How the M&A process works


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This will tell you all you need to know about a company sale from both a buy side and sell side perspective

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How the M&A process works

  1. 1. M&A Process Overview<br />By Thomas McKeown<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Definition and description of overall process<br />The M&A market (The Acquisition Market) (P4)<br />Financial /Strategic objectives in a M&A deal <br />The benefits and risks of M&A<br />
  3. 3. Summary<br />Sales side<br />Eight steps to closing a sale<br />Seeking a financial advisor- areas and FA should have experience<br />Assembling the deal team<br />Legal counsel, accounting and actuaries<br />Types of sales process<br />Control led auction<br />Target auction<br />negotiated process<br />Deal structuring<br />Asset versus entity sale <br />Taxes<br />Premarketing <br />Preparing the buyer list<br />Preparing marketing materials- CA,CIM, Teaser, Bid process letter<br /> Actuarial appraisal and reserve review<br />Comparing data room<br />Marketing<br />Initial contact with prospective buyer and follow up<br />Preliminary bids and review<br />Preliminary due diligence and strategy<br />Data room strategy and management presentation<br />Break out session strategy<br />
  4. 4. Summary<br />Buy side<br />Evaluating the opportunity<br />Pre screening the opportunity<br />Retaining a buying side FA<br />Review of opportunity <br />Market analysis <br />Preliminary valuation of target<br />Financial modeling<br />Preliminary due diligence<br />Final bids<br />Negotiation LOI<br />Due diligence, deal financing, rating agencies<br />Negotiation<br />Analysis<br />Management updates<br />Purchase agreement<br />Key conveyance <br />Deal protection<br />Employment agreements<br />The path to closing<br />Presentation to board of directors<br />Regulatory issues, antitrust issues, SEC review<br />Public announcement <br />Shareholder approval and closing<br />
  5. 5. Concepts and Purpose<br />Merger- A combination of two or more companies in which the assets and liabilities and liabilities of the selling firm are absorbed by the buying firm.<br />Acquisition- The purchase of an asset (I.E- plant, division, entire company). <br />The M&A market- based on:<br />Availability of financing-loan and debt & equity markets.<br />Rising Stock Prices and rising P/E multiples- lead to higher cash flow.<br />Ongoing restructuring<br />Tax Implications<br />Wealth transfer b/w generations<br />Market Psychology<br />Financial objectives in a M&A deal <br />Strategic objectives<br />The benefits and risks of M&A<br />
  6. 6. Financial/Strategic Objectives<br />Financial Objectives<br />Strategic objectives<br />Primary Objective- Promote Corporate Growth.<br />Increase perceived future earnings. <br />Expense Reduction Strategy- acquiring “orphan blocks” of life insurance.<br />Revenue Synergies- Increased sales of different product lines. <br />Improving the buyer’s long term competitive position by:<br />Elimination of competition<br />Gain access to more markets<br />Creating economies of scale<br />Leveraging Tech<br />Gain share/pricing power<br />Improving Distribution.<br />
  7. 7. Financial/Strategic Objectives (continued) <br />Horizontal vs. Vertical Integration<br />Other Potential Objectives <br />Horizontal Integration- acquisition of market share in a company’s existing competency (typically at the expense of rivals). <br />Geographic Integration is part of Horizontal Integration. <br />Vertical Integration- Gaining control over additional “links” in the value chain. <br />Diversification- could lead to less volatile earnings. I.E) Variable annuities and fixed annuities are inversely correlated.<br />Regulation<br />Accounting and Tax<br />Research & Development<br />
  8. 8. Benefits and Risks of M&A<br />Benefits<br />Risks<br />Can provide short/long term benefits to acquirer’s shareholders. This increased cash flow and drives up value of share holder equity.<br />Can provide immediate strategic benefits- impractical to generate organically. <br />Financial Risks- possibility of overpaying due to overly optimistic revenue synergies or cost savings.<br />Strategic Risks- “channel conflict.”<br />Execution Risk- everything goes right except integration. <br />
  9. 9. The Sell Side<br />
  10. 10. Eight Steps to Closing a Sale<br />Preparing to Sell<br />Pre-Marketing<br />Marketing<br />Review Preliminary Bids<br />Due Diligence of Seller<br />Final Bids & Negotiations<br />Executive Definitive & Regulatory Filings<br />Closing<br />
  11. 11. Seeking and Acquiring a FA<br />Strategic Alternatives- A financial Advisor (FA) is typically retained to formally review the seller’s options. <br />The advantages to hiring an FA:<br />An Investment Bank is impartial.<br />Investment banks may present options management has not considered.<br />They have insight into the most feasible as opposed to most desirable alternative. <br />A FA should have experience in:<br />the relevant industry or sector<br />Valuation expertise<br />Relevant M&A experience<br />Financial structuring experience<br />Strategic vision<br />Process Prowess<br />Negotiating skills<br />
  12. 12. Assembling a Deal Team<br />Senior Management time is scarce and valuable, efficiency is important. <br />Coordination of efforts- Effective communication, generally done by FA<br />Need to seek a Financial Advisor<br />Legal Council- bids, contracts, agreements<br />Accountants- “Quality of Earnings” report, taxes, employee benefits, risk management, IT. (Play a larger role on the buy side). <br />Actuaries- Character of seller’s liabilities.<br />
  13. 13. Controlled Auction<br />Advantages <br />Disadvantages<br />Broad number of strategic and financial buyers.<br />Maximizes likelihood all possible buyers will be contacted.<br /><ul><li>Breadth of process maximizes risks of leaks
  14. 14. Creates maximum competition.</li></li></ul><li>Target Auction<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br /><ul><li>Flexibility in timing and buyer selection
  15. 15. Maintenance of confidentiality
  16. 16. Limited approach to strategic buyers and broad approach to financial buyers
  17. 17. May omit certain potential buyers</li></li></ul><li>Negotiated Process<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br /><ul><li>Opportunity to accelerate closing
  18. 18. Highest degree of confidentiality
  19. 19. Limited number of strategic and financial buyers
  20. 20. Difficult to create Competitive pressure. </li></li></ul><li>Deal Structuring<br />Will seller’s shareholders accept cash, stock, or combination?<br />Asset Vs. Entity- Operations and liabilities or a book of business.<br />Insurance Industry- An Asset Acquisition is typically a block of policies or line of business. <br />
  21. 21. Tax Issues<br />How are gains calculated?<br />Are there tax efficient ways to sell the business?<br />Can buyer increase tax basis to reflect seller’s purchase price. <br />
  22. 22. Pre- Marketing<br />Preparing the Buyer List- FA provides list of qualified buyers.<br />
  23. 23. Key Marketing Documents<br /><ul><li>The Teaser- brief 1-3 page document that is prepared and distributed by FA to attract potential investors. The document highlights attractive attributes of company, provides financial summary, and may contain financial projections. If the potential buyer remains interested, the bankers send out the: Confidentiality Agreement (CA)
  24. 24. Confidentiality Agreement(CA)- Between Seller and Potential buyer. The CA is intended to protect the seller from unauthorized sharing of information by the buyer. Upon agreement of the CA by the buyer, the seller sends the Confidential Information Memorandum (CIM).
  25. 25. Confidential Information Memorandum (CIM)- Primary document used to market to the seller. Describes seller’s industry, contains:
  26. 26. Executive summary
  27. 27. Key investment characteristics
  28. 28. Overview of Organization
  29. 29. Detailed historical and financial operating performance
  30. 30. Financial projections.
  31. 31. Bid Process Letter- accompanies CIM when sent to prospective bidder. Includes description of general process and establish deadlines. It may also contain the identity of acquiring entity, source of financing and other detailed information. </li></li></ul><li>Actuarial Appraisal<br /><ul><li>It is a wise idea to hire an outside firm for valuation due to impartiality.
  32. 32. Ideally, this is completed before the formal marketing begins.
  33. 33. Compiling the Data Room
  34. 34. FA leads charge to build a “Data Room.” Consists of detailed, highly sensitive information to seller. This generally supports the actuarial appraisal.</li></li></ul><li>Marketing<br /><ul><li>Initial contact with Prospective Buyers- teaser
  35. 35. Follow-up with interested parties- issuance of CA, CIM, and bid process letter.
  36. 36. Reviewing Preliminary Bids- A FA must manage a seller’s expectations. FA and seller determines which bids go to a second round and which are excluded.
  37. 37. Preliminary Due-Diligence- Seller may invite one or more potential buyers to further negotiate based on strategy.
  38. 38. Due-Diligence- Must form proper strategy as acquirer’s spend significant amount of time analyzing seller’s business.
  39. 39. Data Room Strategy- FA of the seller must ensure information and technology is prepared for a smooth process.
  40. 40. Management Presentation- The seller’s opportunity to “tell the story.” Should provide key investment considerations and an overview of the operating and management history.
  41. 41. Break-Out Session Strategy- Various disciplines go one on one. </li></li></ul><li>The Buy Side<br />
  42. 42. Evaluating the Opportunity<br />Pre-Screening the Opportunity <br /><ul><li>Retaining a buy-side FA- use of financial models to value past and future, value private companies, prepare LOI, negotiate terms of agreement and financing, and to close transactions.
  43. 43. Market Analysis- evaluate short and long term potential for combined company.
  44. 44. Preliminary Valuation of Target- Determines price of target.</li></ul>Public Company Comparable Valuation<br /> Comparable transaction Valuation<br />Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) or Dividend Discount Valuation.<br />Financial buyer valuation<br />Actuarial Appraisal<br /><ul><li> Financial Modeling- This shows if acquisition makes sense within a range of potential offer prices given the buyer’s financial objectives. </li></li></ul><li>EXAMPLE FROM ACRETION DELUTION<br />
  45. 45. Preliminary Due Diligence <br />Opportunity for Buyer to:<br /><ul><li>Decide whether to submit a bid
  46. 46. Ascertain information needed to form meaningful bid
  47. 47. Protect itself from downside risks
  48. 48. Final Bids- As a result of Due-Diligence, Management decides whether to continue or not.
  49. 49. Negotiation of the Letter of Intent, LOI- Describes the ground rules for buyer and seller. Typically deal with management and policies of a transaction. </li></li></ul><li>Due Diligence- buy side<br />A potential investor may dispatch a team of 50 or more individuals.<br />All issues are addressed as: 1) adjusting the bid price or by 2) adding protection mechanisms.<br />Deal Financing- FA assists management in raising financing. <br />Rating Agencies<br />
  50. 50. Negotiation<br /><ul><li>Analysis of negotiated terms.
  51. 51. Management updates
  52. 52. Purchase agreement- terms of LOI plus numerous legal, financial, and operational contingencies.
  53. 53. Key covenants- pertains to matters over time
  54. 54. Deal protection- “no shop clause,” liability issues, intellectual property protection.
  55. 55. Employment agreements- deals with incentivizing employees in integration processes and may prevent an exodus of talent. </li></li></ul><li>Path to Closing<br />Presentation to the Board of Directors- once deal is arranged, buyer and seller both present to the boards of their respected companies. The seller’s board of directors will ask for a “fairness opinion.” <br />Regulatory Issues- State, Anti-trust, SEC Review<br />Presentation of deal to the Public: Announcement<br />Shareholder Approval<br />Closing<br />