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OERs - Open for Business or Closing or Down Sale?

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Paper 1 from Digital Learning Symposium at ESAI conference in Galway 2016 with Enda Donlan and Eamon Costello

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OERs - Open for Business or Closing or Down Sale?

  1. 1. PA PER 1: O PEN EDUCATIONAL RES OURCES ( O ERS) - O PEN FO R B USINESS O R CLO SING DOWN S A LE? D R . T O M F A R R E L L Y & D R . E A M O N C O S T E L L O
  2. 2. WHAT ARE OER?T E R M S ; C O N T E X T & M O D E L S
  3. 3. SOME TERMS… 1. Open Educational Resource (OER) “[t]he open provision of educational resources, enabled by information and communication technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes” UNESCO Forum on Open Courseware in 2002 (UNESCO, 2002:24), 2. “A learning object is a digital resource that can be reused to mediate learning. An open educational resource is a learning object that can be freely used, reused, adapted, and shared” Wiley (2008:346). 3. Open Education Practice - The International Council for Open and Distance Education defines open educational practices, quite simply, as 'practices which support the production, use and reuse of high quality open educational resources (OER)'. 4. Cape Town Open Education Declaration: “open education movement combines the established tradition of sharing good ideas with fellow educators and the collaborative, interactive culture of the Internet. It is built on the belief that everyone should have the freedom to use, customize, improve and redistribute educational resources without constraint”.
  4. 4. INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT - UNESCO 1. Forum on Open Courseware for Developing Countries (UNESCO, Paris, 1-3 July, 2002) 2. World Conference on Higher Education: The New Dynamics of Higher Education and Research for Societal Change and Development (UNESCO, Paris, 5-8 July 2009): – "ODL approaches and ICTs present opportunities to widen access to quality education, particularly when Open Educational Resources are readily shared by many countries and higher education institutions"
  5. 5. INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT – UNESCO II • World Open Educational Resources Congress (UNESCO Paris 2012) in conjunction with the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) 2012 Paris OER Declaration: a) Foster awareness and use of OER b) Facilitate enabling environments for use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) c) Reinforce the development of strategies and policies on OER d) Promote the understanding and use of open licensing frameworks e) Support capacity building for the sustainable development of quality learning materials f) Foster strategic alliances for OER g) Encourage the development and adaptation of OER in a variety of languages and cultural contexts h) Encourage research on OER i) Facilitate finding, retrieving and sharing of OER j) Encourage the open licensing of educational materials produced with public funds
  6. 6. MARTIN WELLER’S LI TTLE & BI G OER The Iceberg of Reuse, (White & Manton, 2011 p.5) LITTLE OER – small scale development and use; most not visible BIG OER – The visible side of OERs; institutional support and visibility – MOOCs best known example.
  7. 7. THREE MODELS OF SUSTAINABILITY (WILEY 2007:5) • The MIT model – OER are created and released by a dedicated, centralised, paid project team. • The USU (Utah State University) model – OER are created by a hybrid of a centralised team and decentralised staff. • The Rice model – This is a decentralised model based around a community of contributors.
  8. 8. WELLER (2014: 79) : “Current costs allocated to purchasing textbooks for colleges can be instead diverted to creating textbooks which are open and free to use”.
  9. 9. OER PROVISION IN THE IRISH HE SECTOR
  10. 10. L E A N I N G R E S O U R C E S A N D O P E N A C C E S S I N H E I N S T I T U T I O N S I N I R E L A N D Team: Project Lead: Angelica Risquez (UL) Researcher: Ann Coughlan DIT: Claire McAvinia, Yvonne Desmond & Pauline Rooney RCSI: Catherine Bruen MIC: Ann O’Keeffe & Deirdre Ryan NUIG: Sharon Flynn UL: Fiona Farr & Ann Marcus Quinn
  11. 11. Q 1 - HOW ARE OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES CURRENTLY BEING USED AND SHARED IN IRISH HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS AND WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM SUCH EXPERIENCES? • Awareness of OERs and knowledge about use quite low: 15% Not Aware to 14% Aware and Knowledge how to use • Regular use by participants: Primary Content 8% and Supplementary Content 21% • Never or Rare Use: Primary 64% and 41% • Where Find: Search Engines (149); YouTube (102); Sharing with Colleague (84) • Citation: Don't deal with issue/unsure 32% • Share? Yes 65% No 35%
  12. 12. Q 1 - HOW ARE OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES CURRENTLY BEING USED AND SHARED IN IRISH HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS AND WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM SUCH EXPERIENCES? II Why Share: • Collegiality & facilitating student learning; • Philosophical Conviction; • To develop subject area/learning materials; • Use to others or to institution; • Reciprocity; • Self-promotion Not Share: • Copyright issues/intellectual property rights/protection of work; • Time; • Material perceived to be irrelevant or context specific; • Policies of confidentiality/materials the property of institution • Cost;
  13. 13. REPOSITORIES BUILT DURING RIAN PROJECT (2007 -2010)
  14. 14. REPOSITORIES BUILT INDEPENDENTLY
  15. 15. RIAN: THE NATIONAL RESEARCH PORTAL
  16. 16. LESSONS….. National Digital Learning Repository (NDLR)
  17. 17. GOING FORWARDC O N S I D E R A T I O N S
  18. 18. UK’S OER PROGRAMME (2009-2012) • Not all OER are widely or globally accessible in a pedagogical or technical sense: – Pedagogical and Operability Considerations • Citation protocols – Is Creative Commons enough or appropriate? • Tracking – how and why? • Institutional and National polices • Sustainability the primary issue
  19. 19. OVERCOMING BARRIERS AND FINDING ENABLERS (JISC 2014) Stakeholder Barrier Enabler Possible Benefits Teachers & academic staff Time is a significant issue particularly when re-purposing existing materials Institutional support and acknowledgment of time needed to re-purpose materials Technical support and guidance from central teams Improved quality and checks re legality of content Teachers & academic staff Skills/competencies – a whole range of new skills may be needed (technical and pedagogical). Training and/or extra support from central teams Additional skills and experience for staff Management Institution wide approach – HE institutions may not have culture or mechanisms to support institution wide dialogue which is needed for OER initiatives Develop new partnerships within institutions Create mechanisms for cross faculty communication, practice sharing. Joined up approaches
  20. 20. SHOULD YOU SHARE? YES • Recognition • Enhancement of reputation – Individual & Institutional • Public Good NO • Recognition – What really counts? • Lack of quality control – mass education on the cheap? • Lack of wider commitment – Government & Institutional
  21. 21. Atkins, D. E., Brown, J. S., & Hammond, A. L. (2007). A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges, and new Opportunities. Menlo Park, CA: The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Higher Education Authority (2009) Open and Flexible Learning HEA Position Paper, November 2009. HEA; Dublin. Available from: http://www.hea.ie/sites/default/files/hea_flexible_learning_paper_nov_2009.pdf JISC (2014) OER’s -Overcoming barriers and finding enablers. Available from: https://www.jisc.ac.uk/guides/open-educational-resources/overcoming-barriers-and- finding-enablers McAvinia, C., & Maguire, T. (2011). Evaluating the National Digital Learning Repository (NDLR): New models of communities of practice. AISHE-J: The All Ireland Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 3 (1). Available from http://ojs.aishe.org/index.php/aishe-j/article/view/39 Bibliography
  22. 22. National Forum for the Enhancement of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education (2015) Learning Resources and Open Access in Higher Education Institutions in Ireland, Focused Research Report No. 1, 2015. NFTL: Dublin. Available from: http://www.teachingandlearning.ie/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Project-1- LearningResourcesandOpenAccess-1.pdf Weller, M. (2014.) The battle for open: how openness won and why it doesn’t feel like victory. Ubiquity Press, London. White, D. & Manton, M. (2011) Open Educational Resources: The value of reuse in higher education. JISC-funded OER Impact Study, University of Oxford. Available from: http://www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20140614114921/http://www.jisc.ac.uk/ media/documents/programmes/elearning/oer/OERTheValueOfReuseInHigherEducation. pdf UNESCO (2009) 2012 Paris OER Declaration. World Open Educational Resources (OER) Congress UNESCO, Paris, June 20-22, 2012. Available from: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/Paris%20OER %20Declaration_01.pdf Bibliography

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