Published on


Published in: Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Sex-Role Socialization in Picture Books for Preschool ChildrenAuthor(s): Lenore J. Weitzman, Deborah Eifler, Elizabeth Hokada, Catherine RossSource: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 77, No. 6 (May, 1972), pp. 1125-1150Published by: The University of Chicago PressStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2776222 .Accessed: 19/07/2011 16:09Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTORs Terms and Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTORs Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at .http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=ucpress. .Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. The University of Chicago Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to American Journal of Sociology.http://www.jstor.org
  2. 2. Sex-Role Socialization in Picture Booksfor Preschool ChildrenLenoreJ. Weitzman Universityof California, Davis ElizabethHokada, and CatherineDeborahEifler, Ross Yale University An examination prize-winning of picturebooks revealsthat women are greatly in centralroles,and illustra- underrepresented the titles, tions. Where women do appear their characterization reinforces traditionalsex-rolestereotypes:boys are active while girls are passive; boys lead and rescueotherswhile girls followand serve others.Adultmenand womenare equallysex stereotyped: men en- gage in a wide varietyof occupations while womenare presented onlyas wivesand mothers. effects theserigid The of sex-roleportraits on the self image and aspirations the developing of child are dis- cussed.INTRODUCTION Sex-rolesocializationconstitutes of the mostimportant one learning ex-periences the youngchild.By the timethe child enterskindergarten, forhe or she is able to make sex-roledistinctions express and sex-roleprefer-ences.Boys alreadyidentify withmasculine roles,and girlswithfeminineroles (Brown 1956). They also learn the appropriate behaviorforbothboys and girlsand menand women. Hartley (1960) reports that,by thetime they are four,childrenrealize that the primaryfeminine role ishousekeeping, whilethe primary masculine role is wage earning. In additionto learningsex-role identification sex-role and expectations,boys and girlsare socializedto accept societysdefinition the relative ofworth each of the sexes and to assumethe personality of characteristicsthatare "typical"of members each sex. Withregard relative of to status,theylearnthatboys are morehighly valued thangirls.And,withregardto personality differences, learn that boys are active and achieving theywhilegirlsare passive and emotional. Eight-year-old boys describegirlsas clean,neat,quiet,gentle, and fearful,whiletheydescribe adult womenas unintelligent, unadventurous, ineffective, nasty,and exploitative (Hart-ley 1959). Indeed,Maccobyfinds that,although girlsbeginlifeas better1We are indebtedto William J. Goode, Kai Erikson,Alice Rossi, and Erving Goffman commentson an earlierdraftof this paper which was presentedtofortheirinsightfulthe 1971 meetingof the AmericanSociological Association,Denver, Colorado. AJS Volume 77 Number6 1125
  3. 3. AmericanJournal Sociology of achieversthanboys,theygradually behindas theybecomesocialized fall (Maccoby 1966). In thispaperwe wishto concentrate one aspectof sex-role on socializa-tion: thesocialization preschool of childrenthrough picture books.Picturebooks play an important in earlysex-role role socializationbecause theyare a vehicleforthe presentation societalvalues to the youngchild. ofThrough books,children learnabout the worldoutsideof theirimmediateenvironment: theylearn about what otherboys and girls do, say, andfeel; theylearn about what is rightand wrong;and theylearn what isexpectedof children theirage. In addition,books providechildren withrolemodels-imagesof whattheycan and shouldbe like whentheygrowup. Childrensbooksreflect culturalvaluesand are an important instrumentfor persuading children accept those values. They also contain role toprescriptions which encourage childto conform acceptable the to standardsof behavior. The Child StudyAssociation (1969), aware of the socializa-tion potentialof books, states that a books emotionaland intellectualimpacton a youngreadermustbe considered. Therefore recommends itthatchildrens bookspresent positiveethicalvalues. Because books for youngchildrenexplicitly articulatethe prevailingculturalvalues,theyare an especially usefulindicator societalnorms.2 ofMcClelland (1961) used childrens books as indicators achievement ofvalues in his cross-cultural studyof economic development. the period Inpriorto increasedeconomicdevelopment founda high incidenceof heachievement motivation reflected the childrens in books.This indicated astrongpositiverelationship betweenachievement imageryin childrensstoriesand subsequent economic growth. McClelland (1961, p. 71) notedthat the storieshad providedchildren withclear "instructive" messagesaboutnormative behavior. Margaret Mead also commented "a culture thathas to get its values acrossto its children such simpleterms in that evena behavioral scientist understand can them."3STUDY DESIGNOur studyfocuseson picturebooks forthe preschool child.These booksare oftenread over and over again at a time whenchildren are in theprocess developing of theirownsexualidentities. Picturebooksare read to2Erving Goffman has questioned the direct relationship have postulated between wethe themesin childrens literature and societal values. He suggeststhat literarythemesmay provide alternativecultural norms or irrelevantfantasy outlets. Unfortunately,we do not know of any researchother than McClellands (1961) supportingeitherour own formulation Goffmans. or3 As quoted in McClelland (1961, p. 71).1126
  4. 4. Sex-Role Socializationchildren when they are most impressionable, beforeother socializationinfluences (such as school,teachers, and peers) becomemoreimportantat laterstagesin thechildsdevelopment. WVe have chosento examine howsex rolesare treated thosechildrens inbooksidentified the "verybest": the winners the CaldecottMedal. as ofThe CaldecottMedal is givenby the Childrens of ServiceCommittee theAmerican LibraryAssociation the mostdistinguished for picturebook oftheyear.The medalis the mostcovetedprizeforpreschool books. Bookson the list of winners(and runners-up) orderedby practically are allchildrens libraries the UnitedStates. Teachersand educatorsencour- inage children read the Caldecotts, to and conscientious parentsskim thelibraryshelveslookingfor those books that display the impressive goldseal whichdesignates winners. the The Caldecottawardoftenmeanssalesof 60,000books forthe publisher, others the industry and in look to thewinners guidancein what to publish (Nilsen 1970). for Although have computed statistical we a analysisof all the Caldecottwinners from the inception the award in 1938, we have concentrated ofourintensive on analysis thewinners runners-up thepast five and for years.Most of the examples citedin thispaper are takenfrom the 18 books inthislattercategory.4 In thecourseof ourinvestigation readseveralhundred we picturebooksand feelthatwe can assert, withconfidence, ourfindings applicable that areto the wide rangeof picturebooks. In fact,the Caldecottwinners areclearlyless stereotyped than the averagebook, and do not includethemostblatantexamples sexism. of In orderto assureourselves the representativeness our study,we of ofhave also examined threeothergroupsof childrens books: the NewberyAwardwinners, LittleGoldenBooks,and the "prescribed the behavior" oretiquettebooks. The Newbery Awardis givenby the American Library Association forthebestbook forschool-age children.Newbery booksare forchildren whocan read,and are therefore in directed children thethird sixthgrades. to to The Little GoldenBooks we have sampledare the best sellersin chil-drensbooks,since we have taken only thoseLittle Golden Books thatsold over threemillion copies.5These books sell for39 cents in grocery4 The Caldecott winners and runners-upfor the past five years are: 1967 winner(Ness 1967), 1967 runner-up(Emberley 1967b); 1968 winner (Emberley 1967a), 1968runners-up (Lionni 1967; Yashimo 1967; Yolen 1967); 1969 winner (Ronsome1968), 1969 runner-up(Dayrell 1968); 1970 winner (Steig 1969), 1970 runners-up(Keats 1969; Lionni 1969; Preston 1969; Turkle 1969; Zemach 1969); 1971 winner(Haley 1970), 1971 runners-up(Sleater 1970; Lobel 1970; Sendak 1970).5 We wish to thank Robert Garlock,productmanager of Little Golden Books, for hishelp withthisinformation forfurnishing and many of the books themselves. 1127
  5. 5. AmericanJournalof Sociologystores,Woolworths, Grants,and toyand gamestores.Consequently, theyreacha morebroadly based audiencethando themoreexpensive Caldecottwinners. The last typeof book we studiedis what we call the "prescribedbe-havior" or etiquettebook. Whereas other books only imply sex-roleprescriptions, about the properbehaviorforboys thesebooks are explicitand girls.They also portray adult modelsand advise children future onrolesand occupations.6 If we mayanticipate laterfindings, wouldlike to noteherethat our wethe findings from latterthreesamplesstrongly the parallelthosefromtheCaldecottsample.Although remainder this paper will be devoted the ofprimarily the Caldecott to sample, willuse someof theother we books forillustrative purposes.THE INVISIBLEFEMALEIt wouldbe impossible discusstheimageof females childrens to in bookswithout firstnotingthat,in fact,womenare simplyinvisible. We foundthatfemales in wereunderrepresentedthetitles, centralroles, pictures, andstoriesof everysampleof bookswe examined. Most childrens books areabout boys,men,and male animals,and mostdeal exclusively withmaleadventures. Most picturesshow men-singly or in groups.Even whenwomencan be foundin the books,theyoftenplay insignificant roles,re-maining bothinconspicuous nameless. and A tabulation the distribution illustrations the picturebooks is of of inprobably single the bestindicator theimportance menand women of of inthese books. Because womencomprise51% of our population, there ifwereno bias in thesebooks theyshouldbe presented roughly in half ofthepictures. in However, our sampleof 18 Caldecott winners runners- andup in the past fiveyearswe found261 pictures males compared of with23 pictures females. of This is a ratioof 11 pictures malesforevery of onepictureof a female.If we include animalswith obvious identities, thebias is evengreater.The ratioof male to femaleanimalsis 95:1.7 Turning the titlesof the CaldecottMedal winners to since the awardsinception 1938,we findthatthe ratioof titlesfeaturing in malesto those6 The Dr. Suess books, althoughpopular among preschoolaudiences,were not includedas a supplementary sample because they representonly one author and one publisherratherthan a more broadly based series. They do, however, conformto the generalpatternof sex-roleportrayalthat we foundamong the Caldecott winners.7The illustrations Caldecott winnersand runners-up of since 1967 included 166 malepeople, 22 female people, and 57 picturesof both males and females together.Theanimal illustrations included 95 of male animals, one of a female animal, and 12 ofboth male and femaleanimals together. Together,this resultedin a total male/femaleratio of 11: 1. There were also 14 illustrations characterswithouta sex. of1128
  6. 6. Sex-Role Socialization featuring females 8:3.8 Despite the presence the popularCinderella, is of Snow White,Hansel and Gretel., and Little Red Riding Hood in the sampleof GoldenBooks thathave sold morethanthreemillion copies,we findclose to a 3:1 male/female ratioin thissample.9The 49 books that have received Newbery the Awardsince1922 depictmorethanthree males to every one female.0 Children scanning list of titlesof whathave been designated the the as verybest childrens books are bound to receivethe impression that girls are not veryimportant because no one has bothered writebooks about to them. The content thebooksrarely of dispelsthisimpression. In close to one-third our sampleof recent of Caldecottbooks,thereare no womenat all. In these books,both the illustrations and the stories reflect mans world.Drummer a Hoff(Emberly1967a) is about a group of armyofficers getting readyto firea cannon; Frog and Toad (Lobel 1970) relatesthe adventures two male animal friends;In the Night of Kitchen (Sendak 1970) followsa boys fantasyadventures through a kitchen that has threecooks, all of whomare male; Frederick(Lionni 1967) is a creative malemousewhoenableshis brothers survive cold to thewinter;and Alexander a mousewho helps a friend is transform himself (plate 1). Whenthereare femalecharacters, theyare usuallyinsignificant in- orconspicuous. The one girl in Goggles (Keats 1969) is shown playingquietlyin a corner. The wifein The Sun and the Moon (Dayrell 1968)helpsby carrying wood but neverspeaks. There are two womenin TheFool of the World(Ronsome1968): themother, whopacks lunchforhersons and waves goodby,and the princess whosehand in marriage the isobject of the Fools adventures. The princess shownonly twice: once ispeering of thewindow thecastle,and thesecondtimein thewedding out ofscenein whichthe readermuststrainto find her.She does not have any-thing say throughout adventure, of courseshe is not consulted to the andin thechoiceof herhusband; on the last page, however, narrator the as-8 The statisticsfor titlesof the Caldecott winnersfromthe inceptionof the award in1938 show eight titles with male names, three with female names, one with both amale and a female name together,and 22 titles without names of either sex. Thisresulted an 8:3 male/female in ratio. The statistics titlesof recentCaldecottwinners forand runners-up(since 1967) show eight titles with male names, one with a femalename, one with both together, and 10 titleswithoutnames of eithersex. This resultedin an 8:1 male/female ratio.9 The statistics the titlesof the Little Golden Books sellingover threemillioncopies forshow nine titles with male names, four with female names, one with both together,and 14 titleswithoutthe names of eithersex. This resultedin a 9:4 male-femaleratio.10 The statisticsfor the titles of Newbery winnerssince the inception of the awardin 1922 show 20 titleswith males names,six titleswith femalenames,none with both,and 23 titles without the names of either sex. This resultedin a 10:3 male/femaleratio. 1129
  7. 7. AmericanJournalof Sociology PLATE 1.-Maurice Sendak, In the Night Kitchen (New York: Harper & Row,1970). (Reprintedwithpermission the publisher.) ofsuresus thatshe soon "loved him to distraction." Loving,watching,and arehelping amongthe fewactivities allowedto womenin picturebooks. It is easy to imaginethat the littlegirl readingthesebooks mightbe ofdeprived her ego and her senseof self. She may be made to feel thatgirlsare vacuouscreatures whoare less worthy do less exciting and thingsthanmen.No wonder, then,thatthe childpsychologists reportthat girlsat everyage are less likelyto identifywiththe feminine role,whileboysof everyage are morelikelyto identify withthe masculine role (Brown1956). Although thereis muchvariationin plot amongthe picturebooks, asignificantmajorityincludes someform male adventure. of The fishermanin SeashoreStory(Yashimo 1967) ridesa turtle a hiddenworldunder tothe sea. Afteran encounter witha lion, Sylvester transformed a is intorock in Sylvester and the Magic Pebble (Steig 1969). Goggles (Keats1130
  8. 8. Sex-Role Socialization1969) tellsof the adventures Peter and his friends of escapingfromthebig boys.In Thy Friend,Obadiah (Turkle 1969), Obadiah rescuesa seagull; theSpiderMan outfoxes godsin A Story, Story(Haley 1970). the aA boy rescueshis girlfriend fromthe moon god in The AngryMoon(Sleator 1970). The male central characters engagein manyexciting andheroicadventures whichemphasize theircleverness. In our sampleof the Caldecottwinners and runners-up the last five inyears, found we onlytwoof the 18 bookswerestories aboutgirls." In oneof thesestories,Sam, Bangs, and Moonshine(Ness 1967), the girlhas aboys name.In the second,The Emperor and the Kite (Yolen 1967), the isheroine a foreign princess. Each of thesegirlsdoes engagein an adventure. Sams adventure takesplace in her daydreams, whilethe adventure the princess of Djeow Seowoccurswhenher fathers kingdom seized by evil men. Like the male iscentralcharacters who engagein rescues,Djeow Seow managesto saveherfather, she accomplishes taskonlyby beingso tinyand incon- but thisspicuousthattheevil mendo not noticeher.Although Djeow Seow is oneofthetwowomen central characters, message the conveyed readers to seemsto be thata girlcan onlytriumph playing traditional by the feminine role.Womenwho succeed are those who are unobstrusive and work quietlybehindthe scenes. Womenwho succeed are littleand inconspicuous-asare most women in picture books. Even heroinesremain "invisible"females (plate 2).THE ACTIVITIES OF BOYS AND GIRLSWe can summarize first our findings about differences the activities in ofboysand girlsby noting thatin theworld picture of booksboysare activeand girlsare passive. Not only are boys presented moreexciting in andadventuresome roles, but theyengagein morevariedpursuits and demandmoreindependence. The moreriotousactivityis reserved the boys. forMickey, heroofIn theNightKitchen(Sendak 1970), is tossedthrough thethe air and skipsfrom bread to dough,punching and pounding. Then he11 The statisticsfor central charactersin the Caldecott winnerssince 1938 show 14males, 10 females,6 males and females together, and 4 central characterswithout asex. This resultsin a 7:5 male/female ratio. It is importantto note that the situationis becomingworse, not better.During the last five years the ratio of male to femalecentral charactershas increased. The statistics for central characters in Caldecottwinnersand runners-up during the last five years show a 7:2 male/femaleratio incontrastto an 11:9 male/femaleratio for the years prior to 1967. The statisticsforcentral charactersin the Newbery winnerssince 1922 show 31 males, 11 females,4males and femalestogether, and 3 central characterswithout a sex. This resultsin a3:1 male/female ratio. The statisticsfor centralcharactersin the Little Golden Bookssellingover threemillioncopies show an 8:3 ratio of male/femalepeople, a 5:2 ratioof male/female animals,and a 5:3 ratio of all males and femalestogether. 1131
  9. 9. AmericanJournal Sociology of PLATE 2.-Jane Yolen, The Emperor and the Kite (Cleveland: World PublishingCo., 1971). (Reprintedwithpermission the publisher.) ofmakesan airplaneand flies intothenightand dives,swims, out and slidesuntilhe is homeagain. Similarly, Archieand Peter race,climb,and hidein thestory Goggles(Keats 1969). Obadiah travelsto thewharf the of incold of Massachusettswinter, and Sylvester searches for rocks in thewoods. In contrast, mostof the girlsin the picturebooks are passive and im-mobile.Some of themare restricted theirclothing-skirts by and dressesare soiledeasilyand prohibit moreadventuresome activities. The Fool Inoj the World and the Flying Ship (Ronsome 1968), the hero,the Fool, inis dressed a sensible manner, which one does notinhibit movement his inthe tasks he has to accomplish. The princess, however, whomall the forexploitsare waged,remainsno more than her long gown allows her tobe: a prize, an unrealistic passive creaturesymbolizing rewardfor themale adventuresomeness. A seconddifference between activities boys and girlsis that the the ofgirlsare moreoften foundindoors.12 This places another limitation the on12 The statisticsfor activitiesof boys and girlsin Caldecott winnerssince 1967 show48 male charactersindoors, 105 male charactersoutdoors, 15 femalesindoors,and 26femalesoutdoors.This means that 32.6% of the males are shown indoors,while 36.5%of the femalesare shown indoors.1132
  10. 10. Sex-Role Socializationactivities potential and adventures girls.Even Sam, in Sam, Bangs,and ofMoonshine(Ness 1967), stays inside as she directsthe activityof thebook. Sam constructs fantasy a worldand sendsThomas,a littleboy, onwild goose chases to play out her fantasies. is Thomas who rides the Itbicycleand climbsthe treesand rocksin response Sams fantasy. to Sam,however, waitsforThomasat home,looking thewindows sitting out or onthe steps (plate 3). Similarly, theFool of the World(Ronsome 1968), in PLATE 3.-Evaline Ness, Sam, Bangs, and Moonshine (New York: Holt, Rinehart&Winston,1967). (Reprintedwith permission the publisher.) oftheprincessremains peering thewindow hercastle,watching the out of allactivities her behalf.Whileboys play in the real worldoutdoors, on girlssit and watch them-cut offfromthat worldby the window, porch,orfence aroundtheir homes.This distinctionparallelsErik Eriksons(1964)conception themasculine of outerspace and thefeminine innerspace. Our third observationdeals withtheservice performed the activities bygirlswhoremain home.Even theyoungest at play tradi- girlsin thestoriestionalfeminine roles,directedtowardpleasingand helpingtheirbrothersand fathers.Obadiahs sisterscook in the kitchen he sits at the table as 1133
  11. 11. AmericanJournal Sociology of PLATE 4.-Brinton Turkle, ThyFriend, Obadiah (New York: Viking Press, 1969).(Reprintedwith permission the publisher.) ofsipping chocolate hot afterhis adventures (plate 4). In The Emperor andthe Kite (Yolen 1967), the emperors daughters bringfood to the em-perors table,buttheir brothers thekingdom. rule Whilegirls serve, boyslead.13 Drummer Hoff, although onlya boy,playsthecrucialrolein the finalfiring thecannon.Lupin,the Indian boy in ofThe Angry Moon (Sleator 1970), directsthe escape fromthe moongod (plate 5). He leads Lapowinsa,a girlexactlyhis size and age, everystepof the way. Even at the end of the story, afterthe dangerof the AngryMoon is past, Lupin goes down the ladder first "so that he could catchLapowinsaif she shouldslip." Trainingfora dependent passive role may inhibita girlschances forintellectual creativesuccess.It is likelythat the excessivedependency or inencouraged girlscontributes the declinein theirachievement to whichbecomesapparentas theygrowolder.Maccoby (1966, p. 35) has foundthat "For both sexes, there is a tendencyfor more passive-dependentchildren perform to poorly a variety intellectual on of tasks,and forinde-pendent children excel." to The rescuesfeatured many storiesrequireindependence in and self-confidence. Once again, thisis almostexclusively male activity.14 a Little13 The statisticsfor activitiesof boys and girls in Caldecott winnersand runners-upsince 1967 show a 0:3 ratio of males/females service functions, in and a 3:2 ratio ofmales/females leadershipfunctions. in14 The statisticsfor activitiesof boys and girls in Caldecott winnersand runners-upsince 1967 show a 5:1 ratio of males/females rescuefunctions. in1134
  12. 12. Sex-Role Socialization - PLATE 5.-William Sleator, The AngryMoon (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1970).(Reprinted with permission the publisher.) ofboysrescuegirlsor helpless animals. Lupin saves a crying Lapowinsafromtheflames. Obadiahsaves theseagullfrom rusty a and fishhook, Alexandersaves Willie,the windupmouse,from the fateof becoming "tossed-out atoy." In Frederick,Fredericks creativenesshelpsto sparehis companionsfrom worst the conditions winter. Sam, Bangs,and Moonshine(Ness of In1967), Sam does notplay theroleof therescuer although is thecentral shecharacter.Rather, her father muststep in and rescueThomas and Bangsfrom drowning. theend,Sam herself In "mustbe" saved from potential theconsequences her fantasy. of Finally,we want to note the sense of camaraderie that is encouragedamongboysthrough theiradventures. example, For The Fool of the Worlddependsupon the help and talentsof his male companions (plate 6). InGoggles(Keats 1969), the two male companions together outwita gangof olderboys.Similarly, bondsof masculine the friendship stressed are byAlexander, Frederick, Frog and Toad. and In contrast, rarely one sees onlygirlsworking playingtogether. or Al-thoughin realitywomenspend much of theirtime with otherwomen, 1135
  13. 13. AmericanJournal Sociology of PLATE 6. Arther Ronsome, The Fool of the World and the Flying Ship (NewYork: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1968). (Reprinted with permissionof the publisher.)picturebooks implythat womencannotexist without men. The role ofmostof the girlsis defined primarily relation that of the boys and in tomenin their lives.5It is interesting note thatSam turnsto a boy,not toa girl,to accomplish of theactivity her fantasies. all of Her dreamswouldhave no reality without Thomas. The sex differences have noted are even more apparent in the weprescriptive etiquette or books.An excellentexampleis foundin a pair ofmatched books: The VeryLittleBoy (Krasilovsky 1962a) and The VeryLittle Girl (Krasilovsky1962 b). Both books are written the same byauthor,followthe same format, and teach the same lesson: that littlechildren grow up to be big children. However,the maturation processdifferssharply theverylittleboy and theverylittlegirl.6 for As we opento thefirst pagesof theVery LittleBoy (Krasilovsky 1962a)we findthe boy playingon the livingroomfloor the fireplace. has by He15This problem is not confinedto childrensbooks. As Virginia Woolf pointed outover 40 years ago, women in literatureare rarely represented friends: "They are asnow and then mothersand daughters.But almost without exceptionthey are shownin theirrelationto men. It was strangeto think that all the great women of fictionwere, until Jane Austens day, . . . seen only in relation to the other sex. And howlittle can a man know even of that when he observes it throughthe black or rosyspectacles which sex puts upon his nose. Hence, perhaps the particular nature ofwomen in fiction;the astonishing extremes her beauty and horror" (1929, p. 86). of16We gratefully acknowledgeBarbara Frieds imaginativeanalysis of these two booksin her paper, "What Our Children Are Reading," written for Sociology 62a, Yale fall term,1970.University,1136
  14. 14. Sex-Role Socialization alreadydiscarded big rubber a ball and is nowmaking racket banging a by on a pan witha spoon.In contrast, first the page of the VeryLittleGirl (Krasilovsky1962b) shows the littlegirl sitting quietlyin a big chair. There is no activityin the picture: the littlegirl is doing nothing but sitting withher hands foldedin her lap. This is our introduction an to angeliclittlegirland a boisterous littleboy. In the following pages the authorcomparesthe size of the children to the objectsaroundthem; we findthat the boy is smallerthan a corn- stalk,his baseballbat, his sled,his fathers workbench, a lawnmower. and In contrast, littlegirlis smaller the thantherosebush, kitchen a stool,and her mothersworkbasket. We note that the boy will be interested in sports-in fact,boththebasketball and sled are his,waiting thereforhim untilhe is old enoughto use them. The girlhas beengivenno comparable presents her parents.She can only look forward conquering by to the rosebush and the kitchen stool. Even moreimportant the way in whicheach of themrelatesto these is objects.The littleboy is in constant motion, continuously interacting with the worldaroundhim.He is jumping to touchthe scarecrow up next to the cornstalk, unwrapping baseball bat (leaving the mess of paper, his string,and box forsomeoneelse to clean up), building blockson top ofhis sled,reaching on tiptoeto touchhis fathers up workbench, spray- andingthelawn (and himself) withthegarden hose.In contrast, littlegirl therelatesto each of theobjectsaroundher merely looking them. by at Similarly,whenthe authorindicates whateach childis too smallto do,we find thatthelittleboy is too smallto engagein a seriesof adventures.The littlegirl, however, too smallto see things is from sidelines. the Thus,we are told thatthelittleboy is too smallto march theparade,to feed intheelephant thezoo, and to touchthepedals on his bike. But thelittle atgirlis too small to see over the gardenfenceand to see the face on thegrandfather clock.Even whenthelittlegirlis trying see something to sheappearsto be posing, and thuslooksmorelike a doll thana curiouslittlegirl. The littlegirlsclothesindicatethatshe is not meantto be active.Shewearsfrilly, starchy, pink dresses, and her hair is alwaysneatlycombedand tied withribbons. She looks pretty-too pretty ride a bike, play toball, or visitthe zoo. Little girlsare oftenpictured pretty as dolls who are not meantto doanything be admired but and bringpleasure.Their constant smileteachesthatwomen meantto please,to makeothers are smile, and be happy.Thisimagemay reflect parentalvalues.In a studyof the attitudes middle-ofclass fathers toward their children, Aberleand Naegele (1960, pp. 188-98)report thattheparentsatisfaction withtheir daughters seemedto focusontheir daughters beingnice,sweet, pretty, affectionate, wellliked. and 1137
  15. 15. AmericanJournal Sociology of If we follow littleboy and littlegirlas theygrowup, we can watch thethedevelopment theproper of service rolein a littlewoman.We are shownthatthegirlgrows enoughto waterthe rosebush, the cake batter, big stirset the table,play nurse, and help the doctor(who is, of course,a boy),pick fruit from trees, the take milkfrom refrigerator, the preparea babysformula, feedherbaby brother. and Conveniently enoughfortheirfuturehusbands, girlsin storybooks learnto wash,iron,hang up clothesto dry,cook,and set the table. Of course, whenthe boy growsup, he engagesinmoreactivepursuits:he catchesbutterflies, mows the lawn, marches intheparade,visitsthezoo to feedthe elephants, hammers and wood at theworkbench. One particularly strikingcontrast between twochildren illustrated the isby the pictures both of themwiththeirdogs. In discussing of how bothhave matured, authortells us that bothhave grownup to be bigger thethantheir pets. The picture the littlegirl,however, of makesus seriouslydoubt any grown-up self-confidence and authority. She is shown beingpulledby a verysmalldog,whomshe obviously cannotcontrol. The littleboy,in contrast, in firm is command a muchbigger of dog, and does notevenneed a leash to control him (plates 7, 8). It is easyto see whymanylittle girls prefer identify to withthemalerole(Hartup 1962; Brown1956). The littlegirlwho does findthe male rolemoreattractive faced with a dilemma.If she follows is her desiresandbehaveslike a tomboy, maybe criticized herparentsand teachers. she byOn the otherhand,if she givesup her yearnings identitiesand withthetraditional feminine role,she will feelstifled. Girlswho wish to be morethanplacidand pretty leftwithout acceptable are an rolealternative. Theymust choose betweenalienationfromtheirown sex of assignment, andalienation from theirreal behavioral and temperamental preferences. The rigidity sex-role of stereotypes not harmful is only to littlegirls.Little boys may feel equally constrained by the necessity be fearless, tobrave,and cleverat all times. Whilegirlsare allowed a greatdeal of emo-tionalexpression, boy who criesor expresses a fearis unacceptable.17Justas the onlygirlswho are heroines picturebooks have boys namesor inare foreign princesses, onlyboyswhocryin picture the booksare animals-frogs and toads and donkeys. The price of the standardization rigidity sex roles is paid by and ofchildren bothsexes.Eleanor Maccoby (1966, p. 35) has reported of thatanalyticthinking, creativity, generalintelligence associatedwith and arecross-sex typing. Thus, rigidsex-role definitions only foster not unhappi-17 But Hartley (1959) also discovered that as a corollary the boys felt extremepressureas a result of the rigid masculine role prescriptionswhich they saw as de-manding that they be strong,intelligent, and generallysuccessful.The boys believedthat adults liked girlsbetterbecause the girlswere cute and well behaved.1138
  16. 16. Sex-Role Socialization -Le~~~~~~~~~~v PLATE 7.-Phyllis Krasilovsky,The Very Little Girl, illustratedby Ninon (NewYork: Doubleday & Co., 1962). (Reprinted with permission the publisher.) ofness in childrenbut theyalso hamperthe childs fullestintellectual andsocialdevelopment.ROLE MODELS: ADULT MEN AND WOMENAdultrolemodelsprovideanother crucialcomponent sex-role of socializa-tion.By observing adult men and women, boys and girlslearnwhat willbe expectedof themwhentheygrowolder. They are likelyto identifywithadultsof thesame sex,and desireto be like them.Thus, role modelsnot onlypresent childrenwithfuture imagesof themselves theyalso butinfluence childsaspirations a and goals. We foundthe imageof the adult womanto be stereotyped limited. andOnce again, the females passive whilethe males are are active.Men pre-dominatein the outsideactivities while moreof the womenare inside.In the house, the womenperform almost exclusivelyservicefunctions,takingcare of the men and children theirfamilies. in When men lead,womenfollow. Whenmenrescueothers, womenare the rescued.1818 Among the Caldecott winners and runners-upfor the past five years, we found 1139
  17. 17. AmericanJournal Sociology of re a PLATE 8.-Phyllis Krasilovsky,The Very Little Boy, illustratedby Ninon (NewYork: Doubleday & Co., 1962). (Reprinted with permission the publisher.) of In most of the stories,the sole adult womanis identified only as amother a wife.Obadiahs mother or cooks,feedshim hot chocolate, andgoes to church. The wifeof the Sun God carrieswood to help him buildthe house,but she neverspeaks. Sylvesters motheris shownsweeping,packing a picniclunch,knitting, crying. and And Mrs. Noah, who had animportant in thebiblicalstory theflood, completely role of is omittedfromthechildrens book version. The remaining threerolesthatwomen feminine play are also exclusivelyroles:one is a fairy, seconda fairy the and an godmother, thethird under-watermaiden.The fairy godmother the onlyadult female is whoplays anactive leadershiprole. The one nonstereotyped woman is clearlynot a"normal" woman-she is a mythical creature. In contrast thelimited to rangein womens roles, rolesthatmenplay theare varied and interesting. They are storekeepers, housebuilders,kings,that women were engaged in a much narrowerrange of activitiesthen men. The ratioof male to femaleadults engaged in serviceactivitieswas 1:7, while the ratio of maleto femaleadults in leadershipactivitieswas 5:0, and the ratio of the male to femaleadults in rescueactivitieswas 4:1. In addition,40%oof adult females,but only 31% ofadult males, were picturedindoors.1140
  18. 18. Sex-Role Socializationspiders, storytellers, gods, monks, fighters, fishermen, policemen, soldiers,adventurers, fathers, cooks,preachers, judges,and farmers. Perhaps our most significant finding was that not one womanin theCaldecottsample had a job or profession. a country In where40% ofthe womenare in the labor force, and close to 30 millionwomenwork,it is absurdto findthatwomen picture in books remain onlymothers andwives (U.S. Department Labor 1969). In fact,90% of the womenin ofthiscountry be in thelaborforce sometimein theirlives. will at is in Motherhood presented picturebooks as a full-time, lifetimejob,althoughfor most womenit is in realitya part-time 10-yearcommit-ment.The changing demographic patterns this country in indicate thattheaveragewomanhas completed mainportion her childrearing the of byhermid-thirties has 24 moreproductive and yearsin thelabor force she ifreturns workonce her children in school.Today even the mothers to areof youngchildren work.There are over 10 millionof themcurrently inthelaborforce(U.S. Department Labor 1969,p. 39). of As the averagewomanspendseven less timeas a mother the future, init is unrealistic picture for booksto present roleof mother the only the aspossibleoccupationfor the younggirl. Alice Rossi (1964, p. 105) hasnotedthattodaytheaveragegirlmayspendas manyyearswithher dollsas theaveragemother spendswith children. her The way in whichthe motherhood is presented childrens role in booksis also unrealistic. She is almostalways confined the house,although toshe is usuallytoo welldressed housework. dutiesare notportrayed for Heras difficult challenging-sheis shown as a housebound or servantwhocares forher husbandand children. She washesdishes,cooks, vacuums,yellsat thechildren, cleansup, does thelaundry, takescare of babies. andFor example, typicaldomestic a scenein Sylvester and the Magic Pebbleshows the fatherreadingthe paper, Sylvesterplaying with his rockcollection, the mother and sweeping floor(plate 9). the The picture booksdo notpresent realistic a picture whatreal mothers ofdo. Real mothers drive cars, read books, vote, take childrenon trips,balance checkbooks, engage in volunteer activities, ring doorbellscan-vassing,raise moneyfor charity, workin the garden,fix thingsin thehouse,are activein local politics, belongto the League of WomenVotersand thePTA, etc.19 Nor do these picturebooks providea realisticimage of fathers andhusbands.Fathersneverhelp in the mundanedutiesof child care. Nordo husbands sharethe dishwashing, cooking, or cleaning, shopping. Fromthesestereotyped imagesin picture books,littleboys may learn to expect19 Only one of the Caldecott winnerspresentsthe woman as an active equal to herhusband. It is Edna Mitchell Prestons Pop Corn and Ma Goodness (1969) (seeplate 10). 1141
  19. 19. AmericanJournal Sociology of PLATE 9.-William Steig,Sylvesterand the Magic Pebble (New York: Simon&Schuster,1969). (Reprintedwithpermission the publisher.) oftheir wivesto do all thehousework to cater to their and needs.These un-real expectations marriage inevitably of will bring and disappointment dis-content boththemaleand thefemale to partners. Lonnie Cartonstwo books,Mommies(1960b) and Daddies (1960a),are excellent of examples thecontrasting to whichboys and girlscan liveslook forward theyfollowthe rolemodelsprovided the adult charac- if bytersin picturebooks.As the books begin,Mommyputs on her apron topreparefora day of homemaking, whileDaddy dashes out of the housewithhis briefcase the way to work.The nexttwo pages show the real ondifferencesbetween womansworldand the mans world.Daddies are theshownas carpenters, housepainters, executives, mailmen,teachers, cooks,and storekeepers. They are also the bearersof knowledge. Daddies drivethe trucksand cars The buses,boats and trains. Daddies buildtheroadsand bridges, Houses, storesand planes.1142
  20. 20. Sex-Role Socialization and Daddieswork factories in Daddiesmakethethings grow. Daddieswork figure to out The things do notknow we (1960). On thecorresponding pages (in Mommies),we learnthat,although twothe mother supposedly does "lots and lots," her tasks consistof washingdishes,scrubbing pots and walls, cooking, baking,tyingshoes, catchingballs,and answering questions(whichseemsto be hermost"creative"roleso far). Mommy does leave the house severaltimesbut only to shop forgroceries to take the children or out to play. (She does drive a car inthisbook,however, whichis unusual.) In contrast, when Daddy comes home he not only plays in a moreexciting way withthechildren he provides but their contactwiththeout-side world.While Mommiesare restrictive, "shout if you play near andthestreet," Daddies take you on tripsin cars,buses,and trains;Daddiestake you to thecircus, park,and zoo; buy you ice cream; and teachyouto swim.Daddies also understand betterbecause they"knowyoure youbig enough and braveenough do lots of things to thatmommies thinkaremuchtoo hard foryou." Mothers, however, usefulfortakingcare of areyou whenyou are sick,cleaning after up you,and telling you whatto do.Mommiesdo smile,hug, comfort, nurture, and but they also scold andinstruct a notaltogether in pleasantmanner. They tellyou to be quiet,andto "Sit stilland eat!" Ironically, negative this imageof thenagging mothermay be a resultof an exclusive devotionto motherhood. Alice Rossi Ashas observed:"If a womansadult efforts concentrated are exclusively onher children, is likelymoreto stifle she than broadenher childrens per-spectiveand preparation adult life. . . . In myriad for ways the motherbinds the child to her, dampening initiative, his resenting growing hisindependence adolescence, in creating subtledependence a whichmakesitdifficult thechildto achievefulladultstature"(1964, p. 113). for In additionto havinga negativeeffect children, on this preoccupationwithmotherhood also be harmful the mother may to herself. Pauline Bart(1970, p. 72) has reported extreme depression amongmiddle-aged womenwho have been overinvolved with and have overidentified with theirchildren. We have alreadynotedthat thereare no working women the Calde- incott sample.It is no disparagement the housewife mother point of or toout that alternative rolesare available to, and chosenby, many womenand thatgirlscan be presented withalternative modelsso that they,likeboys,maybe able to think a wide rangeof future of options. Because thereare no femaleoccupational role modelsin the Caldecottbooks,we will turnto the prescribed role books to examinethe typesofoccupations that are encouraged boys and girls.For this analysiswe for 1143
  21. 21. American of Journal Sociologywillcompare verypopularpair of Hallmarkmatched a books: WhatBoysCan Be (Walley,n.d.,a) and WhatGirlsCan be (Walley,n.d., b). Bothbooks followthe same format:each page showsa boy or a girl playingan occupational role.We are toldthatboyscan be: a fireman squirts who wateron theflames, and a baseballplayerwhowinslotsof games. a bus driver whohelpspeopletravelfar,or a policeman witha sirenin his car. a cowboywhogoes on cattledrives, and a doctor whohelpsto save peopleslives. a sailoron a shipthattakesyou everywhere, and a pilotwhogoes flying through air. the a clownwithsillytricks do, and to a pet tigerownerwhorunsthezoo. a farmer who drivesa big redtractor, and on TV shows,if I becomean actor. an astronaut who lives in a space station,and someday growup to be President thenation of [Emphasisadded; Walley,n.d.,a]The second book tells us that girls can be: a nurse,withwhite uniforms wear,or to a stewardess, flieseverywhere. who a ballerina,who dancesand twirls around,or a candyshop owner, best in town. the a model,whowearslots of pretty clothes, a bigstarin themoviesand on specialTV shows. a secretary wholltypewithout mistakes,or an artist, painting treesand cloudsand lakes. a teacher nursery in schoolsome day,or a singerand makerecords peopleplay. a designer dressesin theverylateststyle, of or a bride,who comeswalking downtheaisle. a housewife, somedaywhenI am grown, and a mother, withsome children myown of [Emphasisadded; Walley,n.d.,b] The twoconcluding pictures the mostsignificant; ultimate are the goalforwhichlittleboys are to aim is nothing less than the president the ofnation.For girls,the comparable pinnacleof achievement motherhood! is in in Many of the differences the occupations thesetwo books parallelthe male/female differences have alreadynoted. One is the inside/ weoutsidedistribution.Eleven of the femaleoccupationsare shownbeingperformedinside, whileonlythree outside.Indeed,noneof the female areoccupationslistednecessitatesbeingperformed outdoors.The ratioforthemaleoccupations exactlyreversed: is three inside,11 outside. are We alreadyobserved thatlittlegirlsare encouraged succeedby look- to1144
  22. 22. Sex-Role Socialization ingpretty serving and others. shouldtherefore be surprising find It not to that the womenare concentrated glamorousin and serviceoccupations. The mostprestigious feminineoccupations thosein whicha girl can are succeedonly if she is physically attractive. The glamouroccupations of modeland moviestar are thetwomosthighly rewarded amongthe female choices.Since fewwomen can everachievehighstatusin theseglamorousprofessions, real message thesebooksis that womens the in truefunctionlies in service.Serviceoccupations, such as nurse,secretary, housewife,mother, and stewardess, reinforce the traditional patternsto femininesuccess. Although someof the male occupations also require physicalattractive-ness (actor) and service(but driver),thereis a muchgreater rangeof invariation the otherskills theyrequire:baseball playersneed athleticability, policemen supposedto be strong are and brave,pilotsand doctorsneed brains,astronauts need mechanical skills and great energy, clownsmustbe cleverand funny, presidents and need politicalacumen. If we compare statuslevelof the male and female the it occupations, isapparent thatmenfillthemostprestigious highly and paid positions.Theyare the doctors, pilots,astronauts, and presidents. Even whenmen andwomenare engagedin occupations the same field,it is the men who inhold the positionswhichdemand the most skill and leadership.Whilemen are doctors,womenare nurses; while men are pilots, womenarestewardesses. Onlyone of the women engagedin a professional is occupa-tion: the teacher. is important note,however, It to thatthe authorscare-fully specified thatshe was a nursery schoolteacher. Similarly, mostof the occupations that require advancededucationareoccupiedby men.Four of the maleshave apparently gone to college,com-pared withonlyone of the women. It is clear that the book What Boys Can Be encourages littleboys acareerambitions. is told thathe has thepotential achieving He for any oftheexciting highly and rewarded occupations oursociety. in In contrast, book WhatGirlsCan Be tellsthelittlegirlthatshe can thehave ambitions she is pretty. if Her potential achieving prestigious for aand rewarding is dependent her physicalattributes. she is not job on Ifattractive, mustbe satisfied she witha lifeof mundane service. women Noare represented traditional in male occupations, such as doctor,lawyer, orengineer, scientist. Withwomen comprising of the countrys 7% physi-cians and 4% of its lawyers, surelyit is moreprobablethat a girl willachieveone of theseprofessional statuses thanit is thata boy willbecomepresident. The occupational distribution presented these books is even worse inthan the real inequitabledistribution employment the professions. of inPicturebooks could inspirechildren strivefor personaland occupa- to 1145
  23. 23. AmericanJournal Sociology oftionalgoals thatwould take thembeyondtheireverydayworld.Instead,women deniedboththe due recognition their are for present achievementsand the encouragement aspire to morebroadlydefined to possibilities inthe future.CONCLUSIONPreschool childreninvest their intellectsand imaginations picture inbooksat a timewhentheyare forming their self-images future and expec-tations. Ourstudy suggested has thatthegirlsand women depicted these inbooks are a dull and stereotyped We have noted that littlegirlsre- lot.ceive attention praisefortheirattractiveness, and whileboys are admiredfortheir achievements cleverness. and Most of thewomen picture in bookshave statusby virtue theirrelationships specific of to men-they are thewivesof thekings, judges,adventurers, explorers, theythemselves and butare not the rulers, judges,adventurers, explorers. and Through picture books,girlsare taughtto have low aspirations becausethereare so fewopportunities portrayed available to them.The world asof picture booksnevertellslittlegirlsthatas womentheymight findful-fillment outsideof theirhomesor through intellectualpursuits.Womenare excludedfrom worldof sports, the politics,and science.Their futureoccupational worldis presented consisting as primarily glamourand ofservice.Ironically,many of these books are written prize-winning byfemale authors whosown lives are probably unlikethosetheyadvertise.20 It is clearthatthestorybook characters reinforce traditional the sex-roleassumptions. of Perhapsthisis indicative American for preferences creative-ness and curiosity boys and neatnessand passivityin girls. Many inparentswant theirsons to growup to be brave and intelligent theiranddaughters to be pretty compliant. and In thepast,social theorists have assumedthat such strongly differenti-ated sex roleswould facilitate childsidentification a with the parentofthe same sex. For example, Talcott Parsons (1955) has commented that"if the boy is to identify withhis father theremustbe discrimination inroleterms between twoparents"(1955, p. 80). More recently, the however,Philip Slater (1964) has argued that adult role models who exhibitstereotyped sex-roledifferentiation impede, may rather thanfacilitate,thechildssex-role Children identification. findit easier to identifywithless anddifferentiated less stereotyped parentalrole models.It is easier for20 A tabulation of the percentage of female authors indicates that 41% of theCaldecott and 58% of the NewberyMedal winnerswere writtenby women. However,women authorsappear to be more positivethan theirmale counterparts.The pre-1967Caldecotts,which had a larger percentageof female central characters,also have alargerpercentage femaleauthors: 48%ocomparedwith 33%. of1146
  24. 24. Sex-Role Socializationthem to internalizeparental values when nurturance(the typicallyfeminine role) and discipline (the typically masculine role) comefrom thesame person. Not only do narrowrole definitions impede the childs identificationwiththe same sex parent, but rigidsex-role distinctions may actuallybeharmful the normalpersonality to development the child. In fact, ofSlater (1964) has postulated negativerelationship a betweenthe childsemotional adjustment the degreeof parentalroledifferentiation. and Some evidence,then,suggeststhese sex roles are rigid and possiblyharmful. They discourage and restrict womanspotentialand offer a herfulfillment through limited only the spheres glamour of and service.Moreflexible definitions sex roles would seem to be morehealthful en- of incouraging greatervarietyof role possibilities. a Storiescould provideamorepositive imageof a womans potential-of her physical, intellectual,creative, and emotional capabilities. Picturebookscould also present less stereotyped less rigiddefini- a andtionof male rolesby encouraging boys to expresstheiremotions wellasas their Books might intellect. showlittleboyscrying, playing withstuffedtoysand dolls,and helping the house. Stereotypes in could be weakenedby booksshowing boysbeingrewarded beingemotional supportive, for andand girlsbeingrewarded beingintelligent adventuresome. for and AlthoughZelditch (1955, p. 341) has noted the cross-cultural pre-dominance malesin instrumental and females expressive of roles in roles-likethepatterns found childrens we in books-Slater (1964) suggests thatthe ability to alternateinstrumental and expressiverole performancerapidly-what he calls interpersonal flexibility-iscoming to be morehighly valuedin our society. This arguesforless stereotyped adult roles.Fatherscould take a moreactiverolein housework childcare. And,similarly, rolesof adult and thewomen could be extended beyondthe limitedconfines the home,as in offace theyare. Whenwomenare shownat home,theycould be portrayedas the busy and creativepeople that manyhousewives are. For example,the womanin Pop Corn and Ma Goodness,the singleexceptionto theCaldecott norm,equally shares diversified activitieswith her husband(plate 10). If thesebooksare to present real-liferoles,theycould give moreatten-tionto single parents and divorced families. Storiescouldpresent real- thelife problemsthat childrenin these familiesface: visitinga divorcedfather, having two sets of parents,not having a fatherat school onfathers day,or havinga different namethanones mother. The simplified stereotyped and imagesin thesebooks presentsuch anarrow view of realitythat theymustviolate the childsown knowledge 1147
  25. 25. Americanjournal of Sociology PLATE 10.-Edna MitchellPreston,Pop Corn and Ma Goodness (New York: VikingPress, 1969). (Reprintedwith permission the publisher.) ofof a richand complex world.2Perhapstheseimagesare motivated the bysame kindof impulsethatmakesparents to theirchildren orderto lie in "protect"them.2 As a result,the child is givenan idealized versionofthetruth, ratherthanhaving realand pressing his questionsanswered. Notonly are the childs legitimate questionsignored, but no effort made isto createa social awareness whichencompasses widersociety.Picture thebooksactuallydenytheexistence thediscontented, poor,the ethnic of theminorities, the urbanslumdwellers. and Storieshave always been a means for perpetuating fundamental theculturalvalues and myths. Storieshave also been a stimulus fantasy forimagination and achievement. Books could developthis latterqualitytoencourage imagination creativity all children. the and of This wouldpro-vide an important implementation the growing of demandfor both girlsand boys to have a real opportunity fulfill to theirhumanpotential.21 We are indebted to William J. Goode for this insight.22This is not to deny the value of fantasy.As Margaret Fuller wrote in 1855: "Chil-dren need some childishtalk, some childishplay, some childishbooks. But they alsoneed, and need more,difficulties overcome,and a sense of the vast mysteries to whichthe progressof their intelligence shall aide them to unravel. This sense is naturallytheirdelight. . . and it must not be dulled by prematureexplanationsor subterfuges ofany kind" (pp. 310-13). Alice Rossi broughtthiswork to our attention.1148
  26. 26. Sex-Role SocializationREFERENCES Aberle,David F., and Kasper D. Naegele. 1960. "Middle-Class Fathers Occupational Role and Attitudestowards Children." In A Modern Introductionto the Family, edited by Norman W. Bell and Ezra F. Vogel. New York: Free Press. Bart, Pauline. 1970. "Portneys Mothers Complaint." Trans-Action (November/ December). Brown, Daniel G. 1956. "Sex Role Preferencein Young Children." Psychological Monograph 70, no. 14. Carton,Lonnie C. 1960a. Daddies. New York: Random House. . 1960b.Mommies.New York: Random House. Child Study Association.1969. List of RecommendedBooks. New York: Child Study Association. Dayrell, Elphinstone. 1968. Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Emberley, Barbara. 1967a. DrummerHoff.Engelwood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. . 1967b. One Wide River to Cross. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.Erikson, Erik H. 1964. "Inner and Outer Space: Reflectionson Womanhood." The Woman in America,edited by Robert Jay Lifton. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Fuller, Margaret. 1855. "Childrens Books." In Women in the Nineteenth Century, by John J. Jewett.Boston.Haley, Gail E. 1970. A Story,a Story: An AfricanTale Retold. New York: Atheneum.Hartley,Ruth E. 1959. "Sex-Role Pressuresand the Socialization of the Male Child." PsychologicalReports 5:457-68. . 1960. "Childrens Concepts of Males and Female Roles." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly6:83-91.Hartup, WillardW. 1962. "Some Correlatesof Parental Imitationin Young Children." Child Development33:85-96.Keats, Jack Ezra. 1969. Goggles! Toronto: Macmillan.Krasilovsky,Phyllis. 1962a. The Very Little Boy. Illustrated by Ninon. New York: Doubleday. -. 1962b. The VeryLittle Girl. Illustrated Ninon. New York: Doubleday. byLionni,Leo. 1967.Frederick. New York: Random House.Lobel, Arnold.1970.Frog and Toad Are Friends.New York: Harper & Row.McClelland,David C. 1961. The Achieving Society.New York: Free Press.Maccoby, Eleanor E. 1966. "Sex Differences IntellectualFunctioning."In The De- in velopment Sex Differences. of Stanford, Calif.: StanfordUniversityPress.Ness, Evaline. 1967. Sam, Bangs, and Moonshine. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Nilsen,AlleenPace. 1970. "Women in ChildrensLiterature."Paper presented work- at shop on ChildrensLiterature, Modern Language AssociationMeeting,December 27, New York.Parsons, Talcott. 1955. "Family Structureand the Socialization of the Child." In Family, Socialization and Interaction Process, edited by Talcott Parsons and Robert F. Bales. New York: Free Press.Preston,Edna Mitchell.1969. Pop Corn and Ma Goodness.New York: Viking.Ronsome, Arthur. 1968. The Fool of the World and the Flying Ship. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.Rossi, Alice. 1964. "Equality between the Sexes." The Woman in America,edited by Robert Jay Lifton. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Sendak,Maurice. 1970.In the NightKitchen.New York: Harper & Row.Slater, Philip. 1964. "Parental Role Differentiation." The Family: Its Structure In and Functions, editedby Rose L. Coser. New York: St. Martins.Sleator,William. 1970. The AngryMoon. Boston: Little,Brown.Steig,William.1969. Sylvester and the Magic Pebble. New York: Simon & Schuster.Turkle,Brinton.1969. Thy Friend,Obadiah. New York: Viking. 1149
  27. 27. AmericanJournal Sociology ofU.S. Department of Labor. 1969. 1969 Handbook on Women Workers.Washington, D.C.: Government PrintingOffice.Walley,Dean. n.d.,a. What Boys Can be. Kansas City: Hallmark. . n.d., b. What Girls Can Be. Kansas City: Hallmark.Woolf,Virginia.1929.A Room of Ones Own. New York: Harcourt,Brace & World.Yashimo, Taro. 1967. SeashoreStory.New York: Viking.Yolen, Jane. 1967. The Emperorand the Kite. Cleveland: World.Zelditch,Morris, Jr. 1955. "Role Differentiation the Nuclear Family." In Family, in Socialization, and Interaction Process, edited by Talcott Parsons and Robert F. Bales. New York: Free Press.Zemach, Harve. 1969. The Judge. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.1150