Power Production Fuels & Jamaica

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Power Production Fuels & Jamaica

  1. 1. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS &JAMAICA<br />By<br />Neville A. Tomlinson, Ph.D.<br />March 18, 2009<br />1<br />
  2. 2. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />INTRODUCTION<br />The long term fuels challenge<br /> Identifying fuels that that satisfy the following:<br />Plentiful (available for the life of the supporting installation - ≥ 25 yrs.) <br />Available<br />Contains high energy density<br />Economical <br />Safe to transport and use<br />Supported by proven technology<br />Environmentally economical<br />Promote Jamaica’s short and long term economic development :<br />Investor friendly <br /> Promotes job creation<br /> Promotes improved living standard for Jamaican’s<br />2<br />
  3. 3. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />CONVENTIONAL SOURCES<br />UNCONVENTIONAL SOURCES<br />Fossil Fuels : -petroleum (oil)<br /> - coal<br /> - propane<br /> - natural gas<br />Nuclear Fuels: - uranium<br /> - plutonium<br /> - thorium<br /> - minor actinides<br />Fossil Fuels: - tar sands<br /> - oil shale<br /> - heavy oil<br /> - coal to liquid (CTL)<br /> - coal to gas (CTG)<br /> - petcoke<br /> Alternative Fuels : - bioalcohol (methanol, ethanol, butanol)<br /> - biogas (methane)<br /> - biodiesel<br /> - fuel cells<br /> - hydrogen<br /> - non-fossil natural gas<br />Renewables: - wind<br /> - solar<br /> - tidal<br /> - geothermal<br /> - biofuels (biogas, bioalcohol, biodiesel, etc)<br />3<br />
  4. 4. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />GLOBAL TRENDS<br />4<br />EIA: Global energy demand grows despite the sustained high world oil prices that are projected to persist over the long term. <br />
  5. 5. 5<br />POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />GLOBAL TRENDS<br />
  6. 6. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />6<br />
  7. 7. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />7<br />Source: Naturalgas .org<br />Approximate Natural Abundance of <br />Mercury Compounds in Hydrocarbons<br />Abundance: D (dominant) - greater than 50 percent of total <br />S (some) - 10 to 50 percent <br />T (trace) - less than 1 percent<br /> N (none) – rarely detected <br /> ? indicates that data not conclusive<br />Source: Abbot and Openshaw (2002)<br />
  8. 8. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />8<br />NATURAL GAS RESERVES<br />
  9. 9. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />Gas Reserves by Country<br />Top gas reserves by country, TCF<br />World reserves: 4980 TCF<br />1. Russian Federation 1748<br />2. USA 1475<br />3. Iran 742<br />4. Qatar 245<br />5. Abu Dhabi 188<br />6. Saudi Arabia 185<br />7. Venezuela 140<br />8. Algeria 128<br />9. Turkmenistan 100<br />10. Kazakhstan 83<br />11. Canada 67<br />12. Uzbekistan 60<br />9<br />
  10. 10. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />Gas to Market Technologies<br />10<br />LNG (Proven technology, expensive)<br />CNG (Not proven, Developing, Cheap)<br />
  11. 11. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA<br />CNG TRANSPORT SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT<br />SeaNG<br />TrasOcean Gas<br /> Floating Pipeline Company<br />Knutsen OAS Shipping<br />Enersea Transport<br />11<br />
  12. 12. ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS & JAMAICA <br />CNG Transport<br />VOTRANS concept in which the natural gas<br />is compressed and cooled to lower<br />temperatures. This reduces the volume of the<br />compressed gas compared to just compressing it<br />at ambient temperatures. At the lower<br />temperatures of 0 to –4oF the process works at<br />lower pressures than at ambient temperatures.<br />Courtesy Enersea<br />12<br />
  13. 13. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA<br />CNG Cargo Containment System<br />Courtesy Enersea<br />13<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />CNG TRANSPORT - CONCEPT <br />(Teekay Corporation Cosselle CNG Ships for 150 – 2000 miles<br />Cran and Stennings Technology)<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />CNG <br />ADVANTAGE<br />DISADVANTAGE<br />Not economical for distances > 2500 miles<br />Technology in development – not proven<br />Low energy density<br /> Weather sensitive<br />Not suitable for large power requirements<br />Environmental concern / cost impacts<br /> High operating pressures (2500 to 3500<br /> psi)<br /> Safety Concerns / Explosive hazard<br />No existing regulation for power <br /> plant facilities uses. <br /> Need to develop regulatory platform<br /> Economical for distances ≤ 2500 miles<br />Requires less facilities and infrastructure<br />Low up front investment<br />Inexpensive onshore facilities<br />Can exploit isolated supply sources <br />Suitable for small demand markets<br />
  16. 16. EIS / HAZOP / HAZID report/review<br /> Cold eyes review of Ship/ Off-shore/Onshore facilities design<br /> Engineer representing Jamaica’s interest in the project (design basis review , <br /> regulatory concerns, fire protection and ESD philosophy, etc.)<br /> Commissioning <br />Regulation<br />16<br />POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA<br />CNG PROJECT ENGINEERING SUPPORT<br />
  17. 17. POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA<br />LNG tanker underway<br />Photo Courtesy of BP<br />17<br />
  18. 18. LNG Tank<br />18<br />POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />POWER PRODUCTION FUELS & JAMAICA <br />LNG <br />ADVANTAGE<br />DISADVANTAGE<br />Expensive onshore facilities<br />Large up front investment<br />Safety Concerns<br />Facility needs careful regulation (NFPA 59A can be adopted)<br />Only 100 LNG liquefactions trains currently exist worldwide<br />Economical for distances > 2500<br />Proven Technology<br />Can support large power demands<br />Vaporized gas can be supplied as feed-stock for other products<br />Suitable for large demand markets<br />Weather flexibility<br />High energy density CNG (60% <br /> that of diesel )<br />

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