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La santé des écosystèmes des logiciels open source

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Dans cette présentation je parle des travaux de recherche en cours par le Service de Génie Logiciel (Département d'Informatique, Faculté de Sciences) de l'Université de Mons (Belgique) sur l'évolution et la santé des écosystèmes logiciels, dans le cadre de deux projets de recherche interuniversitaires SECOHealth (2017-2019) et le projet Excellence of Science SECO-ASSIST (2018-2021). Ces projets sont effectués en partenariat avec d'autres universités au Québec (Canada) et en Belgique.

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La santé des écosystèmes des logiciels open source

  1. 1. Prof. Dr. Tom Mens Service de Génie Logiciel Département d'Informatique tom.mens@umons.ac.be http://informatique.umons.ac.be La santé des écosystèmes des logiciels open source
  2. 2. SOCIO- TECHNIQUE Un écosystème logiciel est ... X
  3. 3. Un écosystème logiciel est ... • Complexe (big data!) • Hétérogène • D'une grande longévité • En constante évolution et croissance • Socio-technique
  4. 4. • Bugs • Problèmes de sécurité • Problèmes de dépendance • Logiciels abandonnés ou dépassés • ... Technical • Manque de communication / interaction • Conflits sociaux • Abandon des contributeurs • Diversité insuffisante • ... Problèmes de santé
  5. 5. 10 ans de recherche sur les écosystèmes logiciels 2012-2017 2017-2019 2018-2021
  6. 6. Dans un contexte plus large • Today over 80 percent of the software in any technology product or service is open source software (OSS). • CHAOSS focuses on creating analytics and metrics to help define OSS community health. "The CHAOSS community is developing metrics, methodologies, and software for expressing open source project health and sustainability. By doing so, CHAOSS seeks to improve the transparency of open source project health and sustainability so that relevant stakeholders can make more informed decisions about open source project engagement." https://chaoss.community
  7. 7. Nos objectifs de recherche Appliqué: Proposer des recommandations automatiques aux communautés de développement permettant d'améliorer leur productivité, interaction, qualité, et longévité. Sociétal: Protéger la société des risques et dangers d'une dépendance croissante des écosystèmes logiciels Fondamental: Etudier et comprendre les caractéristiques socio-techniques, la complexité et la santé des écosystèmes logiciels. Prédire l'évolution des écosystèmes logiciels
  8. 8. ECOS: Ecological Studies of Open Source Software Ecosystems (2012-2017) Prof. Ph. Grosjean Ecologie numérique des milieux aquatiques Prof. T. Mens et Dr. M. Claes Génie Logiciel S'inspirer des principes des écosystèmes biologiques (p.ex. la biodiversité) pour modéliser l'evolution des écosystèmes logiciels.
  9. 9. University of Mons Laval University Polytechnique Montréal Université de Mons www.secohealth.org @secohealth 2017-2019
  10. 10. University of Mons Laval University Polytechnique Montréal Université de Mons www.secohealth.org @secohealth
  11. 11. Best Practices Best Practices Practices Best 3. Recommandations et conseils pour éviter de futurs problèmes de santé dans les écosystèmes logiciels 1. Déterminer les indicateurs des problèmes de santé (logiciel) 2. Prédire l'impact et la propagation des problèmes de santé time
  12. 12. seco-assist.github.io @seco-assist 2018-2021
  13. 13. seco-assist.github.io @seco-assist 2018-2021 "SECO-ASSIST vise à réaliser une percée scientifique en assistant les écosystèmes logiciels de l'avenir, par le développement de nouvelles techniques de recommandation logicielle qui considèrent la résilience, l’évolutivité, l'hétérogénéité et les interactions sociales."
  14. 14. UMONS UNamur UAntwerpenVUB Tom Mens Coen De Roover Anthony Cleve Serge Demeyer
  15. 15. • Meilleurs tests de logiciels • Moins de bugs • Faciliter la réutilisation des logiciels • Optimiser l'utilisation des bases de données • Améliorer les interactions sociaux UMONS UNamur UAntwerpenVUB
  16. 16. Améliorer la santé sociale • Identifier les contributeurs "toxiques" • Attirer des nouveaux contributeurs • Retenir les "contributeurs clés" • S'assurer d'une diversité suffisante • Prédire des abandons • Trouver des remplacement adéquates
  17. 17. Améliorer la santé technique • Meilleurs tests, tenant compte des composants logiciels dépendants è moins de bugs; moins de problèmes de sécurité • Meilleure productivité par l'utilisation des "bibliothèques logiciels" réutilisables • Meilleure évolutivité en supportant les migrations (vers d'autres bibliothèques, d'autres technologies, ...)
  18. 18. S'inspirer d'autres disciplines L'écologie Biodiversité • Functional redundancy is favorable for survival of species E.g. bipartite network of plants and pollinators
  19. 19. S'inspirer d'autres disciplines L'écologie • T Mens, P Grosjean (2015) The ecology of software ecosystems. IEEE Computer 48 (10), pp. 85-87 • B Vasilescu et al. (2015) Gender and tenure diversity in GitHub teams. CHI '15 Diversité socio-technique • Est favorable pour la "survie" des projets logiciels et leurs contributeurs
  20. 20. S'insprirer d'autres disciplines Toxicologie “the study of the adverse effects of chemical or physical agents on living organisms” • Any substance, while harmless or beneficial in small doses, can become toxic or lethal in larger doses • E.g. small disagreements between contributors can be beneficial, but can become toxic if the conflict escalates. K Carillo, J Marsan (2016) The dose makes the poison: Exploring the toxicity phenomenon in online communities. ICIS '16
  21. 21. Recherche en cours Etudes empiriques sur • Comment retenir les contributeurs • La structure des dépendances techniques dans un écosystème • La propagation des problèmes de santé à travers ces dépendances • Le "retard technique" causé par des dépendances qui ne sont pas mis à jour
  22. 22. Example: leftpad
  23. 23. Questions?

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