heads in lethal service All butt welds in shell & heads with thickness >11/2 or per UCS 57 All butt welds in shell & heads of unfired boilers with; Pressure exceeding 50 psig or thickness > 1 1/2 or per UCS 57 Butt welds in nozzles >10 NPS or > 1 1/8” thickness Category “A” and “D” welds in shells and heads, where joint efficiency is based on Table UW 12 Butt welds made using Electro gas & Electro slag process Spot RT Category B and C butt welds intersecting Cat A welds in shells and heads Category B and C butt welds connecting seamless heads or shells Sub Section B, UW, Design, UW 11a
64. 64. 72 When and where is there a code requirement for full radiography? Item 1: Item 2: Item 3: Item 4: The point is this: items 1, 2 and 3 are similar, but item 4 is completely different. In items 1, 2 and 3 it is mandated by code; to do full radiography in all butt welds in vessel so it means it is mandatory for designer to select column (a) in UW 12 table. But in item 4, there is no mandating rule. A manufacturer with its own decision has chosen to use column (a) in table UW 12 for full radiography. All butt welds in vessels used to contain a lethal substance (UW 11(a)).Lethal substances have specific definitions in ASME Code in UW 2 and it is the responsibility of the end user to determine if they ordered a vessel that contains lethal substances. All butt welds in vessels in which the nominal thickness exceeds specified values (UW 11(a). You can find these values in subsection C, in UCS 57. For example, this value for P No.1 in UCS 57 is 1 ¼ inch. Nozzles larger than 10 NPS or thickness greater than 1 1/8”. All butt welds in an unfired steam boiler with design pressure > 50 psi (UW 11(a)). All category A and D butt welds in vessel when “Full Radiography” optionally selected from table UW 12(column (a) in this table is selected); and categories B and C which intersect Category A shall meet the spot radiography requirement (UW 11(a) (5) (b)). Sub Section B, UW, Design, UW 11 Sub Section C, UCS, Design, UCS 57
65. 65. 73 a. Items 1, 2 and 3 from the previous slide; RT is related to the type of welds and services. b. Pressure vessels in these items are critical from a safety point of view, one contains a lethal substance, the other one has a high thickness, which implicates high pressure, and the last one is an unfired steam boiler c. Item 4 has no criticality like the other items have. d. But you should note all 4 items have been categorized in full radiography clause( U 11(a)), so to differentiate item 1, 2 and 3 from item 4, the RT symbols are used in Code (UG 116).
66. 66. 74 RT 1: Items 1, 2 and 3, (E=1), All butt welds full length radiography RT 2: Item 4 (E=1), Category A and D butt welds full length radiography and category B and C butt welds spot Radiography RT 3: (E=0.85), Spot radiography butt welds RT 4: (E=0.7), Partial / No radiography You need to consider the hemispherical head joint to shell as category A, but ellipsoidal and torispherical head joint to shell as category B; Do you know why? Why ASME considered the stringent rule for pressure vessel RT test in hemispherical head joint? It is because this joint is more critical, because the thickness obtained from the formula for hemispherical head approximately would be half of the shell thickness; It means if the shell thickness is 1 inch, the hemispherical head thickness would be 0.5 inch. Sub Section A, UG, Design, UG 116
67. 67. Spot RT – Required by CODE B and C welds that are not required to be radiographed by UW- 11(a)(5)(b) Type 1 and Type 2 butt welds that are not required to be radiographed by UW-11(a). RT Markings RT 1 and RT 2 - FULL Radiography RT 3 - Spot Radiography RT 4 - Combo Radiography RT markings are located on Nameplate 75 Sub Section B, UW, Design, UW 11 Sub Section A, UG, Design, UG 116
69. 69. Joint Efficiency is based on; 80 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Table UW 12
70. 70. 81 E = 1RT 1 E = 1RT 2 E = 1 E = 0.85RT 3 E = 1 E = 0.70RT 4 E = 0.85 Sub Section A, UG, Design, UG 116
71. 71. Joint Efficiency based on Radiography RT 1 – Full RT per UW 11(a), except UW(a)(5) Use Column “a” of Table UW 12 For Seamless heads & shells E = 1 RT 2 Full RT per UW 11(a)(5) Use Column “a” of Table UW 12 For seamless heads and shells E = 1 RT 3 Spot radiography per UW 11(b) Use Column “b” of Table UW 12 For seamless heads & shells E = 1 RT 4 Combination of RT 1, RT 2 and RT 3 No RT no radiography at all Use Column “c” of Table UW 12 For seamless shells and heads E = 0.85 82 RT Stamping Sub Section B, UW, Design, Table UW 12 Sub Section A, UG, Design, UG 116
72. 72. 83 RT 1 or RT 2 RT 3 RT 4 NOTE: For Weld types 3, 4, 5, and 6, RT cannot be used to increase the joint efficiency. Sub Section B, UW, Design, Table UW 12
73. 73. 84 Joint Efficiency For Seamless Parts Weld Type Spot RT No RT 1 1.0 0.85 2 1.0 0.85 3 0.85 0.85 4 0.85 0.85 5 0.85 0.85 6 0.85 0.85 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 11(a)(5)(a)& (b) Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 12d
74. 74. 85 A pressure vessel shell with TYPE 1 longitudinal seams and circumferential welds that are single full fillet lap joints without plug welds. The vessel is stamped No RT. What is the joint efficiency for; Vessel shell ? A seamless head _________? Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 11(a)(5)(a)& (b) and Table UW 12 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 12d
75. 75. 86 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 11(a)(5)(a)& (b) and Table UW 12 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 12d
76. 76. 87 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 11(a)(5)(a)& (b) and Table UW 12 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 12d
77. 77. 88 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 11(a)(5)(a)& (b) and Table UW 12 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 12d
78. 78. 89 ouble full fillet lap joint we Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 11(a)(5)(a)& (b) and Table UW 12 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 12d
79. 79. 90 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 11(a)(5)(a)& (b) and Table UW 12 Sub Section B, UW, Design, Par UW 12d
80. 80. (Calculations – Static Head, Internal and External Pressure) 1
81. 81. (Calculations – Static Head and Internal Pressure 2
82. 82. (Calculations – Static Head and Internal Pressure 3
83. 83. 4 ASME Sec VIII, UG 98
84. 84. 5 1 ft 0.433 psi (at bottom of the water column) ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Inspection and Testing, UG 98(a)(b)
85. 85. 6 ASME Sec VIII, UG 98 44 ft 8 ft What is MAWP of each component for a 48 ft tall vertical vessel with ellipsoidal heads and a MAWP of 500 psig? 2 ft 2 ft 6 ft 6 ft 36 ft Vessel MAWP = 500 psig Vessel MAWP is the gage pressure at the “TOP” of the vessel, including Static head pressure. Reference UG 98(a)(b) N1 N2 MAWP of N1 = ________ MAWP of N2 = _________ MAWP of Top head = _________ MAWP of Btm head = _________ MAWP of the shell = _________ ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Inspection and Testing, UG 98(a)(b)
86. 86. 7 ASME Sec VIII, UG 98 44 ft 8 ft What is MAWP of each component for a 48 ft tall vertical vessel with ellipsoidal heads and a MAWP of 500 psig? 2 ft 2 ft 6 ft 6 ft 36 ft Vessel MAWP = 500 psig Vessel MAWP is the gage pressure at the “TOP” of the vessel, including Static head pressure. Reference UG 98(a)(b) N1 N2 MAWP of N1 = ________ MAWP of N2 = _________ MAWP of Top head = _________ MAWP of Btm head = _________ MAWP of the shell = _________ 500 psig + (6 x 0.433) = 500 + 2.6 = 502.60 psig 500 psig + (42 x 0.433) = 500 + 18.19 = 518.19 psig 500 psig + (2 x 0.433) = 500 + 0.87 = 500.87 psig 500 psig + (48 x 0.433) = 500 + 20.78 = 520.78 psig 500 psig + (46 x 0.433) = 500 + 19.92 = 519.92 psig ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Inspection and Testing, UG 98(a)(b)
87. 87. 8 ASME Sec VIII, UG 98 42 ft 10 ft What is MAWP of this vessel? 2 ft 50 ft 48 ft 0 ft 8 ft N1 N2 Part Part MAWP Static Head Pressure at Top of Vessel Top head 510 psig N1 500 psig N2 495 psig Shell 510 psig Btm Head 507 psig ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Inspection and Testing, UG 98(a)(b)
88. 88. 9 66 ft 8 ft Practice Question # 1 2 ft 2 ft 6 ft 6 ft 58 ft If this vessel is being hydrostatically tested at 200 psig, what is the pressure at the bottom of the vessel? N1 N2 Practice Question # 2 If the MAWP of the vessel is 550 psig, what is the MAWP of N2? Practice Question # 3 If the MAWP of the shell of the vessel is 564 psig, what is the MAWP of N1? Use this vessel to answer these practice questions ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Inspection and Testing, UG 98(a)(b)
89. 89. 10 66 ft 8 ft Practice Question # 4 2 ft 2 ft 6 ft 6 ft 58 ft If a vessel is being hydrostatically tested at 400 psig, what is the pressure at N2? N1 N2 Practice Question # 5 During a hydrotest of a vessel, if the pressure at the bottom of the vessel is 635 psig, what is the pressure at N1? Practice Question # 6 During a hydrotest of a vessel, if the pressure at N2 is 528 psig, what is the pressure at the top of the vessel? Use this vessel to answer these practice questions NOTE: Per ASME Section VIII, UG 99(c.), the hydrotest pressure is the pressure at the top of the vessel. ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Inspection and Testing, UG 98(a)(b)
90. 90. 11 ASME Sec VIII, UG 21 and Appendix 3 (par 3 2) Design pressure is the pressure used in the design of a vessel component together with coincident temperature for the purpose of determining the minimum permissible thickness for each component. Design pressure includes static head pressure. NOTE: Design pressure is the minimum pressure used to design the vessel (i.e. used to determine the “required thickness” of each component. Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is the maximum pressure permissible at the top of the vessel in its normal operating position. MAWP is adjusted for the difference in static head that may exist between for the part considered and the top of the vessel. Design pressure is the pressure for the process (process pressure plus static head). MAWP is the maximum pressure rating for each part and/or vessel. ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Inspection and Testing, UG 98(a)(b)
91. 91. t = PR/ (SE) (0.6P) 12 ASME Sec VIII, UG 27(c.)(1) Variables t = required thickness P = Design Pressure R = Inside Radius of shell S = Allowable Stress E = Joint Efficiency inches psi psi inches ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 27( c.)(1)
92. 92. 13 Practice Question # 7 A 60’ tall vertical vessel has an inside diameter of 8’ and designed for 300 psig @ 450 deg F. Allowable stress of the material of construction is 17,500 psi and the joint efficiency is 0.85. What is the minimum required thickness? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 27( c.)(1)
93. 93. 14 Variables t = required thickness P = Design Pressure R = Inside Radius of shell S = Allowable Stress E = Joint Efficiency Practice Question # 7 A 60’ tall vertical vessel has an inside diameter of 8’ and designed for 300 psig @ 450 deg F. Allowable stress of the material of construction is 17,500 psi and the joint efficiency is 0.85. What is the minimum required thickness? inches psi psi inches ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 27( c.)(1) t = PR (SE) (0.6P) t = 300 x 48 ( 17500 x 0.85 ) ( 0.6 x 300 ) t = 14400 ( 14875 ) ( 180 ) t = 14400 14695 t = 0.980 inches
94. 94. 15 Practice Question # 8 A vessel has an inside diameter of 60” and designed for 150 psig @ 350 deg F. Allowable stress of the material of construction is 18,000 psi and the joint efficiency is 1.0 What is the minimum required thickness? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 27( c.)(1)
95. 95. 16 Practice Question # 9 A vessel has an inside radius of 48” and designed for 250 psig @ 500 deg F. Allowable stress of the material of construction is 17,000 psi and the joint efficiency is .90 What is the minimum required thickness? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 27( c.)(1)
96. 96. 17 t = PR (2SE) (0.2P) Variables t = required thickness P = Design Pressure R = Inside Radius of shell S = Allowable Stress E = Joint Efficiency inches psi psi inches ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 27(d)
97. 97. 18 Practice Question # 10 A sphere has an inside radius of 12 ft and designed for 250 psig @ 500 deg F. Allowable stress of the material of construction is 17,000 psi and the welds are single butt welded with backing and vessel is stamped RT 2. What is the minimum required thickness? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 27(d)
98. 98. 19 Practice Question # 11 A sphere has an ID of 36 ft and designed for 30 psig @ 400 deg F. Allowable stress of the material of construction is 15,000 psi and the joint efficiency is 0.80 What is the minimum required thickness? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 27(d)
99. 99. Short Axis 20 h = 1/4D D = Inside diameter L = inside radius D = Inside diameter Ellipsoidal heads are known as 2 to 1 heads. 2 to 1 comes from the fact that an ellipsoidal head is 1/2 of a ellipse. An ellipse has a long axis that is 2 x the short axis. Long Axis ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(d) ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(f)
100. 100. 21 Minimum Required Thickness of an Ellipsoidal Head Minimum Required Thickness of a Hemispherical Head x L 2 [( S x E ) ( X )] t P 0.2 P = Px D 2 [( S x E ) ( X )] t = 0.2 P t = minimum required thickness P = Design Pressure D = Inside Diameter S = Allowable Stress E = Joint Efficiency t = minimum required thickness P = Design Pressure L = Inside Radius S = Allowable Stress E = Joint Efficiency ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(d) ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(f)
101. 101. 22 Practice Question # 12 What is the minimum required thickness for the head of a 30’ tall vertical vessel with ellipsoidal heads, inside diameter of 72”, allowable stress of 16,500 psi, MAWP of 120 psig, and welds that are double welded butt welds and Spot RT’d? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(d)
102. 102. 23 Practice Question # 13 What is the minimum required thickness for the head of a seamless horizontal vessel with ellipsoidal heads, inside diameter of 96”, allowable stress of 18,000 psi, MAWP of 200 psig, and welds that are double full fillet welded lap joints and RT 1? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(d)
103. 103. 24 Practice Question # 14 What is the minimum required thickness for the head of a 30’ tall vertical vessel with hemispherical heads, inside diameter of 72”, allowable stress of 16,500 psi, MAWP of 320 psig, and welds that are double welded butt welds and Spot RT’d? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(f)
104. 104. 25 Practice Question # 15 What is the minimum required thickness for the heads of a horizontal vessel with hemispherical heads, inside diameter of 96”, allowable stress of 18,000 psi, MAWP of 200 psig, and welds that are double full fillet welded lap joints and RT 1? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(f)
106. 106. I. MAWP of Ellipsoidal Heads II. MAWP of Hemispherical Heads 29 2 SEt ( D + 0.2t) P = t = minimum required thickness D = Inside Diameter S = Allowable Stress E = Joint Efficiency t = minimum required thickness L = Inside Radius S = Allowable Stress E = Joint Efficiency ( L + 0.2t) P = 2 Set ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(d) ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(f)
107. 107. 30 Practice Question # 16 During an inspection of a vertical vessel thickness measurements taken on the bottom ellipsoidal head was found to be 0.785. The inside diameter of the vessel is 96”, allowable stress is 17,000 psi, and welds that are double welded butt weld joints and the vessel is stamped RT 1. What is the maximum allowable working pressure for this seamless ellipsoidal head? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(d)
108. 108. 2 SEt ( D + 0.2t) 2 ( x x ) ( + ( x ) 2 x + P = P = 1 0.785 0.2 0.7996 P = 17000 P = 13345 96 0.157 277.57 P = 26690 96.157 31 Practice Question # 16 During an inspection of a vertical vessel thickness measurements taken on the bottom ellipsoidal head was found to be 0.785. The inside diameter of the vessel is 96”, allowable stress is 17,000 psi, and welds that are double welded butt weld joints and the vessel is stamped RT 1. What is the maximum allowable working pressure for this seamless ellipsoidal head? t = 0.785” D = 96” S = 17,000 E = 1 Note: Read the question closely, in this question there is no mention if the vessel has long seams or not. Therefore, assume the vessel has long seams. You go to Table UW 12 and find the joint efficiency to be “1” for “double welded butt welds”. The “seamless” head, does not change the joint efficiency. ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(d)
109. 109. 32 Practice Question # 17 A horizontal vessel with an outside diameter of 72” and ellipsoidal heads. Shell thickness is 0.750” and the heads are 0.500” thick. The allowable stress is 16,000 psi. Welds are double full fillet lap joints and the vessel is stamped RT 1. The corrosion allowance for the entire vessel is 0.125”. What is the maximum allowable working pressure for the ellipsoidal head? 32 ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(f)
110. 110. 33 Practice Question # 18 During an inspection of a vertical vessel thickness measurements taken on the bottom hemispherical head was found to be 0.785. The inside diameter of the vessel is 96”, allowable stress is 17,000 psi, and welds that are double welded butt weld joints and the vessel is stamped RT 1. What is the maximum allowable working pressure for this hemispherical head? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(f)
111. 111. 34 Practice Question # 19 A horizontal vessel with an outside diameter of 72” and hemispherical heads. Shell thickness is 0.750” and the heads are 0.500” thick. The allowable stress is 16,000 psi. Welds are double full fillet lap joints and the vessel is stamped RT 1. The corrosion allowance for the entire vessel is 0.125”. What is the maximum allowable working pressure for the Hemispherical head? 34 ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 32(f)
112. 112. 35 Practice Question # 20 During a recent inspection of a horizontal vessel with an inside diameter of 72” and hemispherical heads, shell thickness was recorded as 0.625”. The allowable stress is 16,000 psi. Welds are double full fillet lap joints and the vessel is stamped RT 1. The corrosion rate is 0.006”/yr. Required thickness is 0.588”. Vessel is in corrosive service. Next inspection is in 5 years. What is the maximum allowable working pressure for this vessel? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 27( c.)(1) API 510, Section 7, Sub par 7.3.3
113. 113. 36 There are three factors that can effect the resistance of crushing due external pressure. 1. Stiffeners 2. Thickness – thicker materials resist crushing 3. Diameter – increasing diameter, increases susceptibility of crushing ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 28( c.)
114. 114. I. Formula and variables 37 A = Factor based on ratio of L/Do and Do/t. (Get it from ASME Sec II, Part D, Fig G.) B = Factor based on “A” Factor and design Temperature (Get if from ASME Sec II, Part D, Tables CS 1 or CS 2) Do = Outside Diameter t = Minimum required thickness 4B [ 3 ( Do / t ) ] Pa = “B” factor will be given to you in the question. ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 28( c.)
115. 115. 38 Practice Question # 21 A horizontal vessel has an outside diameter of 60”. The distance between supports is 15’ ft. The wall thickness is 0.625”. Material of construction is SA 516 Gr 70. This vessel has a “B” factor of 3500 and is designed for 250 psig @ 500 deg F. Allowable stress is 16,500. What is the maximum external pressure for this vessel? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 28( c.)
116. 116. 39 Practice Question # 21 A horizontal vessel has an outside diameter of 60”. The distance between supports is 15’ ft. The wall thickness is 0.625”. Material of construction is SA 516 Gr 70. This vessel has a “B” factor of 3500 and is designed for 250 psig @ 500 deg F. Allowable stress is 16,500. What is the maximum external pressure for this vessel? B = 3500 Do = 60” t = 0.625 4B [ 3 ( Do / t ) ] 4 x [ 3 x ( / 0.625 ) ] Pa = 3 x ( ) Pa = psi Pa = Pa = 60 3500 96 14000 48.611 ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 28( c.)
117. 117. 40 Practice Question # 22 During an external inspection of a vessel with an outside diameter of 48” uniform corrosion damage was discovered. The thickness in this area of shell was found to be 0.425”. This vessel is designed for 35 psi external pressure and has a B factor of 1800. Can this vessel operate at 35 psi external pressure or does it need to be rerated? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 28( c.)
118. 118. 41 Practice Question # 23 A 20 ft long exchanger tube has an outside diameter of 2” and nominal thickness of 0.083”. Material of construction is SA 283 Gr D and design temperature is 600 deg F. The “B” factor for the tube is 1500. What is the maximum allowed external pressure for this tube? ASME Section VIII Subsection A, UG, Design, UG 28( c.)
119. 119. (Calculations – Impact Testing, Weld Size and Nozzle Reinforcement) 1
120. 120. (Calculations – Impact Testing, Weld Size and Nozzle Reinforcement) I. ImpactTesting A. The inspector should understand impact testing requirements and impact testing procedure (UG 84) B. The inspector should be able to determine the minimum metal temperature of a material which is exempt from impact testing (UG 20 (f), UCS 66, UCS 68(c).) II.WELD SIZE FOR ATTACHMENTWELDS AT OPENING Must be able to determine if the weld size meets Code requirements. A. Convert a fillet weld throat dimension to leg dimension or visa versa, using conversion factor (0.707); B. Determine the required size of welds at openings (UW-16) III. Nozzle Reinforcement A. Understand the key concepts of reinforcement, such as replacement of strength removed and limits of reinforcement. Credit can be taken for extra metal in shell and nozzle B. Be able to calculate the required areas for reinforcement or check to ensure that a designed pad is large enough. To simplify the problem: All fr = 1.0 All F = 1.0 All E = 1.0 C. There will be no nozzle projecting inside the shell D. Be able to compensate for corrosion allowances E. Weld strength calculations are excluded 2
121. 121. I. What does Impact Testing Determine? II. What is MDMT? III. Why does the Code worry about MDMT? IV. What are some factors that affect brittleness of materials? V. What is the opposite of brittleness? . 3 (ASME VIII UG 20 (f), UG 84 UCS 66, UCS 68(c).)
122. 122. I. How does ASME Section VIII manage Brittle Fracture a. By Material Selection (P1 Group 1 and 2 see Fig. UCS 66) b. Provides a method for determining MDMT 1. Curves for material groupings (Fig. UCS 66) 2. Initial impact testing exempt temperature based on material (curve letter) and thickness (Table UCS 66 1) 3. Stress Reduction Ratio factor [(tr x E)/(tn c)]. (Fig UCS 66.1) Note: This ratio will be provided on the test. 4. PWHT Reduction (residual stress reduction allowed when PWHT is performed and is not required by the Code) see (par. UCS 68(c.)) c. Temperature limited by UCS 66(b)(2)&(3) and UCS 68(c.) a) UCS 66(b)(2) – no colder than 55oF, unless ; 1) Stress reduction ratio is 0.35 or less, then temperature can be between 55oF and 155oF. (UCS 66(b)(3) 2) PWHT performed when not required by Code, temperature can be below 55oF. (UCS 68(c.) 4 ASME VIII, ASME VIII,
123. 123. Practice Question # 1 A horizontal vessel constructed from SA-516 Gr 65 plate (not normalized). Designed for 350 psig @ 650oF. Wall thickness is 1.5”, with a 1/16” corrosion allowance and reduction ratio is .80. Nameplate is stamped RT-1 and HT. What is the lowest possible MDMT for this vessel? 5
124. 124. Practice Question # 1 A horizontal vessel constructed from SA-516 Gr 65 plate (not normalized). Designed for 350 psig @ 650oF. Wall thickness is 1.5”, with a 1/16” corrosion allowance and reduction ratio is .80. Nameplate is stamped RT-1 and HT. What is the lowest possible MDMT for this vessel? 6 Step 1: Find material Curve Letter; Curve letter is “B” from Fig. UCS 66 Step 2: Initial MDMT; 51oF from Table UCS 66 Step 3: MDMT reduction (stress ratio reduction); 20oF reduction allowed, therefore Reduced MDMT = 51oF 20oF = + 31oF (from Fig. UCS 66.1) Step 4: PWHT reduction (not allowed) PWHT reduction is not allowed because PWHT was required by Code (i.e. nameplate stamped “HT”) see Par. UCS 68(c.) Lowest MDMT = + 31oF ASME VIII, ASME VIII, ASME VIII, ASME VIII,
125. 125. Practice Question # 2 A horizontal vessel constructed from SA-516 Gr 50N plate. Designed for 300 psig @ 600oF. Wall thickness is 0.25”, with a 1/32” corrosion allowance and reduction ratio is .80. Nameplate is stamped RT-1. Vessel was PWHT’d. What is the lowest possible MDMT for this vessel? 7 (ASME VIII UG 20 (f), UG 84 UCS 66, UCS 68(c).)
126. 126. Practice Question # 3 A horizontal vessel constructed from SA 178 Gr A plate. Designed for 200 psig @ 500oF. Wall thickness is 0.500”, with a 1/8” corrosion allowance and reduction ratio is .80. Vessel was PWHT’d. Nameplate is stamped RT 2. What is the lowest possible MDMT for this vessel? (ASME VIII UG 20 (f), UG 84 UCS 66, UCS 68(c).)
127. 127. Practice Question # 4 A horizontal vessel constructed from SA-516 Gr 60 plate. Designed for 200 psig @ 500oF. Wall thickness is 0.750”, with a 1/8” corrosion allowance and reduction ratio is .88. Nameplate is stamped RT-2 and vessel was PWHT’d for environment cracking. What is the lowest possible MDMT for this vessel? (ASME VIII UG 20 (f), UG 84 UCS 66, UCS 68(c).)
128. 128. Charpy Impact Test Each Specimen shall consist of three specimens ASME VIII UG 84 Specimen thickness is 0.394” Fig. UG 84 10 ASME VIII,
129. 129. Charpy Impact Test 11 (a) Interpolation between yield strengths shown is permitted. (b) The minimum impact energy for one specimen shall not be less than 2 3 of the average energy required for three specimens. The average impact energy value of the three specimens may be rounded to the nearest ft lb. ASME VIII,
130. 130. Practice Question # 5 What is the required average and minimum charpy impact values for a material with 50 ksi MSYS and is 1.0 thick? 12 ASME VIII,
131. 131. 13 (ASME VIII UG 84 50 Ksi 1.0 thickness 15 ft lbs ANSWER: Average = 15 ft lbs Min. Value = 2/3 x 15 = 10 ft lbs
132. 132. Practice Question # 6 What is the required average and minimum charpy impact values for a material with 55 ksi MSYS and is 2.0 thick? 14 (ASME VIII UG 84
133. 133. Practice Question # 7 During impact testing of a 1 ½” thick material with a MSYS of 45,000 psi, the impact testing values for the specimens were 17, 12, and 11? Are the results of these impact tests acceptable? 15 (ASME VIII UG 84
134. 134. 16 Leg Throat Leg Fillet weld size is normally described by the “leg” size. Calculating fillet weld size; Throat size = 0.707 x leg size Leg size = throat size / 0.707 Per Fig. UW 16.1; Throat size = ½ tmin or Throat size = tc or Throat size = tw ASME VIII,
135. 135. 17 Leg Throat Leg Calculating the size of fillet welds; Practice Question # 5 An equal leg fillet weld has a throat of 0.375”. What is leg size for this fillet weld? Leg size = throat size / 0.707 = 0.375 / 0.707 = 0.530” Practice Question # 6 A fillet weld with a leg size of 0.250”. What is throat size for this fillet weld? Practice Question # 7 A 45o fillet weld has a leg size of 0.125”. What is throat size for this fillet weld? ASME VIII,
136. 136. 18 tn tc d te t a 1 1 /2 tmin Per par. UW 16(b); Fillet weld size, must be converted from throat size (½ tmin or tc) to leg size. tmin = lesser of ¾” or members joined Assume, the repad is 0.375” thick, the vessel shell is 0.500” thick and the nozzle is 0.432”. What is the required fillet weld size attaching the repad to the vessel shell? Step 1: Go to the sketch (UW 16.1(a 1). Step 2: Calculate throat size ( ½ tmin) ½ tmin = ½ x (less = ½ x (lesser of (0.75”, _____, _____,____) = ½ x (lesser of (0.75”, 0.375”, 0.500”, 0.423”) = ½ x 0.375” = 0.1875” Step 3: Calculate weld size (Fillet weld Leg size); Leg = ½ tmin / 0.707 = 0.1875 / 0.707 = 0.265” , rounded to next 1/16” = 0.3125” ASME VIII,
137. 137. 19 Per par. UW 16(b); Fillet weld size for nozzles without repads must be calculated by converting throat size (tc), to leg size. tc = not less than smaller of ¼” or 0.707 x tmin Assume, the vessel shell is 0.500” thick and the nozzle is 0.432”. What is the required fillet weld size for this branch connection? Step 1: Find correct sketch (UW-16.1(a). Step 2: Calculate the throat size (tc) tc = lesser of ¼” or 0.707 x tmin = lesser of ¼” or 0.707 x (lesser of 0.750, 0.423, 0.500) = lesser of ¼” or (0.707 x 0.432) = lesser of ¼” or 0.305” = 0.250” Step 3: Calculate weld size (Fillet weld Leg size); Leg = tc / 0.707 = 0.250 / 0.707 = 0.357”, rounded to next 1/16” = 0.375” tn tc d t a
138. 138. 20 tc = 0.375” 0.3125” 0.250”
139. 139. 21 tn tc d t a Practice Question # 8 A branch connection is being installed without a reinforcement pad. The nozzle thickness is 0.625” and the vessel shell is 0.875” thick. What size fillet weld should be used for this branch connection? ASME VIII par. UW 16(b);
140. 140. 22 Practice Question # 9 A branch connection is being installed with a reinforcement pad. The nozzle thickness is 0.625”, repad is 0.750” thick and the vessel shell is 0.875” thick. What size fillet weld should be used to attach the repad to the vessel shell? ASME VIII par. UW 16(b); tn tc d te t a 1 1 /2 tmin
141. 141. 23 Practice Question # 10 tn tc d t a A nozzle is installed in a vessel per Fig. UW 16.1(a). The vessel wall thickness is 0.325” and the nozzle wall thickness is 0.375”. What is the minimum fillet Weld size for the nozzle to shell fillet weld? ASME VIII par. UW 16(b), Fig. UW 16.1(a)
142. 142. 24 Practice Question # 11 tn tc d t a A nozzle is installed in a vessel per Fig. UW 16.1(a). The vessel wall thickness is 0.325” and the nozzle wall thickness is 0.375”. What is the minimum fillet weld size for the nozzle to shell fillet weld? ASME VIII par. UW 16(b), Fig. UW 16.1(a)
143. 143. 25 ASME VIII par. UG 37 Practice Question # 12 A new 8 NPS nozzle is installed in a vessel per Fig. UW 16.1(h). Shell required thickness is 1.125”. Nominal shell thickness is 1.250”. Nominal thickness for the nozzle is 0.875”. The repad thickness is 0.500”. 1) What is the minimum fillet weld size for the nozzle to repad fillet weld? 2) What is the minimum fillet weld size for the shell to repad fillet weld? tc d t Fig. UW 16 1(h) tn tw= 0.7tmin tc
145. 145. I. Nozzle Reinforcement 29 ASME VIII par. UG 37 Replacing area lost by cutting hole in vessel (cross sectional area) Strength of the material lost, must be replaced Strength lost = diameter of hole x shell tmin Limits of reinforcement Extra metal must be near the nozzle Strength of reinforcement Reinforcement must be equal to the strength removed Additional reinforcement must be added Reinforcement can come from multiple sources Shell, nozzle, repad and fillet welds Corrosion allowance cannot be used
146. 146. 30 Variables for nozzles wwith repads A = d x tr A1 = d (t-tr) or 2(t + tn)(t-tr) , larger of these two A2 = 5t(tn-trn) or 5tn (tn-trn) , smaller of these two A41 = Leg2 A42 = Leg2 A5 = (Dp – d – 2tn)te Variables for nozzles wwithout repads A = d x tr A1 = d (t-tr) or 2(t + tn)(t-tr) , extra shell area, larger of these two A2 = 5t(tn-trn) or 5tn (tn-trn) , extra nozzle area, smaller of these two A41 = leg2 Notes: A. There will be no nozzle projecting inside the shell B. Be able to compensate for corrosion allowances C. Weld strength calculations are excluded d = diameter of nozzle in corroded condition t = shell thickness in the corroded condition tr = shell required thickness tn = nozzle thickness in the corroded condition trn = nozzle required thickness Dp = outside diameter of repad te = repad thickness Limits of reinforcement = greater of d or Rn+tn_t Nozzle Reinforcement Variables tn tc d te t a 1 1 /2 tmin tn tc d t a ASME VIII, Subsection A, Part UG, UG 37
147. 147. 31 Practice Question # 13 tn tc d t a A 12 NPS nozzle is being installed on a vessel. The corroded ID of the nozzle is 12.0”. Shell thickness is 0.750”. Corrosion allowance is 1/16”. Required thickness for the shell is 0.625”. The area that must be replaced is; ASME VIII, Subsection A, Part UG, UG 37
148. 148. 32 ASME VIII par. UG 37 Practice Question # 13 tn tc d t a A 12 NPS nozzle is being installed on a vessel. The corroded ID of the nozzle is 12.0”. Shell thickness is 0.750”. Corrosion allowance is 1/16”. Required thickness for the shell is 0.625”. The area that must be replaced is; ASME VIII, Subsection A, Part UG, UG 37
149. 149. 33 ASME VIII par. UG 37 Practice Question # 14 tn tc d t a A 8 NPS nozzle is being installed on a vessel. The corroded ID of the nozzle is 8.0”. Nozzle thickness is 0.250”. Required thickness for the nozzle is 0.100” Shell thickness is 0.450”. Required thickness for the shell is 0.400”. Fillet weld size is 0.375”. 1. What is the area lost? 2. What is the limits of reinforcement? 3. What is the extra area provided by shell? 4. What is the extra area provided by the nozzle?
150. 150. Practice Question # 15 tn tc d te t Fig. UW 16.1(a 1) 1 /2 tmin A 12 NPS nozzle is being installed in a vessel as indicated by Fig. UW 16.1(a 1). The vessel wall thickness is 0.825” thick. Vessel required thickness is 0.625”. The nozzle wall thickness is 0.500”. Required nozzle thickness is 0.375”. The repad is 0.375” thick. Corrosion allowance is 0.125”. 1) What is the limits of reinforcement (edge to edge)? 2) What is the area lost?
151. 151. 1
152. 152. Exam Restrictions/Exclusions: 2 1. No more than one process (SMAW, GTAW or SAW). 2. One filler metal per process 3. PQR will be the supporting PQR for the WPS (only one WPS and one PQR). 4. Base metal limited to P1, P3, P4, P5 and P8 5. Dissimilar metals and/or thicknesses are excluded from exam 6. Corrosion-resistant weld overlay, hard-facing overlay, and dissimilar metal welds with buttering of ferritic member is excluded from exam 7. P1, P3, P4 & P5 lower transition temperature will be 1330 F and 1600 F upper transformation 8. Editorial and non-technical requirements are excluded (i.e. Revision #, Company Name, WPS number, WPS Date, and Name of testing lab). 9. Supplemental Variables are excluded from Exam.
153. 153. Body of Knowledge I. WPS/PQR/WPQ – BODY OF KNOWLEDGE 3
154. 154. Layout of the ASME Section IX Code Book Divided into 2 parts QW – WELDING QB - BRAZING (pages 204 – 243 is not on exam) QW – Divided into 5 Articles Article I – Welding general requirements (13 pages) QW100 Article II – Welding Procedure Qualifications (WPS/PQR) QW200 Article III – Welding Performance Qualifications (WPQ) QW300 Article IV – Welding Data QW400 Article V - Standard WPS Specifications (NOT ON TEST) QW500 4
155. 155. Purpose of ASME Section IX 5 Section IX is focused on THREE things; 1. WPS - (Welding Procedure Specification) 2. PQR - (Procedure Qualification Record) 3. WPQ - (Welder Performance Qualification) Directions to welder to for making production welds Qualifies that the WPS can be used to make a quality weld Qualifies that the WELDER can make quality welds with a Welding Process (i.e. SMAW, GTAW, SAW).
156. 156. General requirements of ASME Section IX QW100.1 (page 1) a. Provides directions to welder for making production welds in accordance with CODE requirements. b. WPS shall be qualified by Manufacturer/Contractor c. WPS specifies conditions which welding must be performed d. WPS must address eessential and non-essential variables and supplemental variables when applicable (supplemental variables are not on API 510 exam). e. PQR establishes the properties of the weld, “not the skill of welder’. f. PQR must address eessential variables and and supplemental variables when applicable (supplemental variables are not on API 510 exam). QW100.2 (page 2) a. WPQ determines welder’s ability to make sound welds. 6
157. 157. General requirements of ASME Section IX (cont) QW100.3 a. WPS qualified per Section IX, can be used to make welds in accordance with Section VIII b. WPS qualified in accordance with Section IX 1962 or later can be used. c. WPS qualified in accordance with Section IX prior to 1962, can be used, if all the 1962 requirements are met. d. Prior to 2009, Section IX used “S” numbers. The 2010 Section IX eliminated the “S” numbers. WPS’s created using “S” numbers must be revised to show correct “P” number, but not RE-QUALIFIED. e. New WPS’s and Welder Qualifications, must be per 2010 Edition of Section IX QW-101 a. Section IX applies to preparation of WPS, PQR, WPQ for all types of manual & machine welding processes 7
158. 158. General requirements of ASME Section IX (cont) QW102 (Definitions) (see QW492, page 193) a. Groove Weld – weld made in a groove formed within a single or two members. b. Heat-affected zone – base metal that was not melted, but whose mechanical properties were altered during welding c. Interpass temperature – highest temperature allowed in weld or weld joint prior to welding. d. Lower Transformation Temperature 1330 o F – Ferrite begins to transform into Austenite (P1, P3, P4, P5) e. Macro-Examination - Observing a cross-section of a specimen by the unaided eye or low magnification with or without etching. f. Performance Qualification – welder’s ability to produce welds meeting prescribed standards. g. Preheating – heat applied prior to welding h. Upper Transformation temperature 1600 o F – Transformation from ferrite to austenite is completed. (P1, P3, P4, P5) i. Welder – one who performs manual or semi-automatic welding. 8
159. 159. General requirements of ASME Section IX (cont) QW103.1 - Responsibility a. Manufacturer is responsible for and shall conduct testing required to Qualify WPS’s and Welders. QW103.2 - Records a. Manufacturer shall maintain a record of the results of WPS and Welder Qualifications (i.e. PQR and WPQ). QW110 – Weld Orientation a. Weld orientations used for WPS and WPQ test are as indicated in figure QW 461.1 or QW 461.2 (page 151). 9
160. 160. Understanding P-Number 14
161. 161. Understanding P-Number 15 Example - What is the P-Number for SA 285 Gr C? Answer - Find SA 285 Gr C in table QW/QB 422 (page 76). It is P1 Gr 1.
162. 162. Understanding F-Numbers 16
163. 163. Understanding F-Numbers 17 Example - What is the F-Number for E8018? Answer - Find AWS classification in Table QW 432 (page 134), then go horizontally to left till you get to the F-No column. F4 is answer
164. 164. P-Number and F-Number Practice Questions 18 Material P Number SA 240 Type 304 SA 217 Type WC1 UNS S31000 Filler Metal Classification and/or Specification F Number E7024 E8018 SFA 5.18
165. 165. Test positions for Groove Welds (plate) 19 QW120 – Test Positions a. Test coupons may be oriented in any position indicate in figures QW 461.3 (plate) or QW 461.4 (pipe) …..see page 153 15 deg 15 deg
166. 166. Test positions for Groove Welds (Pipe) 20 15 deg 15 deg
167. 167. 21 “FIELD” Weld Orientations (QW110 page 151) 0 o to 360 o 280 o ROTATION of FACE INCLINATION of AXIS Tabulation of Positions of GROOVE WELDS Diagram Inclination Rotation Position Reference of Axis of Face Flat A 0 to 15o 150 to 210o Horizontal B 0 to 15o 80 to 150o 210 to 280o Overhead C 0 to 80o 0 to 80o 210 to 360o Vertical D 15 to 80o 80 to 280o E 80 to 90o 0 to 360o
168. 168. 22 Groove Weld – POSITION of Field Welds Tabulation of Positions of GROOVE WELDS Diagram Inclination Rotation Position Reference of Axis of Face Flat A 0 to 15o 150 to 210o Horizontal B 0 to 15o 80 to 150o 210 to 280o Overhead C 0 to 80o 0 to 80o 210 to 360o Vertical D 15 to 80o 80 to 280o E 80 to 90o 0 to 360o “FIELD” Weld Orientations (QW110 page 151)
169. 169. 23 “FIELD” Weld Orientations (QW110 page 151)
170. 170. 24 Tabulation of Positions of GROOVE WELDS Diagram Inclination Rotation Position Reference of Axis of Face Flat A 0 to 15o 150 to 210o Horizontal B 0 to 15o 80 to 150o 210 to 280o Overhead C 0 to 80o 0 to 80o 210 to 360o Vertical D 15 to 80o 80 to 280o E 80 to 90o 0 to 360o Tabulation of Positions of GROOVE WELDS Diagram Inclination Rotation Position Reference of Axis of Face Flat A 0 to 15o 150 to 210o Horizontal B 0 to 15o 80 to 150o 210 to 280o Overhead C 0 to 80o 0 to 80o 210 to 360o Vertical D 15 to 80o 80 to 280o E 80 to 90o 0 to 360o “FIELD” Weld Orientations (QW110 page 151)
171. 171. 25 Tabulation of Positions of GROOVE WELDS Diagram Inclination Rotation Position Reference of Axis of Face Flat A 0 to 15o 150 to 210o Horizontal B 0 to 15o 80 to 150o 210 to 280o Overhead C 0 to 80o 0 to 80o 210 to 360o Vertical D 15 to 80o 80 to 280o E 80 to 90o 0 to 360o “FIELD” Weld Orientations (QW110 page 151)
172. 172. 26 Practice Questions for Weld Orientations
173. 173. 27 Practice Questions for Weld Orientations
174. 174. 28 Practice Questions for Weld Orientations
175. 175. 29 Practice Questions for Weld Orientations
176. 176. QW141.1 – Tension Test A. Used to determine “ultimate strength” of groove weld joints (TENSILE STRENGTH). B. Types of Test - Reduced Section, Round (Turned), Full Section C. Tensile Strength = Load/Area in lbs/in 2 (psi) QW141.2 – Guided Bend Test A. Used to determine “degree of soundness and ductility” of groove weld joints. B. Types - Root, Face and Side bend QW141.3 – Fillet Weld Test A. Used to determine “size, contour & degree of soundness ” of fillet welds. QW141.4 – Charpy Impact A. Used to determine “notch toughness” of the welds QW142 – Special examination for welders A. RT or UT may be substituted for mechanical test (bends) for welders. QW144 – Visual examination A. Used to determine welds meet “quality standards” 30
177. 177. 31
178. 178. QW141.1 – Tension Test A. Used to determine “ultimate strength” of groove weld joints (TENSILE STRENGTH). B. Types of Test - Reduced Section, Round (Turned), Full Section C. Tensile Strength = Load/Area in lbs/in 2 (psi) QW151 – Tension Test QW 151.1 - Reduced section “may be” used for all thicknesses of pplates QW 151.1(a) - For thicknesses 1” “SHALL” be FULL thickness specimens QW 151.1(b) - For thicknesses > 1” “may be” FULL thickness or multiple specimens QW 151.2 - Reduced section “may be” used for all thicknesses of ppipe > 3” diameter. QW 151.2(a) - For pipe thickness 1” “SHALL” be FULL thickness specimens QW 151.2(b) - For thicknesses > 1” “may be” FULL thickness or multiple specimens QW153 – Tension Test – Acceptance Criteria 32
179. 179. In order for a Tension test to pass, the specimen shall have a tensile strength of not less than; a) MSTS of the base metal (when it fails in weld) b) MSTS of the weaker of the two metals joined together (when it fails in the weld) c) 95% of the MSTS of base metal (when it fails in the base metal). 38 Failure Stress or Ultimate Stress = Load/Area Area of a tensile specimen is the width x thickness Load is the amount of stress required to pull the tensile specimens apart
180. 180. 39
181. 181. 40
182. 182. Bend Test - Specimens 41
183. 183. Bend Test QW141.2 – Bend Test A. Used to determine “degree of soundness and dductility” of groove weld joints. B. Types of Test - Face, Root, and Side bends (determined by which face is on “Convex” side) Face and Root Bend Test These two test are always done together. Therefore, what ever # of face bends are required, the same number of root bends are also required. Side Bend Test Side bends are only performed with other side bends (i.e. you will never see face, root AND side bends required). Side bends are only required for “THICKER” materials (i.e. ¾” or greater in thickness). See Table QW 451.1(a) on page 147. Acceptance Criteria 1. Weld and Haz must be in the bent portion of bend. 2. No open discontinuity in weld or HAZ > 1/8” in any direction on convex surface 3. Open discontinuity at the corners are acceptable,unless result from LOF, slag or internal discontinuities
184. 184. 43 Figure “A” Figure “B” Figure “C”
185. 185. 44 Figure “A” Figure “B” Figure “C”
186. 186. Visual Examinations QW144 – Visual Examination A. Used to determine if welds meet “qquality standards” B. Required for “PERFORMANCE” test, not PQR. QW-194 Acceptance Criteria 1. Welds must be inspected after welding is complete and before specimens are removed (see QW-302.4) 2. Must have complete Joint penetration 3. Must have complete fusion of weld metal and base metal
187. 187. Radiography QW142 – Radiography 1. May be substituted for Groove weld Mechanical Test for WELDERS. QW-191 Acceptance Criteria 1. No cracks, Lack of Fusion (LOF) or Incomplete Penetration (IP) 2. Elongated slag inclusions (i.e. indication is 3 times longer than width), max size permitted; 1. Max length of 1/8” - for t up to 3/8” 2. Max length of 1/3 t - for t > 3/8” but < 2 ¼” 3. Max length ¾” - for t > 2 ¼” 4. Aligned inclusions with aggregate length > t in 12t length of weld 3. Rounded Indications 1. Smaller of 20% of t oor 1/8” 2. For clustered, assorted or randomly dispersed configurations, see Appendix I
188. 188. Welder Qualification Record Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ) 1. Coupon or production for each welding process (SMAW, GTAW, SAW, etc) 2. Qualified by; a. Production weld must be examined by RT or UT b. Coupon can be examined by VT and Mechanical or RT/UT See QW-300.1 NOTE: GMAW S “short circuiting mode” welds cannot be qualified by RT 3. If examination is acceptable, welder is qualified within the limits of QW-304 4. WPQ is welded in accordance with a WPS. Preheat & PWHT required by WPS can be omitted for WPQ 51
189. 189. Welder Qualification Record Practice Question # 14 Which of the following cannot be used to qualify a welder? 1. VT & Bend Test 2. RT of 1st Production weld 3. RT of test coupon 4. Tension Test 52
190. 190. WPQ Bend Specimen Requirements 53 Bends 1. Number of bends? AND
191. 191. Bend Specimen Requirements for “Performance Qualification” 54 Bends 2. Dimensions?
192. 192. WPQ Bend Specimens 55 Bends Where to remove the specimens?
193. 193. Alternative Inspection (RT/UT) for WPQ 56 Requirements NDE – Alternative Inspection (RT/UT in lieu of BENDS 1. Minimum Length of weld? 2. Pipe? 1. Minimum Length of weld? 2. Welder Operator? RT cannot be used to test a welder for either of the following;
194. 194. 57 2. Any of the bend test fail; 3. Fails RT exam; 1. Welder has not used the Process for 6 months 2. Reason to question welder’s ability to make sound weld 1. Fails Visual test; Qualify by; retest and RT twice the required length of weld Qualify by: making 2 coupons, both must pass mechanical test. Qualify by: making 2 coupons, both must pass VT and 1 picked for mechanical testing (bend) Qualified by; Welding single coupon, plate or pipe, any thickness/diameter/position, VT/Bend or RT.
195. 195. Practice Questions for Welder Qualification Practice Question # 15 RT can be used to qualify a welder, except for the following? 1. Welding P21 material with GTAW process 2. SAW process 3. SMAW Process 4. GMAW process in Short-circuiting mode Practice Question # 16 A welder is being qualified by welding using ½” thickA106B pipe coupon in 5G position. How many face bends are required? 1. 2 2. 1 3. 3 4. 0 Practice Question # 17 A welder is being qualified for 2G and 5G on a single pipe 1” thick coupon (A240 type 304L coupon). How many side bends are required? 1. 6 2. 2 3. 4 4. 0 58
196. 196. Practice Questions for Welder Qualification Practice Question # 18 Which of the following is the manufacturer/contractor prohibited from delegating to another organization? 1. Preparing test coupons 2. Performing mechanical or NDE inspection of specimens 3. Witnessing the welder making the weld coupon 4. Developing the WPQ record Practice Question # 19 A welder was making test coupons for a 2G and 5G pipe qualification test and the 2G coupon failed VT examination. In order for the welder to be qualified, which of the following must occur? 1. Make another 1G coupon and either RT or Mechanical Test the coupon 2. Make two 1G coupons and VT and RT examine both coupons 3. Make two 1G coupons and VT both coupons, but only RT one coupon 4. Make two 2G coupons and VT both coupons, but only Mechanical test one coupon Practice Question # 20 A 6G qualification coupon failed the mechanical testing (one of the bends failed), In order for the welder to be qualified, which of the following is required? 1. Two more coupons have to be welded and all 4 bends for each of the coupons have to pass mechanical test 2. Two more coupons have to be welded and only one coupon has to pass the required mechanical test 3. Another coupon has to be welded and all 4 bends has to pass mechanical test 4. Two more coupons have to be welded and both coupons must be either pass mechanical testing or RT examined . 59
197. 197. WPQ “P” Number Qualification Range 60 “P” number of test coupon welded “P” number Range qualified to weld in FIELD Answer:
198. 198. WPQ “F” Number Qualification Range 61 Qualified with “F” number Range qualified to weld in FIELD Answer:
199. 199. WPQ # of Bend Specimens 62 Answer:
200. 200. WPQ # of Bend Specimens 63 Answer:
201. 201. WPQ Thickness Limits 64 Answer:
202. 202. WPQ Diameter Limits 65 Answer:
203. 203. WPQ Position Limits 66 Answer:
204. 204. Welder Qualification Record 67 WPQ Record 1. Variables used (i.e. process, type(manual/automatic, with/without backing, P-No, F-No, etc) 2. Essential Variables (i.e. joints, Base metal, Filler Metal, Position, etc) 3. Type of Test (i.e. VT, Bends and/or RT/UT) 4. Test Results (i.e. Acceptable or Failed) 5. Ranges Qualified – (i.e. thickness range, Positions, Diameters, fillet welds) 6. Certification (i.e. signature of Manufacturer/Contractor)
205. 205. WPQ – Essential Variables 68 Essential Variables Paragraph Variable Process SAW SMAW GTAW QW402 Joints .4 Backing X X QW 403 Base Metals .16 Ø Pipe Diameter X X X .18 Ø P Number X X X QW 404 Filler Metals .14 ± Filler X .15 Ø F Number X X X .22 ± Inserts X .23 Ø Solid or metal cored to flux core X .30 Ø t Weld deposit X X X QW 405 Positions .1 X X X .3 + Position X X QW 408 Gas .8 Ø Ver cal welding X QW 409 Electrical .4 Ø Current or polarity X
206. 206. 69 Determine What welding PROCESS and TYPE used to make test couponStep 1 SMAW and Manual Find the “Essential” variables for the welding process used in ASME IX.Step 2 QW 353 for SMAW Complete Testing Variables and Qualification Limits (“Range Qualified” section)Step 3 Welding Variables (QW 350) Actual Variables Range Qualified 1. Welding Process(es) SMAW 2. Type (i.e. manual, semi-automatic) used Manual . 3. Backing (with or without) (QW 402.4) None 4. Test Coupon Production Weld (dia if pipe) (QW 403.16 Base) 6” NPS 5. Base metal P-Number to P-Number (QW 403.18 P-Number) P1 to P1 6. Filler Metal or Electrode Spec (SFA) 5.1 7. Filler Metal F-Number (QW 404.15 F-Number) F3 8. Consumable Insert (GTAW or PAW) N/A 9. Filler Metal Type (solid/metal or flux cored/powder) N/A QW 353 for SMAW SMAW Manual _F1,F2, and F3 P1-P15F,P34,P41-49 2 7/8” OD F1 to F3 with,F3 wo Page 57 These are set by WPS -------- ------------ ------------ x
207. 207. Welding Variables (QW 350) Actual Variables Range Qualified 10. Deposited Thickness for each process (QW 403.30) a. Process 1: SMAW 3 layers minimum Yes No . . b. Process 2: SMAW 3 layers minimum Yes No . ------ . 11. Position qualified (1G,2G,3G,4G,5G,6G, etc) . . 12. Vertical progression (uphill or downhill) . 13. Inert Gas Backing (GTAW, PAW, GMAW) . 14. GMAW Transfer mode (Spray, Globular, Pulse, or Short Circuit) . 15. GTAW Current type/polarity (AC,DCEP,DCEN) . ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 70 x Complete “Results: section and then Sign and Date FormStep 4 That’s IT, you just completed a WPQ RECORD n/a horz F,H ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ .280” 2G Uphill N/A N/A N/A
208. 208. 71 Determine if Essential Variables are “Correct”Practice Question#28 Welding Variables (QW 350) Actual Variables Range Qualified 1. Welding Process(es) . .. . 2. Type (i.e. manual, semi-automatic) used . . 3. Backing (with or without) . 4. Test Coupon Production Weld (dia if pipe) . . 5. Base metal P-Number to P-Number . . 6. Filler Metal or Electrode Spec (SFA) . . 7. Filler Metal F-Number . 8. Consumable Insert (GTAW or PAW) . . 9. Filler Metal Type (solid/metal or flux cored/powder) . . 10. Deposited Thickness for each process a. Process 1: SMAW 3 layers minimum Yes No . b. Process 1: SMAW 3 layers minimum Yes No . 11. Position qualified (1G,2G,3G,4G,5G,6G, etc) . 12. Vertical progression (uphill or downhill) . 13. Inert Gas Backing (GTAW, PAW, GMAW) . 14. GMAW Transfer mode (Spray, Globular, Pulse, or Short Circuit) . 15. GTAW Current type/polarity (AC,DCEP,DCEN) . x x Downhill only ALL Max of .600” -------- -------- -------- -------- SMAW Manual F1,F2, and F3 P1-P15F,P34,P41-49 2 7/8” Min to Unlimited F1, F2 & F3 with --------- -------- -------- SMAW Manual With 3” P3 5.4 F3 N/A N/A .300” ------- 6G Downhill N/A N/A N/A
209. 209. WPQ Welding Variables 72 X X X X X X X
210. 210. 73 WPQ Welding Variables
211. 211. 74 WPQ Welding Variables Reference WPQ MR. ROD BURNER to answer the following questions;
212. 212. Welding Procedure - Requirements (WPS) 1. WPS requirements (QW-200.1, page 14) a. WPS provides directions for making production welds. b. Must contain essential, nonessential and when required supplementary variables. 1) Must reference the supporting PQR c. Changes can be made to “nonessential” variables without requalification. Changes to “essential or supplementary” variables require requalification. d. Format of WPS may be any format as long as every essential, nonessential and supplementary variable is included. e. WPS must be readily available at the fabrication site for review by welder and inspector. 79
213. 213. Welding Procedure – Requirements (PQR) a. Is a Record of the welding data used to make the test coupon and mechanical test results. a. Must; 1) Contain essential and supplementary variables (supplemental is not API 570 Exam). 2) Record range of variables used to make the coupon must be included 3) Be certified by the manufacturer/contractor (i.e. signed and dated). b. Changes to the PQR are not allowed, except for editorial type changes (i.e. P# entered incorrectly, or Code changes the F# for the materials used, etc.) All changes to a PQR, require recertification (i.e. signed and dated by manufacturer/contractor). c. Format may be any format as long following are included; a. Essential and supplementary variables b. Type of mechanical test, number of tests and test results d. PQR must be available for the AI, but not the welder. e. There could be multiple PQR’s supporting one WPS or multiple WPS’s for a single PQR. 80
214. 214. 1. WPS is prepared for production welds that are to be made. 2. Welder (employee or contracted out), makes a Test Coupon using directions from the WPS. 3. The coupon is mechanically tested - Bends and Tension test (RT is not allowed). 4. If mechanical testing is acceptable, WPS is Qualified within ranges set by variables used to make the test coupon. 5. PQR is a record created based on variables used to make the test coupon and subsequent mechanical testing results. 81 NOTE: PQR “Must” be signed and dated to be CERTIFIED. (QW-201) (QW-100) (QW-202.2)
215. 215. 1. What is the difference between the Procedure QUALIFICATION and Welder QUALIFICATION? 82 A. Procedure qualification requires TWO documents (WPS/PQR). B. Examinations are different; C. WPQ only requires “Essential” variables to be recorded, while the WPS must record “Essential, Non-Essential and Supplementary (when required) variables”. PQR must record “Essential and Supplementary” variables. WPS/PQR – requires Bends/Tension test and Charpy test when notch toughness is required. Also, Hardness when PWHT’d. 1) WPQ – requires VT and Bend test or RT/UT examination.2)
216. 216. 1. Verify WPS has been properly completed and addresses requirements of Section IX(for API Exam, means Essential Variables and Non-Essential variables are addressed) API 577 par 6.4 page 18 2. Verify PQR has been properly completed and addresses requirements of Section IX(for API Exam, means Essential Variables are addressed and PQR is signed and dated) API 577 par 6.4 page 18 3. Verify PQR essential variables properly support the range specified in WPS(for API Exam, means Essential Variables are addressed and PQR is signed and dated) API 577 par 6.4 page 18 83
217. 217. 84 INSTRUCTIONS for Checking WPS and PQR STEP 1 Locate the appropriate “Welding Variables Chart” for the Welding PROCESS (i.e. SMAW– QW 253, SAW-QW 254 or GTAW - QW 256……these are the only three that will be on the API Exam). STEP 2 Verify PQR is signed by Manufacture/Contractor – QW202(b). STEP 3 Verify WPS references the supporting PQR – QW201(b). STEP 4 Verify all Non-Essential variables are addressed on the WPS, and validate that on the checklist (e.g. enter “OK” or “ERROR” in the VALIDATE column) - QW201(b). STEP 5 List values for all “ESSENTIAL” variables on Checklist from the PQR – QW202(b). STEP 6 List values for all “ESSENTIAL” variables on Checklist from the WPS – QW201(b). STEP 7 Use Section IX to determine and list the “ACCEPTABLE” range for all essential variables (based on the PQR results) STEP 8 Compare the “Acceptable” range against the WPS values and document the findings in the “VALIDATE” column. STEP 9 Check TESTING data on PQR and verify correct type/number of BEND specimens (i.e. 2 face & 2 Root, etc) were tested and results are acceptable or rejectable. Record answer in “Validate” column of checklist. STEP 10 Check TESTING data on PQR and verify correct type/number of TENSILE specimens (i.e. 2 or more, depending on thickness) were tested and results are acceptable or rejectable. Record answer in “Validate” column of checklist. STEP 11 Check for P-No and/or F-No mistakes.
218. 218. Practice Question for Reviewing WPS/PQR 85 1.) Is the PQR signed & dated? 2.) Now check the Essential, Non-essential variables and ranges qualified
219. 219. OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK 86 WPS/PQR “Review” Results Review of WPS# Rev# Dated: Supporting PQR# Rev# Dated: STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6 STEP 7 Validate Paragraph Brief of Variables Essential Non Essential PQR WPS Qualified For? OK or Error QW 402 Joints .1 Groove Design NE .4 - Backing NE .10 Root spacing NE .11 Retainers NE QW 403 Base Metals .8 T qualified E .9 t Pass > ½ inch E .11 P No. qualified E QW 404 Filler Metals .4 F Number E .5 A Number E .6 Diameter NE .30 t E .33 AWS Classification NE QW 405 Positions .1 + Position NE .3 Vertical welding NE QW 406 Preheat 1. Decrease > 100oF E .2 Preheat maintenance NE QW 407 PWHT .1 PWHT E .4 T limits E QW 409 Electric .4 Current or polarity NE .8 I & E range NE QW 410 Technique .1 String/Weave NE .5 Method of cleaning NE .6 Method back gouge NE .9 Multi to single pass/side NE .25 Manual or automatic NE .26 Peening NE .64 Use of Thermal Processes E JCP P101 JCP PQ101 0 0 9/11/2001 9/12/2001 ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -------- ½” ½” thk SA53 Gr B (P1_) F-4 1 ½” 50oF None ----- 1/16” to 1” ½” thk P1 F3 1 1/16” to 1” 50oF None None 3/16” to 1” ½” plate N/A P1 F3 1 Max of 1” 50oF None ----- ----- None ERROR – should be F3 None PQR should be 1/16” to 1” Par Par Par Par Par Par Par OK
220. 220. 87 WPS/PQR “Review” Results BEND SPECIMENS Number of bends Results Validate (Ok or Error) Required (# & Type) On PQR (# & Type) Allowable Defects On PQR NOTE: 1. Open discontinuity in weld or HAZ < 1/8” (See QW-163, page 6) 2. Ignore open discontinuity on corners, unless result from LOF, Slag or internal discontinuity TENSILE SPECIMENS Number of Tensile Specimens Compare Results Validate (Ok or Error)# Required # on PQR MSTS of Base Metal Ultimate Failure Stress Check for P-No, F-No and/or Specification mistakes on the WPS/PQR. Results - No F-No or P-No errors. NOTE: 1. Failure Stress (failed in “Base Metal”) must be .95% of MSTS (see QW-153, page 4) 2. Failure Stress (failed in “WELD”) must be MSTS (QW-153) 3. Verify that the “Ultimate Failure Stress” is calculated properly (S=Load/Area) – (see QW-152, page 4) 2F & 2R OR 4S 4 SIDES 1/8” OK OK 2 2 60,000 PSI 57,038 Base 66,158 Weld OK
221. 221. Practice Questions for Reviewing WPS/PQR 88 Is the P# qualified in accordance with ASME Section IX? Result – Yes, P8 Practice Question # 30 If you don’t know SA 240 Type 304 is P8, then look it up at P-No Tab
222. 222. Practice Questions for Reviewing WPS/PQR 89 Is the base metal thickness in accordance with ASME Section IX? Result – No, PQR coupon was ½” which qualifies thk range of 3/16” to 1”, WPS indicated 1/16” to 1” Practice Question # 31
223. 223. Practice Questions for Reviewing WPS/PQR 90 Is the shielding gas in accordance with ASME Section IX? Result – NO, WPS is for single gas (argon) and PQR is for 75/25 mix Practice Question # 32 Essential
224. 224. Practice Questions for Reviewing WPS/PQR 91 Is the F# qualified in accordance with ASME Section IX? Result – NO, ER304 is F6 & E7018 is a F4 Practice Question # 33
225. 225. Practice Questions for Reviewing WPS/PQR 92 Are the tensile test in accordance with ASME Section IX? Practice Question # 34
226. 226. 93 WPS/PQR
227. 227. 94 WPS/PQR PQR JCP PQ101
228. 228. 95 WPS/PQR 2T = 2 x ½” = 1”
229. 229. 96 WPS/PQR
230. 230. 97 WPS/PQR PQR JCP PQ101 SA 53B is “P 1
231. 231. 98 WPS/PQR Welded P 1 Welded P 1
232. 232. 99 WPS/PQR
233. 233. 100 WPS/PQR PQR JCP PQ101
234. 234. 101 WPS/PQR Go to par 404.4
235. 235. 102 WPS/PQR WPS PQR
236. 236. 103 WPS/PQR
237. 237. 104 WPS/PQR PQR JCP PQ101
238. 238. 105 WPS/PQR
239. 239. 106 WPS/PQR
240. 240. 107 WPS/PQR PQR JCP PQ101
241. 241. 108 WPS/PQR
242. 242. 109 WPS/PQR
243. 243. 110 WPS/PQR PQR JCP PQ101
244. 244. 111 WPS/PQR
245. 245. 112 WPS/PQR PQR JCP PQ101
246. 246. 113 WPS/PQR Par Par
247. 247. 1
248. 248. PWHT temps, see Table UCS-56 Partial HT requires 5 ft overlap for each successive heats (partial means part cannot fit into furnace) per par UW-40(a)(2). HT of welds includes a zone extend 1t or 2”, whichever is less, beyond each side of the weld (par UW-40(a) No control of temperature up to 800oF. Par UCS-56(c.) Heating rate above 800oF shall not be more than 400oF per hr/max metal thickness. Par UCS-56(d)(1)(2). Variation in temperature cannot exceed 250oF in any 15 ft length of vessel. Par UCS- 56(d)(2) Holding time is per Table UCS-56 During holding time, temperature cannot vary by more than 150oF. Par UCS-56(d)(3). Cool down rate shall not be more than 500oF per hr/max metal thickness. No control necessary below 800oF. Par UCS-56(d)(5). 2
249. 249. 3
250. 250. A 2” thick vessel fabricated from SA-516-70N was repaired and PWHT’d at 1000o F. How long should the vessel be maintained at this PWHT temperature? 4
251. 251. A 2” thick vessel fabricated from SA-516-70N was repaired and PWHT’d at 1000o F. How long should the vessel be maintained at this PWHT temperature? 5 ANSWER 4 hrs & 15 min
252. 252. A 3” thick vessel fabricated from SA-516-70 was repaired and PWHT’d at 950o F. How long should the vessel be maintained at this PWHT temperature? 6
253. 253. Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) ( API 510) API 510 PWHT should be made as required by ASME Code (Par 8.1.6.4) Local PWHT may be substituted for 360 degree banding on local repairs (Par 8.1.6.4.1) If approved by the engineer. A preheat of 300oF or higher is maintained during welding PWHT temperature maintained for a distance not less than 2 x t, from the toe of the weld. At least two thermocouples must be used. Metallurgist approves the PWHT procedure if it is performed for environmental assisted cracking resistance. 7
254. 254. If a repair is made to a vessel after PWHT. A Minimum preheat of 200oF shall be maintained during the repair for P1 materials. And 350oF for P3 materials. Par UCS- 56(f)(4)(b). No welding recommended at temperatures lower than 0oF. Temperatures between 32oF and 0oF, surfaces within 3” of the weld should be heated to a minimum of 60oF. Par. UW-30. PWHT can be avoided for certain thickness. Example: P1 between 1 ¼” & 1 ½” doesn’t required PWHT if a minimum of a 200oF preheat is applied during welding. 8
255. 255. Preheat in lieu of PWHT for P1 and P3 materials, provided; 1. Preheat temperature maintained at a minimum of 300oF. 2. Preheat temperature maintained at a distance of 4” or 4t, whichever is greater, on each side of weld 3. Maximum interpass temperature of 600oF 9
256. 256. 10
257. 257. 11
258. 258. Weld Process Schematics 1 2
259. 259. 13
260. 260. Welding Process Productivity 14
261. 261. 15
262. 262. 16
263. 263. 21
264. 264. 22
265. 265. 23
266. 266. 24
267. 267. 25
268. 268. 26
269. 269. 27 Vessel thickness of 1.125”, using a SWE/SWV technique and technician has access to the ID of the vessel.
270. 270. 28 Vessel thickness of 1.125”, using a SWE/SWV technique and technician has access to the ID of the vessel.
271. 271. 29 Vessel thickness of 1.125”, using a SWE/SWV technique and technician does not have access to the ID of the vessel.
272. 272. 30 Vessel thickness of 1.125”, using a SWE/SWV technique and technician does not have access to the ID of the vessel.
273. 273. 31
274. 274. Welding Procedure (WPS), Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) and Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ) Forms
275. 275. Index WPS JCP-P101 PQR JCP-PQ101 WPS JCP-P201 PQR JCP-PQ201 WPS JCP-P301 PQR JCP-PQ301 Rod Burner WPQ Form – with qualified range Rod Burner WPQ Form – without qualified range Blank WPS Form Blank PQR Form Blank WPQ Form
276. 276. ASME Section IX – WPS QW-482 Suggested Format For Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) (See Section IX QW-200.1) Company Name JC Penny By Mr. Penny Welding Procedure Specification No. JCP-P101 Date 9/11/2001 Supporting PQR No.(s)JCP-PQ101 Revision No. 0 Date 9/11/2001 Welding Process(es) SMAW Type(s) Manual Test Description Joints (QW 402) Joint Design Single V Groove and Fillets Root Spacing .0625” to 1.250” Backing: Yes x No x Backing Material (Type) Metal (Refer to both backing and retainers) Metal Nonfusing Metal Nonmetallic Other Sketches, Production drawings, weld symbols, or written description should show the general arrangement of the parts to be welded. Where applicable, the details of weld groove may be specified. (At the option of the manufacturer, sketches may be attached to illustrate joint design, weld layers, and bead sequence (e.g. for notch toughness procedures, for multiple process procedures, etc)). Base Metals (QW 403) P-No. 1 Group No. to P-No. 1 Group No. OR Specification and type/grade to Specification and type/grade OR Chemical Analysis and Mech. Prop. to Chemical Analysis and Mech. Prop. Thickness Range: Base Metal: Groove 1/16” to 1” Fillet All Maximum pass thickness ½” (yes) x (no) Pipe Diameter (Groove) 2 7/8” (Fillet) All Filler Metals (QW 404) Spec. No. (SFA) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ AWS No. (Class) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ F-No. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A-No. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Size of Filler Metals_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Weld Metal: Thickness Range: Groove_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Fillet_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Electrode-Flux (Class) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Flux Type_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Consumable Insert_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Other_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1st Filler Metal 5.1 E-7018 3 1 3/32”, 1/8”, 5/16” .0625” to 1.0” .250” to 1.0” N/A N/A N/A 2nd Filler Metal
277. 277. Page of 2 WPS No. JCP-P101 Rev.# 0 Positions (QW 405) Position(s) of Groove ALL Welding Progression: UP X Down Position(s) of fillet ALL Postweld Heat Treatment (QW 407) Temperature Range None Time Range Other Preheat (QW 406) Preheat Temp, Min 50o F Interpass Temp, Max 350o F Preheat Maintenance None (Continuous or special heating, where applicable, should be recorded. Gas (QW 408) Percent Composition Gases Mixtures Flow Rate Shielding N/A Trailing Backing Other Electrical Characteristics (QW 409) Weld Pass(es) Process Filler Metal Current Type and Polarity Amps (Range) Wire Feed Speed (Range) Energy or Power (Range) Volts (Range) Travel Speed (Range) Other (e.g Remarks, Com- ments, Hot Wire Addition, Technique, Torch Angle, etc) Classifi -cation Diameter All SMAW E-7018 1/8” DCEP 70 to 200 N/A N/A 19 - 25 5 to 7 NOTE: Amps and volts, or power or energy range, should be recorded for each electrode size, position, and thickness, etc Pulsing Current N/A Heat Input (max.) N/A Tungsten Electrode Size and Type N/A (Pure Tungsten, 2% Thoriated, etc) Mode of Metal Transfer for GMAW or FCAW N/A (Spray Arc, Short Circuiting Arc, Globular Arc, etc) Technique (QW 410) String or Weave Bead String or Weave Orifice, Nozzle, or Gas Cup Size N/A Initial and Interpass cleaning (Brushing, Grinding, etc Grinding, Chipping or Wire Brush Method of Back Gouging Grinding Oscillation N/A Contact Tube to Work Distance N/A Multiple or Single Pass (per side) Multiple or Single Multiple of Single Electrodes Single Peening N/A Other Page 2 of 2
278. 278. ASME Section IX –PQR QW-483 Suggested Format For Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) (See Section IX QW-200.2) Company Name JC Penny PQR No. JCP-PQ101 WPS # JCP-P101 Date 9/12/2001 Welding Process(es) SMAW Type(s) Manual Joints (QW 402) Groove Design of Test Coupon Base Metals (QW 403) Material Spec. SA-53 Gr B P-No. to P-No. Thickness of Test Coupon ½” Diameter of Test Coupon 6” Other Postweld Heat Treatment (QW 407) Temperature Range None Time Range Other Gas (QW 408) Percent Composition Gases Mixtures Flow Rate Shielding N/A Trailing Backing Filler Metals (QW 404) SFA Specification 5.1 AWS Classification E-7018 Filler Metal F-No. 4 Weld Metal Analysis A-No. 1 Size of Filler Metal 5/32” Other Weld Metal Thickness Electrical Characteristics (QW 409) Current DC Polarity Straight Amps: 150-300 Volts 20-28 Tungsten Electrode Size N/A Other Positions (QW 405) Position of Groove ALL Weld Progression (Uphill, Downhill) Other Technique (QW 410) Travel Speed 3”/min String or Weave Bead Stringer Oscillation Multipass or Single Pass (per side) Multiple Single or Multiple Electrodes Single Other Preheat (QW 406) Preheat Temp 50o F Interpass Temp Other G D i f T C
279. 279. QW 483 (back) PQR No. JCP-PQ101 Tensile Test (QW -150) Specimen No. Width (inch) Thickness (inch) Area (sq. inches) Ultimate Load (lbs) Ultimate Stress (psi) Type of Failure & Location T1 .750 .455 .341 19,450 57,038 Pass - Base T2 .756 .451 .341 22,560 66,158 Pass - Weld Guided Bend Tests (QW -160) Type and Figure No. Results SIDE # 1 Pass SIDE # 2 Pass SIDE # 3 Pass SIDE # 4 Pass Notch Toughness Tests (QW -170) Specimen No. Notch Location Notch Type Test Temp Impact Values Lateral Exp Drop Weight % Shear Mils Break No Break Fillet Weld Test (QW -180) Result – Satisfactory: YES No Penetration into Parent Metal YES No Macro Results Other Tests Type of Test Deposit Analysis Other …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Welder’s Name Jack Shift Jr Clock No. Stamp No. B2 Test conducted by: Laboratory Test No. We certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test welds were prepared, welded, and tested in accordance with the requirements of ASME Section IX. Manufacturer JC Penny Date 9/11/2001 By: Jack Shift Sr Page 2 of 2
280. 280. ASME Section IX – WPS QW-482 Suggested Format For Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) (See Section IX QW-200.1) Company Name JC Penny By Mr. Penny Welding Procedure Specification No. JCP-P201 Date 8/11/2001 Supporting PQR No.(s)JCP-PQ201 Revision No. 0 Date 8/11/2001 Welding Process(es) GTAW Type(s) Manual Test Description Joints (QW 402) Joint Design Single V Groove Root Spacing 1.250” Backing: Yes x No x Backing Material (Type) Solid Metal or weld metal (Refers to both backing and retainers) Metal Nonfusing Metal Nonmetallic Other Sketches, Production drawings, weld symbols, or written description should show the general arrangement of the parts to be welded. Where applicable, the details of weld groove may be specified. (At the option of the manufacturer, sketches may be attached to illustrate joint design, weld layers, and bead sequence (e.g. for notch toughness procedures, for multiple process procedures, etc)). Base Metals (QW 403) P-No. Group No. to P-No. Group No. OR Specification and type/grade SA 240 Type 304 to Specification and type/grade SA 240 Type 304 OR Chemical Analysis and Mech. Prop. to Chemical Analysis and Mech. Prop. Thickness Range: Base Metal: Groove 1/16” to 1” Fillet All Maximum pass thickness ½” (yes) x (no) Pipe Diameter (Groove) 2 7/8” (Fillet) All Filler Metals (QW 404) Spec. No. (SFA): 5.9 AWS No. (Class): ER304 F-No.: F-6 A-No.: A-8 Size of Filler Metals: 3/32”, 1/8”,5/16” Weld MetalThickness Range: Groove: .0625” to 1.0” Fillet: No limit Electrode-Flux (Class): N/A Flux Type: N/A Consumable Insert: None Other: N/A No single pass > ½”
281. 281. Page of 2 WPS No. JCP-P201 Rev.# 0 Positions (QW 405) Position(s) of Groove ALL Welding Progression: UP X Down Position(s) of fillet ALL Postweld Heat Treatment (QW 407) Temperature Range None Time Range Other Preheat (QW 406) Preheat Temp, Min 80o F Interpass Temp, Max 350o F Preheat Maintenance None (Continuous or special heating, where applicable, should be recorded. Gas (QW 408) Percent Composition Gases Mixtures Flow Rate Shielding Argon Trailing None Backing None Other Electrical Characteristics (QW 409) Weld Pass(es) Process Filler Metal Current Type and Polarity Amps (Range) Wire Feed Speed (Range) Energy or Power (Range) Volts (Range) Travel Speed (Range) Other (e.g Remarks, Comments, Hot Wire Addition, Technique, Torch Angle, etc) Classifi -cation Diameter All GTAW ER304 3/32” DCSP 60-100 N/A N/A N/A N/A All GTAW ER304 1/8” DCSP 70-110 N/A N/A N/A N/A All GTAW ER304 5/16”” DCSP 90-160 N/A N/A N/A N/A NOTE: Amps and volts, or power or energy range, should be recorded for each electrode size, position, and thickness, etc Pulsing Current N/A Heat Input (max.) N/A Tungsten Electrode Size and Type 2% Thoriated (EWTh-2) or Cesium Stablilized (EWCe-2) (Pure Tungsten, 2% Thoriated, etc) Mode of Metal Transfer for GMAW or FCAW N/A (Spray Arc, Short Circuiting Arc, Globular Arc, etc) Technique (QW 410) String or Weave Bead String or Weave Orifice, Nozzle, or Gas Cup Size 3/8” to ¾” diameter shielding gas cup size Initial and Interpass cleaning (Brushing, Grinding, etc Grinding, Chipping, Wire Brush or Thermal process Method of Back Gouging Grinding or thermal process Oscillation N/A Contact Tube to Work Distance N/A Multiple or Single Pass (per side) Multiple Multiple of Single Electrodes Single Peening None Other Page 2 of 2
282. 282. ASME Section IX –PQR QW-483 Suggested Format For Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) (See Section IX QW-200.2) Company Name JC Penny PQR No. JCP-PQ201 WPS # JCP-P201 Date 8/12/2001 Welding Process(es) GTAW Type(s) Manual Joints (QW 402) Groove Design of Test Coupon Base Metals (QW 403) Material Spec. SA-240 Type 304 P-No. 8 to P-No. 8 Thickness of Test Coupon ½” Diameter of Test Coupon Plate Other Postweld Heat Treatment (QW 407) Temperature Range None Time Range Other Gas (QW 408) Percent Composition Gases Mixtures Flow Rate Shielding Argon/CO 75%/25% 15-25 Trailing None Backing None Filler Metals (QW 404) SFA Specification 5.18 AWS Classification E-7018 Filler Metal F-No. 6 Weld Metal Analysis A-No. 8 Size of Filler Metal N/A Other Weld Metal Thickness ½” Electrical Characteristics (QW 409) Current DC Polarity Straight Amps: 90-100 Volts 20-28 Tungsten Electrode Size 1/8” Other Positions (QW 405) Position of Groove 1G Weld Progression (Uphill, Downhill) N/A Other Technique (QW 410) Travel Speed 5”/min String or Weave Bead Weave Oscillation Multipass or Single Pass (per side) Multiple Single or Multiple Electrodes Single Other Preheat (QW 406) Preheat Temp 50o F Interpass Temp 250o F Other G D i f T C
283. 283. QW 483 (back) PQR No. JCP-PQ101 Tensile Test (QW -150) Specimen No. Width(W) (inch) Thickness(y) (inch) Area (sq. inches) Ultimate Load (lbs) Ultimate Stress (psi) Type of Failure & Location T1 .750 .440 .330 24,450 74,090 Pass - Weld T2 .750 .449 .337 24,000 71,216 Pass - Base Guided Bend Tests (QW -160) Type and Figure No. Results Face # 1 Pass Face # 2 Pass Root # 3 Pass Root # 4 Pass Notch Toughness Tests (QW -170) Specimen No. Notch Location Notch Type Test Temp Impact Values Lateral Exp Drop Weight % Shear Mils Break No Break Fillet Weld Test (QW -180) Result – Satisfactory: YES No Penetration into Parent Metal YES No Macro Results Other Tests Type of Test Deposit Analysis Other …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Welder’s Name Jack Shift Jr Clock No. Stamp No. B2 Test conducted by: Shear Metal Testing Lab Laboratory Test No. SM-1001 We certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test welds were prepared, welded, and tested in accordance with the requirements of ASME Section IX. Manufacturer JC Penny Date 8/12/2001 By: Jack Shift Sr Page 2 of 2
284. 284. ASME Section IX – WPS QW-482 Suggested Format For Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) (See Section IX QW-200.1) Company Name JC Penny By Mr. Penny Welding Procedure Specification No. JCP-P301 Date 9/11/2001 Supporting PQR No.(s)JCP-PQ301 Revision No. 0 Date 9/11/2001 Welding Process(es) SMAW Type(s) Manual Test Description Joints (QW 402) Joint Design Single V Groove and Fillets Root Spacing .0625” to 1.250” Backing: Yes x No x Backing Material (Type) Metal (Refer to both backing and retainers) Metal Nonfusing Metal Nonmetallic Other Sketches, Production drawings, weld symbols, or written description should show the general arrangement of the parts to be welded. Where applicable, the details of weld groove may be specified. (At the option of the manufacturer, sketches may be attached to illustrate joint design, weld layers, and bead sequence (e.g. for notch toughness procedures, for multiple process procedures, etc)). Base Metals (QW 403) P-No. 1 Group No. to P-No. 1 Group No. OR Specification and type/grade to Specification and type/grade OR Chemical Analysis and Mech. Prop. to Chemical Analysis and Mech. Prop. Thickness Range: Base Metal: Groove 1/16” to 1” Fillet All Maximum pass thickness ½” (yes) x (no) Pipe Diameter (Groove) 2 7/8” (Fillet) All Filler Metals (QW 404) Spec. No. (SFA) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ AWS No. (Class) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ F-No. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A-No. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Size of Filler Metals_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Weld Metal: Thickness Range: Groove_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Fillet_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Electrode-Flux (Class) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Flux Type_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Consumable Insert_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Other_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1st Filler Metal 5.1 E-7018 3 1 3/32”, 1/8”, 5/16” .0625” to 1.0” .250” to 1.0” N/A N/A N/A 2nd Filler Metal
285. 285. Page 1 of 2 WPS No. JCP-P301 Rev.# 0 Positions (QW 405) Position(s) of Groove ALL Welding Progression: UP X Down Position(s) of fillet ALL Postweld Heat Treatment (QW 407) Temperature Range None Time Range Other Preheat (QW 406) Preheat Temp, Min 50o F Interpass Temp, Max 350o F Preheat Maintenance None (Continuous or special heating, where applicable, should be recorded. Gas (QW 408) Percent Composition Gases Mixtures Flow Rate Shielding N/A Trailing Backing Other Electrical Characteristics (QW 409) Weld Pass(es) Process Filler Metal Current Type and Polarity Amps (Range) Wire Feed Speed (Range) Energy or Power (Range) Volts (Range) Travel Speed (Range) Other (e.g Remarks, Com- ments, Hot Wire Addition, Technique, Torch Angle, etc) Classifi -cation Diameter All SMAW E-7018 1/8” DCEP 70 to 200 N/A N/A 19 - 25 5 to 7 NOTE: Amps and volts, or power or energy range, should be recorded for each electrode size, position, and thickness, etc Pulsing Current N/A Heat Input (max.) N/A Tungsten Electrode Size and Type N/A (Pure Tungsten, 2% Thoriated, etc) Mode of Metal Transfer for GMAW or FCAW N/A (Spray Arc, Short Circuiting Arc, Globular Arc, etc) Technique (QW 410) String or Weave Bead String or Weave Orifice, Nozzle, or Gas Cup Size N/A Initial and Interpass cleaning (Brushing, Grinding, etc Grinding, Chipping or Wire Brush Method of Back Gouging Grinding Oscillation N/A Contact Tube to Work Distance N/A Multiple or Single Pass (per side) Multiple or Single Multiple of Single Electrodes Single Peening N/A Other Page 2 of 2
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