Germany was competingwith the UK to buildbattleships. The British thought thatGermany growing a navy sorapidly was a threat. Acompetition as she had beenfor a lot of years ‘the Queenof the Sea’. Germany’s Kaiser thoughtthey needed a navy toprotect their colonies.Militarism 1.
Germany wascompeting with Russiaand France to expandtheir armies1880 1914 Germany 1.3m 5.0m France 0.73m 4.0m Russia 0.40m 1.2mMilitarism 2.
By 1914 all the majorpowers were linked by asystem of alliances. The alliances made itmore likely that a war wouldstart. Once started, the alliancesmade it more likely to spread. Triple Entete: Germany, Austria-Hungary andItaly. Central Powers: Britain, France and Russia.Alliances
All the great powers werecompeting for colonies /territory. (To be an empire youneeded colonies because theymeant power). The British feared Germanyin Africa. The Austrians feared Serbia/ Russia in the Balkans.Imperialism
This was an age when all nations wanted to asserttheir power and independence. In Europe Slavs,aided by Serbia andRussia, wanted to beFree of Austrian rule.Pride to your country.Nationalism
Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941) Built up German army and navy ashe was a strong believer in increasingthe strength of the German armedforces, particularly the navy. Aggressive foreign policy Determined to make Germany a topnation.-”A momentous hour has struckfor Germany. Envious rivals every whereforce us to legitimate defense.”(Wilhelm announcing to the German people that WWIhas broken out).Significant Individuals 1.“Germany must haveits place in the sun”“The world belongs tothe strong.”
Count Berchtold Austrian PrimeMinister. During the JulyCrisis, decided on avery toughultimatum for SerbiaSignificant Individuals 2“Were the Serbs toagree to all thedemands, this wouldnot be to my liking”
Bethmann Hollweg German Prime Minister Gave very strong support toAustria during the Julycrisis while Kaiser wascruising on his yacht.Significant Individuals 3“The Austrian demandsare moderate. Anyinterference by Britain,France and Russia wouldbe followed byincalculableconsequences”
28 June 1914 Heir to Austrianthrone FranzFerdinand visitsSarajevo. Capital of Bosnia,recently grabbed byAustria. Hotbed of SlavnationalismThe Crisis 1.Seal of theBlack Handgroup
“Black Hand”terrorists attack theArch Duke Bomb attempt fails inmorning Gavrilo Principshoots Archduke andwife in the afternoon. Austrians blameSerbia for supportingterrorists.The Crisis 2.
Austrians, supported byGermany, send Serbia atough ultimatum. Serbia agrees to all but twoterms of the ultimatum. Russia mobilises her troopsto support Serbia Germany demands thatRussia stands her armiesdown. Germany declares war onRussiaThe Crisis 3.“Demands must beput to Serbia thatwould be whollyimpossible for themto accept …”
Britain had Ententeswith France andRussia. Only “friendlyagreements” butFrench and Russiansgiven impressionBritain would fight. The Schlieffen PlanWhy did Britain getinvolved?Sir Edward GreyBritish Foreign Secretary… “There’s some devilrygoing on in Berlin”
Germany wanted to gothrough Belgium, then attackFrance and then Russia. ButBelgium forces resisted morethan what they had anticipatedbut they got to France anyway.When they were attacking,Britain appeared to give ahand to her allies. This plan failed as it tooklonger than what they thought.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fk2p9gzR3GIThe Schlieffen Plan
1838- UK had signed aTreaty to protectBelgium. Britain also scared ofGermany controllingChannel ports. Did not want Germanyto defeat France anddominate Europe.Britain next? UK issued ultimatumto Germany towithdraw troops fromBelgium. War declaredBritain’s Reaction
By: Gonzalo, Tomas A. and Florencia.By: Gonzalo, Tomas A. and Florencia.