Internal unitcomponentClick on any picture to view more aboutit!
Power supply• A power supply is an electrical supply that powers thecomputer and all the components inside the computer. Thepower supply converts mains AC to low voltage DC power forthe internal components of a computer. Modern personalcomputers universally use a switched-mode power supply.
Motherboard• A motherboard is the most important piece of hardware in acomputer and expandable systems. It holds many of the crucialelectronic components of the system, such as the centralprocessing unit (CPU) and memory. It also provides theconnectors for other peripherals.The name “Mother” of allcomonents attached to it, which often include sound cards,vvideo cards, network cards, hard drives or other forms ofpersistent storage.• Motherboards are generally air cooled with heat sinks oftenmounted on larger chips such as the north bridge (which isexplained on the next page).Next page to see more about the Motherbord
south bridge and north bridge(motherboard• The Northbridge connects directly to the processor via thefront side bus (FSB).A memory controller is located on theNorthbridge, which gives the CPU fast access to the memory.The Northbridge also connects to the AGP or PCI Express busand to the memory itself.The southbridge is slower than the northbridge, andinformation from the CPU has to go through the northbridgebefore reaching the southbridge. Other busses connect thesouthbridge to the PCI bus, the USB ports and the IDE orSATA hard disk connections.Next page to see more about the Motherbord
What are the three major components in themotherboard?• CPU - The CPU (central Processing Unit) is often seen in themotherboard as it is the main core of every computer.• BIOS - BIOS is the Basic Input Output System which is a non-volatilememory that includes configuration details about the computer. Itincludes all the system required for the cpu to converse with thekeyboard, mouse video display, hard drives and also other connectionsdevices.• RTC - RTC means Real Time Clock or it is mostly called as CMOS chipwhich maintains the date, day and time in a 24 hour format just like awatch.The computer uses this clock to ‘time stamp’ files as they areproduces and customised.Next page to see more about the Motherbord
RAM• RAM stands for Random Access Memory.The memory holds allof the information of applications when the computer is turnedon.• When you turn of the computer, all that information that wasstored in the memory will have gone.
• ROM stands for Read Only Memory. It is another class ofstorage medium used in computers and other electornicdevices.The data that is automatically stored in ROM, but it canbe modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used todistribute firmware.ROM
Disk Drive• A hard disk drive (HDD) is a data storage device that is usedfor storing and retrieving digital information using rapidlyroating discs that is coated with magnetic material.An HDDretains its data even when powered off. Data is read in arandom-access manner, meaning idividual blocks of data can bestored or retrieved in any order rather than a logical order.
Disc Drives (Continued)• There are multiple discs or other hardware that can readinformation.They are:• Floppy Drives• CD-ROM• DVD-ROM
CD RoM• A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed compact disc which contains data.The name is an acronym which stands for “Compact Disc Read-only Memory”. Computers can read CD-ROMs, but cannotwrite on them. CD ROMs are very popular when distributingcomputer software or PC games.
DVD-ROM• DVD is another type of portable memory that can hold aminimum of 4.7GB, enough for a full-length movie.• The DVD-ROM specification supports disks with capacities offrom 4.7GB to 17GB and access rates of 600KBps to 1.3 MBps.One of the best features of DVD-ROM drives is that they arebackward-comaptible with CD-ROMs.This means that DVD-ROM players can play old CD-ROMs, CD-I disks, and videoCDs, as well as new DVD-ROMs. Newer DVD plays can alsoread CD-R disks.
A peripheral is a device attached to ahost computer, but not part of it, andis more or less dependent on the host.Peripherals
StorageData storage is often called storage ormemory.You can get different methods ofperipherals storage. For example,portable hard-drives, memory sticks andfloppy drives. (But, floppy drives are nolonger used.)
input devices(keyboard)Keyboards are a human interface device that allows theuser to input letters into a computer. each key has a letteron it that can call a command or type that letter into aword document, search engine, etc...
Input device (mouse)A mouse is another human interface that allows the user toclick, drag etc to control the operating system. Forexample, if the user wants to go on to the internet, theywill click the web browser. instead of writing it into thecmd.
output devicesSpeakers are what playsounds or music from a computer. They use a 3.5mmstereo plug. The plug
output(Display)Displays cables are normally USB input devices.the most common ratios are 4:3 and 16:9. Thedisplay device in modern monitors is typically athin film transistor liquid crystal display
About storage devicesComputer data storage is what computer components andrecording media use to retain digital data. It is a core pieceof hardware that is in every computer. The CPU is whathandles all the transferring of the data and manipulates databy performing computations. In practice, almost allcomputers use a storage hierarchy which puts fast butexpensive and small storage options close to the CPU andslower by larger and cheaper options father away.
Memory sticksMemory sticks are wildly used for easy to use portable devices.Theinformation on memory sticks are stored on flash memory. You can getmemory sticks that hold up to 64GB of space. Most people use them forstoring Photos, documents or movies.The memory stick was launched by Sony in October 1998, and is alsoused in general to describe the whole family of Memory Stick.
Hard disk driveHard disk drives are commonly used computers and laptops tohold information. For example, it holds, pictures, movies,operating system files, word processing documents, etc... harddisk drives can go up to 7200-rpm but most are normally 5400-rpm. Hard Drives can hold up to 2TB.
Solid state driveSolid state drives are fairly new and are most common innetbooks. Unlike Hard Disk Drives, solid state drives do nothave any moving parts. they are less noisy and and are moremoney per GB. Solid state drives are a lot faster than harddisk drives because they hold the memory even withoutpower. Solid state drives can hold up to as much as 2TB butit is a lot more money than having a 2TB hard drive.