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Seeking Evidence: Using the Science of Learning to Guide your eLearning Development

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Presentation to eACH Conference (eLearning Alliance of Canadian Hospitals) on July 8, 2016

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Seeking Evidence: Using the Science of Learning to Guide your eLearning Development

  1. 1. Seeking Evidence Using the Science of Learning to Guide your eLearning Development
  2. 2. • Evidence-based learning design • How we learn • Principles from the Science of Learning: – Gaining attention and motivation – Information design – Designing meaningful practice – Making social and informal work – Learning in organizations – Myth busting Agenda
  3. 3. Evidence-based medicine means pairing clinical judgment with the relevant scientific evidence and including your patients’ preferences into making a decision for your patient. Evidence-based Medicine
  4. 4. Pure and Applied Research Expert Judgment from Experience Learner Experience and Organizational Impact EBLD Evidence-based Learning Design Evidence-based eLearning design means pairing your expert judgment with the relevant scientific evidence, learner preferences and organizational impact when making design decisions
  5. 5. How We Learn Short term memory Long term Memory Plan Do Outcome/ Feedback Attention Task Environment Learning Program Information Action
  6. 6. "If you wanted to create an education environment that was directly opposed to what the brain was good at doing, you would probably design something like a classroom."
  7. 7. Gaining Attention and Motivation to Learn “Novel environments sparks exploration and learning. They motivate us to explore an environment in the search for reward rather than being a reward itself." Pure Novelty Spurs The Brain. Science Daily, 27 August 2006. “Novelty causes a the dopamine system to become activated Dopamine is very much involved in learning and memory. Learning and memory occur in the brain through changes in the way that neurons connect to one another. When dopamine is released, it is a signal to the brain that is it now time to start learning what is going on”
  8. 8. Techniques for Gaining Attention • Show the big picture • Creative video demonstrations • Challenge perceptions • Tell a story • Present a work problem or challenge • Use a novel scenario • Simulate work processes to create authentic experience • Completing novel tasks are rewarding. Make tasks clear and interesting • Use element of surprise • Game mechanics unusual, unfamiliar, fresh, imaginative, strange, different, untried
  9. 9. Presenting Information • Reduce unnecessary processing • Manage the difficulty of the learning task • Create meaningful processing Managing Cognitive Load Short term Memory Long Term Memory
  10. 10. Types of Cognitive Load Minimize Manage Maximize
  11. 11. • Chunk content and allow the learner control (segmenting) • Remove non-essential content (coherence) • Use job aids and external resources • Highlight key concepts and information (signaling) • Use audio and text elements appropriately • Place text close as possible to corresponding graphics (spatial contiguity) • Don’t narrate on-screen text (redundancy) • Choose narration over text (modality) • Conversational style (personalization) • Consistent structure • Always connect to the big picture Ways to Reduce Extraneous Cognitive Load Mayer, R. E. & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist. 38, (1), 43-52.
  12. 12. Finding the Right Difficulty Level: Intrinsic Cognitive Load
  13. 13. Match information presentation strategy to content type Content Type Information Presentation Concepts Examples and non- examples Procedures Demonstrations Processes Visualizations Principles Use principles to solve problems Behaviour Behaviour Modeling David Merrill: Component Display Theory Maximizing Germane Cognitive Load
  14. 14. Designing Practice Expertise is the result of years of effortful, progressive practice on authentic tasks accompanied by relevant feedback and support, followed by self-reflection and correction
  15. 15. Designing Meaningful Practice • Authentic tasks and context • Tasks, scenarios and simulations • Learning from mistakes vs learning mistakes • Explanatory feedback • Worked examples • Varied context • Scaffolding • Distributed (vs. massed) • Increasing difficulty level • Move practice to the job (the future?)
  16. 16. Effective Practice Automates Skill
  17. 17. Social and Informal Learning John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation © 1991, The Institute of Management Sciences http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download doi=10.1.1.530.7851&rep=rep1&type=pdf Reliance on formal descriptions of work with explicit training to communicate “one right way” set organizations at a disadvantage. It blinds management to the practices and communities that actually make things happen. It leads to the isolation of learners, who will then be unable to acquire the implicit practices required for work
  18. 18. Tacit Knowledge and the Development of Expertise Expert Proficient Competent Advanced Beginner Novice Tacit Knowledge Explicit knowledge Mental Models Disconnected Knowledge Rule bound Intuition Informal learning Formal learning Considers everything Sees patterns
  19. 19. What Works in Organizations
  20. 20. Myth Busting: Learning Styles “We conclude that there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning styles assessments into educational practice. Resources would better be devoted to adopting other educational practices that have a strong evidence base”
  21. 21. Myth Busting: Net Generation Net Gen Characteristics Digital literacy Always connected Multitasking Experiential learning Prefers structure Collaboration at work Social Goal Oriented Preference for text Community minded Communication preferences Significant Difference? No No No No No No No Yes No/Yes (IM) No Yes Digital Learners in Higher Education: Generation is Not the Issue Volume 37 Spring 2011
  22. 22. http://www-935.ibm.com/services/multimedia/GBE03637USEN.pdf
  23. 23. Summary: Design for How we Learn Short term memory Long term Memory Plan Do Outcome/ Feedback Attention Task Environment Learning Program Information Action
  24. 24. References The Role of Dopamine in Motivation and Learning http://neurosciencenews.com/dopamine-learning-reward-3157/ “Mesolimbic dopamine signals the value of work” by Arif A Hamid, Jeffrey R Pettibone, Omar S Mabrouk, Vaughn L Hetrick, Robert Schmidt, Caitlin M Vander Weele, Robert T Kennedy, Brandon J Aragona and Joshua D Berke in Nature Neuroscience. Published online November 23 2015 doi:10.1038/nn.4173 Nine Ways to Reduce Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning http://www.uky.edu/~gmswan3/544/9_ways_to_reduce_CL.pdf EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST, 38(1), 43–52, 2003, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Applying the Science of Learning: Evidence-Based Principles for the Design of Multimedia Instruction Richard Mayer, November 2008, American Psychologist http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.457.5957&rep=rep1 &type=pdf Pure Novelty Spurs The Brain ScienceDaily, 27 August 2006 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/08/060826180547.htm Mental maps: Route-learning changes brain tissue Timothy A. Keller, Marcel Adam Just. Structural and functional neuroplasticity in human learning of spatial routes. NeuroImage, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.10.015 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151027123859.htm The Science of Training and Development in Organizations: What Matters in Practice Psychological Science in the Public Interest 13(2) 74–101, 2012 Eduardo Salas, Scott I. Tannenbaum, Kurt Kraiger, and Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch http://psi.sagepub.com/content/13/2/74.full.pdf+html?ijkey=g8tvuLmoeZfN2&keytype=ref&site id=sppsi The 10 Biggest Breakthroughs in the Science of Learning https://www.brainscape.com/blog/2012/10/breakthroughs-science-of-learning-2/ Learning styles: where’s the evidence? MEDICAL EDUCATION 2012; 46: 630–635 http://uweb.cas.usf.edu/~drohrer/pdfs/Rohrer&Pashler2012MedEd.pdf Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence Psychological Science in the PUBLIC INTEREST Volume 9 Number 3, December 2008 Harold Pashler, Mark McDaniel, Doug Rohrer, and Robert Bjork https://www.psychologicalscience.org/journals/pspi/PSPI_9_3.pdf David Merrill Component display theory references http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/component-display.html The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance K. Anders Ericsson, Ralf Th. Krampe, and Clemens Tesch-Romer Psychological Review, 1993, Vol. 100. No. 3, 363-406 http://projects.ict.usc.edu/itw/gel/EricssonDeliberatePracticePR93.pdf The Making of an Expert K. Anders Ericsson, Michael J. Prietula and Edward T. Cokely Harvard Business Review July–August 2007 https://hbr.org/2007/07/the-making-of-an-expert Organizational Learning and Communities of Practice: Toward a unified view or working, learning and Innovation John Seely Brown; Paul Duguid Organization Science, Vol. 2, No. 1,(1991), pp. 40-57. http://myinstructionaldesigns.com/system/files/articles/brown-duguid-Communities-of- Practice.pdf
  25. 25. References e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning (Mayer and Clark) https://www.amazon.com/Learning-Science-Instruction-Guidelines- Multimedia/dp/1119158664/ref=dp_ob_title_bk Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning (Brown, Roedigfer, McDaniel) https://www.amazon.com/dp/0674729013/ref=rdr_ext_tmb Applying the Science of Learning (Richard Mayer) https://www.amazon.com/Applying-Science-Learning-Richard- Mayer/dp/0136117570?ie=UTF8&ref_=asap_bc How We Learn: The Surprising Truth About When, Where, and Why It Happens (Benedict Carey) https://www.amazon.com/How-We-Learn-Surprising- Happens/dp/0812984293?ie=UTF8&ref_=rdr_ext_tmb The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance https://www.amazon.ca/Cambridge-Handbook-Expertise-Expert- Performance/dp/0521600812 Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise Anders Eriksson https://www.amazon.ca/Peak-Secrets-New-Science- Expertise/dp/0544456238/ref=tmm_hrd_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr= Evidence-Based Training Methods: A Guide For Training Professionals (Ruth Clark) https://www.amazon.ca/Evidence-Based-Training-Methods-Guide- Professionals/dp/1562869744/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1469477446& sr=1-1&keywords=ruth+clark+evidence+based Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and Performance Improvement (Ruth Clark) https://www.amazon.ca/Building-Expertise-Cognitive-Performance- Improvement/dp/0787988448/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1469541761&sr= 8-1-fkmr0&keywords=ruth+clark+bulding+expertise The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (Richard Mayer) https://www.amazon.ca/Cambridge-Handbook-Multimedia- Learning/dp/1107610311/ref=reader_auth_dp

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