PROPOSAL OF BPMN EXTENSIONS BASED ON RESULTS OF ONTOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF PROCESS MODELLING METHODS Tomislav Rozman, Romana ...
Contents of the article <ul><li>Knowledge modelling, process modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Bunge-...
Knowledge modelling <ul><li>Knowledge modelling is concerned with  languages, tools and methodologies  for developing  abs...
(Business) Process modelling <ul><li>Better: Discrete process modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Plethora of methods, methodologi...
Ontology <ul><li>…  is a  branch of philosophy , which deals with the modelling of real world (Wand and Weber, 1993)  </li...
Bunge-Wand-Weber ontology <ul><li>Basic groups of concepts (Wand and Weber, 1993): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things   (thing, ...
Ontology analysis (what?) <ul><li>Matching of concepts between selected  ontology  and modelling language </li></ul>Constr...
Ontology analysis (how?)  (Rosemann, Green, and Indulska, 2004)
Results of existing ontology analyses  <ul><li>EPC  (Recker et al, 2005) ,  </li></ul><ul><li>ARIS  (Green and Rosemann, 2...
BPMN notation <ul><li>Visual  representation  of  (business) processes - workflow </li></ul><ul><li>It defines  graphical ...
Proposals of BPMN extensions – what is missing <ul><li>Based on results of ontological analyses of completeness </li></ul>...
Proposals of BPMN extensions - overview <ul><li>System structure  is a set of interactions between  system components  and...
Concept:  system <ul><li>System = { processes | roles | artifacts }  or any combination </li></ul><ul><li>Presented as ‘pa...
Extension:  Process structure ( process map ) <ul><li>Set of  processes and static relations  among them </li></ul><ul><li...
Example: process map
Extension :  Roles structure ( roles/relationships ) <ul><li>Set of associated  roles and groups of roles  in organization...
Example: Roles/relationships
Extension :  Structure of processes and roles ( Responsibilites ) <ul><li>Set of associated  roles/groups and processes   ...
Example: Responsibilities
Extension :  Structure of processes and artifacts ( Process overview, Business goals/measures ) <ul><li>Set of associated ...
Examples: Process overview
Examples: Business goals/measures
Open issues  <ul><li>BWW ontology:  relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology analyses:  comparable results? </li></ul><ul><li>...
Conclusions <ul><li>Complexity of conceptual models:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>completeness  vs.  understandability </li></ul...
<ul><li>Discussion… </li></ul>
F.A.Q <ul><li>Why Y.A.P.M. ? (Yet Another Process Modelling Method?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The needs : process models are ...
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PROPOSAL OF BPMN EXTENSIONS BASED ON RESULTS OF ONTOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF PROCESS MODELLING METHODS

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  • PROPOSAL OF BPMN EXTENSIONS BASED ON RESULTS OF ONTOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF PROCESS MODELLING METHODS

    1. 1. PROPOSAL OF BPMN EXTENSIONS BASED ON RESULTS OF ONTOLOGICAL ANALYSES OF PROCESS MODELLING METHODS Tomislav Rozman, Romana Vajde Horvat, Ivan Rozman Knowledge Management in Organizations Maribor 2006         Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Maribor, Slovenia       Institute of Informatics
    2. 2. Contents of the article <ul><li>Knowledge modelling, process modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Bunge-Wand-Weber’s ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology analysis (of process modelling methods) </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal of extensions of BPMN notation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Knowledge modelling <ul><li>Knowledge modelling is concerned with languages, tools and methodologies for developing abstract models of some target domain or problem solving behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>(Ontology modelling, object modelling, process modelling ) </li></ul>
    4. 4. (Business) Process modelling <ul><li>Better: Discrete process modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Plethora of methods, methodologies, notations,… </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: to capture the knowledge how people (machines) perform their work (or, how we would like them to perform it) </li></ul><ul><li>No silver bullet </li></ul><ul><li>How to improve the completeness of process modelling methods? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Ontology <ul><li>… is a branch of philosophy , which deals with the modelling of real world (Wand and Weber, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>… is a catalogue of related terms among participants of specific domain, classified according to predefined rules </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose: to improve and unify communication about domain </li></ul><ul><li>Types: Informal, Formal, Axiomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Bunge-Wand-Weber - general information systems ontology </li></ul><ul><li>BPO (Business Management Ontology) – ontology for business processes </li></ul>
    6. 6. Bunge-Wand-Weber ontology <ul><li>Basic groups of concepts (Wand and Weber, 1993): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things (thing, composite thing, class, kind of, property), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>states (state, stable state, unstable state, lawful state space, conceivable state space, history), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>events and transformations (Event, external event, internal event, defined event, poorly defined event, process, conceivable event space, lawful event space, transformation, transformation law, acts-on and coupling), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>laws (natural law, human law, state law, transformation law) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>system (system, system composition, system decomposition, environment, system structure, sub-system, leveled system structure). </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Ontology analysis (what?) <ul><li>Matching of concepts between selected ontology and modelling language </li></ul>Construct deficit Construct overload Construct redundancy Construct excess
    8. 8. Ontology analysis (how?) (Rosemann, Green, and Indulska, 2004)
    9. 9. Results of existing ontology analyses <ul><li>EPC (Recker et al, 2005) , </li></ul><ul><li>ARIS (Green and Rosemann, 2000) , </li></ul><ul><li>UML Activity diagrams (Dussart, Aubert, and Patry, 2002) , </li></ul><ul><li>OPM – Object Process Methodology (Soffer et al, 2001) , </li></ul><ul><li>BPMN – Business Process Modelling notation (Recker et al, 2005) </li></ul>Ontologically most complete!
    10. 10. BPMN notation <ul><li>Visual representation of (business) processes - workflow </li></ul><ul><li>It defines graphical symbols and additional attributes for process description </li></ul><ul><li>Covers the process modelling concepts and patterns very well </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Based on : EPC, Petri nets, Activity diagrams (UML) </li></ul><ul><li>Defines the mapping to execution languages (XPDL, BPEL4WS) </li></ul><ul><li>Merging with UML? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Proposals of BPMN extensions – what is missing <ul><li>Based on results of ontological analyses of completeness </li></ul><ul><li>Missing: System structure concept </li></ul>BPMN coverage ? ? ? System (Organization) Roles Processes Artifacts
    12. 12. Proposals of BPMN extensions - overview <ul><li>System structure is a set of interactions between system components and/or between system and environment . </li></ul>BPMN coverage Roles/relationships diagram Process map diagram Responsibilities diagram Process overview, Business goals and metrics Roles Processes Artifacts
    13. 13. Concept: system <ul><li>System = { processes | roles | artifacts } or any combination </li></ul><ul><li>Presented as ‘package’ (similar to UML:package) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Extension: Process structure ( process map ) <ul><li>Set of processes and static relations among them </li></ul><ul><li>Possible relations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P X depends on P Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P X is special case of P Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P X is a part of P Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P X replaces if P Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P X conforms to P Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P X is version of P Y </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Example: process map
    16. 16. Extension : Roles structure ( roles/relationships ) <ul><li>Set of associated roles and groups of roles in organization or project </li></ul><ul><li>Possible relations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R X is special kind of R Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X collaborates in G X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X replaces R Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X communicates with R Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X supervises R Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X default reporting channel R Y </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Example: Roles/relationships
    18. 18. Extension : Structure of processes and roles ( Responsibilites ) <ul><li>Set of associated roles/groups and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Possible relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R X is responsible for P X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X performs P X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X is informed about P X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X collaborates in P X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X audits P X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X supervises P X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R X reports about P X </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Example: Responsibilities
    20. 20. Extension : Structure of processes and artifacts ( Process overview, Business goals/measures ) <ul><li>Set of associated processes and artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Possible relations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P X conforms to A (standard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P X is measured with A (key performance indicator) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P X fulfills A (business goal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P X outputs A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P X inputs A </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Examples: Process overview
    22. 22. Examples: Business goals/measures
    23. 23. Open issues <ul><li>BWW ontology: relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology analyses: comparable results? </li></ul><ul><li>Ontological deficiency of BPMN: states ? </li></ul><ul><li>Other construct deficiencies: overload, redundancy, excess ? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>Complexity of conceptual models: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>completeness vs. understandability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ontology analysis is becoming mature approach for analysis of process modelling methods </li></ul><ul><li>Usability of this extensions was tested on real world example : reengineering of business process </li></ul><ul><li>Presented extensions of BPMN are part of process modelling methodology, developed at University of Maribor, Institute of informatics ( PRESY – PRocess EaSY methodology ) </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Discussion… </li></ul>
    26. 26. F.A.Q <ul><li>Why Y.A.P.M. ? (Yet Another Process Modelling Method?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The needs : process models are not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on engineering approach & best of existing methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why not EPC+ARIS? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(see table, ontological deficiencies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies show that users have difficulties to represent some concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BPMN- most mature , up to date, mapping to executable languages , intended for business analysts and IT experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EEPC’s-too vague </li></ul></ul>

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