Moving Fast and Slow


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My IPA Diploma thesis. This piece examines a new operating system for a modern communications agency, a system which fuses old hierarchical models so familiar to us with newer models and systems borrowed from software companies and technology startups.

I believe not in an answer which promotes one over the other, but one which adopts a mix of the two.

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Moving Fast and Slow

  1. 1. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 70031Moving, Fast and Slow: I Believe in a New AgencyOperating SystemIPA Excellence Diploma DissertationJuly 2012Tom Darlington
  2. 2. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 70032
  3. 3. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 70033AbstractThe current rhetoric around the future of advertising agencies promotesadoption of the working practices of software and technology companies,Agile planning, as it has become known. I believe the doctrine of Agilityshould be treated with care, not only because ‘Agile’ methodologies arelargely incompatible with current agency structures, but also because thecurrent agency model has many valuable attributes that must be protected. Ibelieve in a new agency operating system that lies in understanding how tomarry the old and the new, balancing existing practices with new workingmethods. The new system will move both fast, and slow.
  4. 4. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 70034
  5. 5. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 70035Moving, Fast and Slow: I Believe in a New Agency Operating SystemPart 1: Where we find ourselves today“Intelligence is the ability to hold two opposed ideas in mind at the sametime and still function” – F Scott FitzgeraldThe question over the future models, or operating systems, of advertising agencies isas old as the agency system itself. Advertising, as a means for companies andbrands to communicate with their customers, is inextricably linked to change – as theattitudes and behaviour of society change and progress, so to must the means bywhich companies communicate.Digital technology is accelerating the rate of change and subsequently the level ofuncertainty is enormous. Media, message and product design are converging, andas a result, the question of how the advertising agency of the future will look hasnever been more important.The rise of technology and software firms as the supposed dominant creative andinnovative forces of the day has led commentators involved in Marketing andAdvertising to suggest that the future of our industry lies in copying the behaviours ofSilicon Valley. We’re all technology companies now, they say. In order for the agencymodel to survive the assertion is that we must change and adopt the “mantra of agilecreativity…. learning from the processes and models that relate to what advertising isbecoming, an industry much more about technology” (Google, 2012).The number of blogs and articles espousing the benefits of ‘Agile’ or ‘Lean’ planningsystems is vast – but I believe that this wisdom should be treated with care, bothbecause the systems and processes they promote are far from being a panacea to
  6. 6. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 70036the industry’s woes, but also because we risk undervaluing our industry’s existingand unique skillset in the process.The literature on the subject covers mainly the ‘what’ – what systems, tools andprocesses are involved in this new framework – but there is little written on the ‘why’,and indeed the ‘how’, of ‘Agile Planning’. The reality of implementing agile workingpractices is, in my opinion, beyond the majority of agencies and client organisations.As the thinking around the subject gains traction we run the risk of becomingmembers of a “cargo cult” (Malbon, 2010) – worshipping the ideals of a system thatwe have no proper idea of how to actually use.The central message of this paper is one of realism, of pragmatism – a repost to thesensational and often impractical rallying calls of journalists and bloggers. Theagency of the future will be different to the ones we work in today, that is a given, butall too often we seek to kill off the old in adopting the new – we’re capable of holdingonly one idea in our head it would seem, rather than a combination of manycompeting themes. This paper preaches a moderate yet progressive approach tochange. I believe that the agency of the future will span old and new, digital andanalogue. It will move fast and slow.“Strategy is dead…Management is dead….The Big Idea isdead….Marketing is dead” – Kevin Roberts (Draycott, 2012)Gustav Von Sydow, founder of software design agency Burt, said at the CannesAdvertising Festival in 2010 that there are two ways to “Market a Marketer - Win abunch of awards and/or announce the end of the world” (Von Sydow, 2010, p. 38).Whilst this is a pithy, and amusing statement, there is more than a little truth in it.
  7. 7. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 70037Those in the advertising and communications industry are a morbid bunch, not in theclassic sense, but in terms of their relationship with technology.A close examination of trade press reveals some startling headlines (Fig.1), andaccordingly a phrase we’ve become fond of is Paradigm Shift. Scientist ThomasKuhn coined the phrase, as he outlined that scientific progression was not so much asmooth evolutionary process, but instead a “series of peaceful interludes punctuatedby intellectually violent revolutions" whereby "one conceptual world view is replacedby another" (Kuhn, 1996). This is how we treat our industry and the technology thatwe use. As a new tool arrives, we publicly sacrifice the old paradigm, loudlyproclaiming the benefits of the new school of thought.Fig. 1 It would appear TV has more lives than the average cat. Thinkboxs 2011 Annual Report report suggestsboth commercial impacts are up, and that viewing has remained stable since the all time high recorded in 2010largely unaffected by competing media. (Source: BBC/ Thinkbox)An important distinction made by Kuhn though, was that ‘Paradigm Shifts’ are thepreserve of scientists only – “a student in the humanities has constantly before him anumber of competing and incommensurable solutions” (Kuhn). Communications,Advertising and Marketing, as subjects which deal firmly with the human condition
  8. 8. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 70038can easily be argued to sit within the realm of humanities. We have the “tendency toargue that the arrival of X will cause the total eradication of Y. The Internet willdestroy television. Phones will destroy MP3 players…. and forget that the likelyscenario will be that everything will be a blurry munge like it was before, with this newelement added in” (Davies, 2007).So, what next for advertising and communications agencies?The current rhetoric around the future of advertising agencies is rooted firmly intechnology, as we continue our constant hunt for ‘innovation’ and the ‘next big thing’in our field. The rise of the Internet and digital media has fascinated the advertisingindustry. The Internet has radically changed consumer behaviour and the businesslandscape. Facebook, in 6 years, has gone from being a cottage industry for ivyleaguers to a business worth $57bn at time of writing, with 800 million usersworldwide. We’re led to believe that the Don Draper of today doesn’t work onMadison Avenue or eat lunch on Charlotte Street. He is a Prius driving nerd living inCalifornia, and if the ad industry wants to survive we should be more like him, andless like the Mad Men we used to be.The current wisdom is that advertising agencies should embrace agility as a meansof operating, that we should start being more like software and technologycompanies, that we should “act and think like tech startups” (Inamoto, 2012) becausemany of our tools and methods are now defunct. These changes would have severeimplications for our business. Should we be so quick to emulate these companiesand adopt their systems and discard our current ways?
  9. 9. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 70039The origins of Agile PlanningAgile Planning and Lean Planning for advertising are a mutation of the Lean Startupmovement, which has been popularised by Eric Reis’ book of the same name. Thebook describes the “new trends in the start-up landscape…a combination of the useof open-source software, agile development methodologies and ferocious, customer-centric, rapid iteration” (Eccles, 2010). Ries frames these methods in the context ofmodern software entrepreneurs, but in fact the methods are quite a lot older. Theidea of ‘lean production’ began not in Silicon valley, but in Japan – as the centralmethodology of car manufacturer Toyota – the company business built on two keyideological pillars – “Continuous improvement and respect for people” (Liker, 2004, p.xi). Another precursor to Reis’ work was the Agile Manifesto For SoftwareDevelopment, published by a group of software developers in 2001. This manifestocalled for a system which worked much more quickly than traditional ‘waterfall’production methods, with the ambition of “help(ing) to drive waste out of productdevelopment” (Ries, 2011, p. 47) – just as Toyota’s system was intended to.It is out of this movement that buzzwords such as Minimum Viable Product (MVP)and mantras such as “Fail Fast” have originated. The crux of this method is to arriveat a piece of software that works as quickly as possible, to present this to customers,and through a data driven schema of “validated learning” (Ries, p. 9) understandquickly what is working, what is not, and then iteratively create the next version of theproduct. This system has been key to the survival of start-ups since the financialcrash in 2008. Seqouia Capital, a leading investor in tech start-ups, published adocument to the companies it was working with, entitled “RIP Good Times”. Thisdocument encouraged companies to “decrease headcount…question what features
  10. 10. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700310are absolutely necessary…measure, cut what isn’t working” (Sequoia Capital, 2008).This mandate is an excellent summary of agile and lean methodologies.Fig. 2 The Agile Manifesto for Software Development - a lighter, more fleet of foot method of development andproduction, which has found favour amongst start-ups (Eccles, 2011)This way of working requires small, flat team structures with everyone involvedpresent at all stages of development. Unlike Waterfall (Fig.3), process is run inparallel rather than sequentially. These methods are about focussing a team ongetting a product to market as soon as possible, in whatever state. Functionalitytakes precedence over form. Once the product comes to market, based on data, theteam can decide whether to “Pivot or persevere” (Ries, p. 164). A pivot is defined inthis context as a “structured course correction designed to test a new fundamentalhypothesis about the product or strategy” (Ries, p. 149). Pivots have in some verywell-known instances, resulted in a wholesale change of the product. Flickr, thephoto-sharing site, started out as a Massive Multiplayer Online Game called GameNeverending (Ha, 2008). Groupon, the social commerce site, began life as
  11. 11. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700311The Point, a site for gathering names on petitions. Herein lies the rub, forEntrepreneurs, being successful as a businessman is the goal. The means by whichthat is achieved is irrelevant.Here is where the application of agile to advertising begins to fall down.Fig. 3 An example of a Waterfall system, a sequential method of development and production used in softwareand industrial manufacturing. There are obvious parallels with how advertising has traditionally beendeveloped (Source: Wikipedia)Agencies have clients and brands to be considerate of; we aren’t able to ‘pivot’ aseasily. A brief has a distinct set of objectives that must be met. An advertisingcampaign has far less room for manoeuvre. Also traditional advertising doesn’t lenditself to iteration particularly well; at least no more than current DR optimisationmethods allow.Agile methods also require constant client presence. This requires a special type ofclient, a breed that is increasingly rare – one with both the time and the inclination toget involved in the creative process from start to finish.
  12. 12. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700312‘Agile’ systems lend themselves to certain parts of our business, especially indelivering new and important innovations – essentially non-traditional forms ofadvertising, such as the design and creation of digital products (Fig.4.), which arebeginning to become more important.Fig. 4 "This is the new advertising" says Albions Chief Executive Jason Goodman (Goodman, 2012). AgencyR/GA built Nike’s customisation tool NikeiD, an example of an ad agency creating products as well ascommunications for their clientsHowever, whilst smaller start-up agencies can set themselves up specifically to workin this way this is not a system that we can base the entire day-to-day running of alarge advertising agency on. These methods do hold value for our industry, butunderstanding the balance, when they should be deployed, and how they can beintegrated into a larger agency system, will be crucial.The tyranny of scaleAgile methods require flat hierarchies and small teams. Whilst size is generally afeature of organisations that is admired, scale creates a barrier for companies
  13. 13. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700313looking to truly use Agile methodology. More generally size hinders those trying toinnovate, and that is ultimately the key reason we’re being told that “agile” is ourfuture, as a means of delivering innovation. As a business gets bigger, it “becomesmore efficient, it also becomes more specialised, and its flexibility in supportinginnovation diminishes” (Govindarajan & Trimble, 2010, p. 30). This is as true ofFacebook and Google as it is of the biggest advertising networks such as Ogilvy orJWT.Most big companies deal with this in a similar way – they acquire. They buy smallercompanies who have been proven to disrupt their markets, and try to integrate theirchallenger culture into their existing business. Advertising agencies have longbehaved in this way, “buying and merging is what big, un-dynamic agencies do toreboot” (Beale, 2012, p. 2) – but it is also a trend in tech too. It is often quicker andeasier for cash rich companies to spend money to acquire new products, astechnology companies are just as susceptible to falling foul of technologicaladvancement as everyone else. Google has a long tradition of acquiring newcompanies as it tries to maintain its dominance, buying companies such as Youtubeand Motorola. The problem is that the rate of change is greater than the adaptionrate of large organisations, and the bigger a business, the harder adapting becomes.Fig. 5 The merger of Adam & Eve with Omnicom’s DDB is the latest in a long line of mergers conducted by theAmerican network – previous deals include the formation of AMV BBDO and several purchases by TBWA.
  14. 14. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700314“It was the best of times, it was the worst of times” – Charles DickensJohn Webster, writing a piece for the 40thbirthday of D&AD, notes that the 1970s“were heady times to be in the media, and a fresh generation of talent nurtured in thesixties started to change the status quo in agencies… in Advertising, Londonembarked on what is now considered it’s Golden Age…things were buzzing. Theseventies were confident times” (Webster, 2002, pp. 178-179)The parallels with today are obvious: technology is disrupting our industry as well aschanging consumer behaviour, the “rulebook of what it means to work in marketingand advertising” (Graham, 2012) is being re-written. In the 70s, it was advancementin TV; today it is the digital revolution. If one of my colleagues were asked, in 30years time, to write a review of the first decade of the new millennium as D&AD turns80, would their account be as reverent as Webster’s? Would it remember, withenthusiasm and excitement, the opportunities created by the upheaval currentlybeing experienced? Whilst Webster had the benefit of hindsight, my instinct suggestsnot.The current mood of the industry is one of fear – fear of disintermediation, fear ofirrelevance. Disheartened by the tightening grip of procurement departments, and aworld that has become cynical of advertising, we are almost apologetic about ourtrade. As we wrestle with technology companies for the best talent, it is moreimportant than ever that we try to recapture the spirit that characterised the 1970sand 1980s. We can either be scared and afraid of what is happening now, or we cantake the view that “there has never been a more exciting time to be doing, what wedo” (Graham)
  15. 15. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700315We have “access to well over a hundred years of slowly evolved and pricelessunderstanding on which to draw” (Bullmore, 2012), an understanding of howcreativity can be leveraged to change our clients businesses, an understanding ofhuman behaviour, of culture, of commerce, of how communication works. Thecanvas may be changing, but the basic rules will remain the same in spite of the factwe often ignore them – treat people as people; entertain them, educate them,connect them with each other, or prove useful in their lives (Cotton, 2008). The bestadvertising and marketing has always done this, and it will have to continue doing soeven as the definition of what constitutes advertising and marketing changes.Do we actually need a new agency model?The advertising industry has a lot to be hopeful about; we have established ourselvesover the last century as a group of companies that can truly add value to advertisersthrough “intense brand stewardship” (Bainsfair, 2012, p. 13). The recent ascendancyof technology companies should give pause for thought, but we should be carefulbefore abandoning our past for a future of borrowed process.Whilst we have much to be hopeful about, we still need to adopt a new method oforganising our businesses. The disruption we’re experiencing at the moment is like asnail, slow, obvious, and relentless. The Internet has been changing things now for15 years; we’re fighting “a hundred year war, not a skirmish. It’s about continuing,relentless technological change and how we create organisations that deal withsnails, not panic about trends” (Davies, 2012)In a world where “a two term Prime Minister would end his term of office with aniPhone 64 times as powerful as the one he won the election with” (Hammersley,2011), we need a device which allows large organisations, normally so slow to adapt,
  16. 16. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700316to evolve and deal with new technological, social, and commercial disruptions whilstpreserving their heritage at the same time.Any new model must also take into account the limitations our clients face. They toomove and operate at different speeds, and have need for different products andservices from us, (Fig.6) and “it is a company’s customers who effectively controlwhat it can and can’t do” (Christensen, p. 101).Fig. 6 UK Media spend in billions of pounds, 2011-2020. Client demand for more traditional, broadcast andmass communication media channels shows no signs of waning, despite decreasing popularity amongstcommentators. Advertising is going to change more slowly than perhaps we like to think it will. (Source:Opera/Omnicom Media Group)The challenge is to find a way of navigating this inhospitable landscape in a way thatis not only suitable for agencies, but also services the multitude of requirements thatour clients have too. I believe this new system will compliment the old hierarchicalsystems we’ve created rather than replace outright. By appending a newer, quickerdivision to the old system we can evolve, adapting to the new conditions we face.
  17. 17. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700317Part 2: Moving, Fast and SlowAgency StructureOne solution to keeping older, rigid and hierarchical organisations innovative hasbeen the creation of a separate division of the company, a “Skunkworks”, aspioneered by Lockheed Martin. Created to work on advanced and often secretprojects, the skunkworks usually operates behind closed doors – in LockheedMartin’s case, a separate building.Whilst secrecy and distance is a necessity for certain industries, communicationsagencies derive their strength from their ability to share knowledge amongst anumber of different teams. An analogy I keep coming back to whilst thinking aboutthis is the way a shipping liner works with a tugboat as it approaches a dock.The shipping liner is where all the long term value lies, yet it is slow – it is less able totraverse difficult and unpredictable waters. The tugboat by contrast, is much smaller;it’s very fast and extremely agile – allowing it to explore potentially hazardous waterswith ease. Crucially, the vessels are linked – the tugboat is valuable only in context ofthe larger ship it works with, the shipping liner requires the smaller vessel to protectitself. This is how I believe agencies should be structured to deal with change,providing a model for the future proofing of our business. It is a model reliant onfinding the optimum balance between the two vessels.The ‘Traditional’ agency (Fig.7) is a highly evolved beast, its capabilities perfectedover decades and regulated by carefully established process and infrastructure.Principally, this body should be responsible for 3 things in this new model. Firstly,creativity - not in the way we often use this word – as in a piece of creative work suchas a poster or TV execution - but creativity as a constituent part of problem solving,
  18. 18. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700318the recombination of ideas to create a new solution to a challenge. Agencies have aproven track record in this area, and strong ideas will continue to be the foundation ofour business no matter what the technological context in which they are executed.Fig. 7 The slow agency structure, a creative powerhouse is built to deliver perfection, perfection which isfacilitated by its processes and hierarchy. These are the same features which slow it down and hinder its abilityto react to change (Source: Author)Fig. 8 The fast innovation unit augments rather than replaces the traditional agency model. It is designed tobe more flexible, faster, and capable of working with the agency to make sense of a changing technologicallandscape (Source: Author) (n.b – shape chosen is not significant in this diagram, it is symbolic only)Secondly, it is responsible for client relationships. The agency model provides thesecurity and stability which clients require and desire – allowing the creation of longterm alliances, as well as the long term strategic and commercial decision making so
  19. 19. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700319vital to the effectiveness of advertising, communications and brand planning. Whilstshort term metrics may be easier to measure – it is long term brand health andmetrics which may be the most valuable to companies (Broadbent, 2009), and strongagency/client relationships are crucial in effecting these metrics over time. Like anyrelationship, stability and constant attention are vital. Thirdly, it is responsible forproducing, on an almost industrial scale; the products that it has learnt to craft andperfect over time – traditional advertising and media campaigns. These productswhilst derided as increasingly ineffective, are still highly demanded. These are oftenresource and cash heavy investments, and it is therefore correct that time and effortis spend ensuring they are created and executed properly. These are tasks whichthe slower agency structure has perfected, and it would be foolish to assign theseduties elsewhere.The ‘faster’, newly created organisation which appends it (Fig.8) is by contrast largelyprocess free, it is an amorphous body which is fluid enough to adapt to the number ofdiffering tasks which it must fulfil in its role as an evolutionary engine for our existingagency structure.Experimentation, Provocation and Augmentation and Execution: ‘Fast’working with ‘Slow’Whilst the relationship between ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ elements of the agency must besymbiotic and intrinsically linked (Fig.9), it is vital that there is still a distance betweenthe two. If the new unit becomes too embroiled in the day to day running of theagency, this effects its ability to move quickly and remain challenging to the statusquo, as it will inevitably become subject to the same bureaucracy and process whichdefines the established agency body.
  20. 20. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700320Fig. 9 The relationship between Fast and ‘Slow’ agency parts. The smaller, faster element must work togetherwith the larger, more institutional organisation to be effective. Both have strengths and limitations that thisarrangement looks to either minimise or take advantage of. (Source: Author).The tasks that the ‘fast’ section of the business must undertake fall broadly into threecategories: experimentation, provocation and augmentation and execution.Fig. 10 BBH Labs Robitify.Me taps into the digital trend of The Quantified Self - exploring applications forpersonal data in a digital worldIn terms of experimentation, the innovation unit, sitting outside of any specific clientteam, has the ability to think much more about what our industry’s output could be in
  21. 21. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700321the future, rather than what it is today, and start to experiment with techniques andtools that will come to define our business. BBH’s innovation unit, BBH Labs, iscurrently undertaking a project called Robitify.Me (Fig.10), an initiative that takessocial media data and builds digital robots based on user information, creating virtualrepresentations of people based on their own behaviour.The innovation unit must also be responsible for provocation, for inspiring,challenging and educating the slower institutional body of the agency in order toimprove the way it thinks and works on a day-to-day basis by providing diversesources of influence. In a world where access to information has become so easy viacomprehensive Internet search engines, an agency’s ability to think differently will bevital in maintaining an edge over its competition. Sir Ken Robinson notes how of1600 3-5 year olds tested for their ability to think differently “98% scored at thegenius level for divergent thinking. They gave the same tests to the same childrenfive years later at the ages of 8 to 10. Then 32% scored at the genius level indivergent thinking. They gave the same test to the same children at the ages of 14 to15 and the result was 10%. Interestingly, they gave the same test to over 200,000adults and the figure was 2%” (Robinson, 2005).Institutions, like schools in the example above, can hinder people’s ability to thinkdifferently. Creativity is stifled as we get used to solving problems in a certain way.Advertising and communications agencies, which place creativity at their heart mustavoid this blindness, and as a separate entity the innovation unit is perfectly placedto infuse the divergent and radical inspiration agencies require to remain creativelyfertile.
  22. 22. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700322In acting as a provocateur and experimental unit, the innovation unit is helping todrive and improve the culture of the agency it works for – this is building competitiveadvantage for the future.Whilst the innovation unit sits outside the day to day running of the agency, itspurpose is to improve the core agency system, and so a key task is that it mustaugment the agency’s teams to undertake and execute more specialist projectswhen required.These projects may include media or advertising “firsts” when thinking abouttraditional revenue streams – projects which have never been done before such asdigital innovations involving emerging technology, or helping to create a solutionwhich falls totally outside of the day to day experience of the agency such as newproduct development or inventing technology from scratch. Google have created theGoogle X division to execute tasks that are outside the core expertise of a companythat heavily prioritises the efficient running of a search engine in its day to daybusiness. This division is busy creating future facing technology solutions, such asthe recently announced Project Glass (Fig.11). It is in executing ideas and tasks thatthe innovation unit excels. It has acquired none of the bad habits of its slowercounterpart, and has no set hierarchies holding it to account – it has none of the“organisational memory” (Govindarajan & Trimble, 2010, p. 51) that large agenciesdo, a factor that prevents them from moving forward. The unit’s executionalcapabilities, unlike provocation and experimentation, are commercial – they directlyapply to clients, and therefore contribute commercially to an agency’s financialhealth.
  23. 23. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700323Fig. 11 Googles Project Glass Experiment - a first step toward cybernetic implants.Creating the ‘fast’ teamThe entire point of the faster innovation unit is that it is able to move more quickly, bemore agile, and perform tasks that are outside of the main agency’s capability (ortasks which would be problematic). As a result, the makeup of the team that inhabitsthis division should be fluid with resources allocated on a project-by-project basis.This does require a central team in order to manage this process, but outside ofthese few permanent members of the team, the people who work in the innovationunit should change to suit the projects that are being undertaken. These teams canbe formulated in two ways, either as a physical team or as a virtual, networked groupworking remotely.In the case of a physical team, this is where the lessons of ‘agile planning’ can beapplied to great effect. The assembled team(s) should be made up of experiencedpractitioners, with one representative of each discipline that the project may require
  24. 24. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700324(Fig.12). Ideally, for these special projects a client representative should also be inthe room, and form a permanent part of the team. This enables the team to workthrough a problem quickly, iteratively and removes lengthy sign off and approvalprocesses. By virtue of the fact that each discipline is represented, nothing needs tobe outsourced, and the team can be responsible for everything from strategy throughto production of a finished item, whatever that item may be. The projects that theseteams will undertake will be projects that lie outside of the agency’s core strengthssuch as the production of applications, web based services, or even physical productdevelopment and therefore they should be approached in a way that removes thecreation and development from the factory like production line of the normal agencyenvironment.Fig. 12 An example of a flat, fully skilled and autonomous project team working within the ‘innovation unit’ inline with agile methodologies. (Source: Author)
  25. 25. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700325The second way to formulate the ‘fast’ team could be virtually. Pre Internet, workforces had to be present at the location at which their skills were required. In anetworked world, this is no longer the case. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk is afascinating example of how labour can be networked and brought to bear on aspecific task. This “marketplace for work gives businesses access to an on demand,scalable workforce” (Amazon, 2012). Businesses and developers submit specifictasks or jobs to the network, and then individual workers choose to perform these,earning small amounts of money in return. Amazon’s system aggregates andmanages these individual workers and their work, meaning large tasks can becompleted extremely quickly. Common tasks include testing web links, debuggingprogrammes, or testing compatibility of software in different operating systems. Thismethod is suitable for tasks that require quick answers to simple, yet vital tasks –such as debugging. Using this type of method can relieve stress on a resource lightorganisation such as an ad agency. Case study C details how these methods havebeen used in real world conditions to develop products.Long term, this ‘networked workforce’ could have huge implications for agencies, andhow they operate. Nearly 20 years after agency HHCL equipped all its staff withmobile phones and championed the idea of the ‘hotdesk’ in the hope of creating adynamic, mobile workforce, the notion of an ‘virtual agency’ could be coming tofruition, fuelled by the hyper connectivity of the broadband age. Instead of employinghundreds of people, an agency could be made up of a small, core team of long termemployees who manage a network of freelancers, who instead of being a “traditionalemployee, is a member (of a club), available to work on projects” (Bochenski, 2012)when they want. This changes the core role of an agency from being one whichproduces advertising for it’s clients, to one which represents talent – joining togetherclients and their problems with the correct people to solve the issue.
  26. 26. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700326Planning for evolution: Creating the futureAs we know, technology is changing everything – this is a slow, deliberate andrelentless process. The opportunities offered to companies in this new digital worldare almost limitless, and are only equalled by the risks and dangers that arrivesimultaneously. Throughout history there have been two prevailing schools ofthought regarding technological advancement – the school of “technologicaldeterminism”, and the school of “instrumentalists” (Carr, 2010, p. 46). Deterministsargue that technological advancement is a force outside of man’s control, and is theprimary factor in influencing the course of human history. The opposing schoolsuggests, “tools are neutral artefacts, entirely subservient to conscious wishes oftheir users” (Carr). I believe that many companies and organisations, our clients,have adopted a Determinist outlook – that they are under threat from marketdisruptions and there is little they can do to stem the tide. If we continue to think likethis, change and disruption will consume our business. If we adopt an instrumentalistviewpoint, and embrace new technology with excitement, things may be verydifferent.Whilst the ‘Fast and Slow’ structural changes detailed so far may help organisationsreact and manage change, they do not address how to ‘create’ the future, proactivelyexploring and creating opportunities in the new landscape in which we operate.Currently “we work with what works…we deliver success models based on what(has) worked in the recent past and…the near future…it’s lucrative, in the short term.In the long term we must plot our own obsolescence” (Mawdsley, 2012, p. 22). Asurvey I conducted of agency professionals compounds this – only 29% ofrespondents budgeted for experimental programmes in their client’s annual spend.(Research in Appendix A).
  27. 27. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700327Proactively creating the future requires deliberate planning and allocation ofresources, just as we always have done; it’s just that we can’t always plan whatwe’re going to spend the money on.One approach is to split everything an agency or client does into 3 boxes, onerelating to the future, one relating to the present, and one relating to processes andoutputs that are no longer necessary. Business Professor Vijay Govindarajan hascreated a model that works along these lines (Fig.13). He suggests, “manyorganizations restrict their strategic thinking to Box 1” (Govindarajan, 2006), a factwhich is accentuated in times of technological or economic turbulence, such astoday. In actual fact, businesses should extend strategy to boxes 2 and 3, as this willhelp them prepare for change which is “rapid and non linear” (Govindarajan).Fig. 13 Vijay Govindarajans 3 box approach to innovation, forces strategy to deal not only with the immediatepresent, but also work towards creating the future
  28. 28. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700328Fig. 14 Google’s Eric Schmidt outlined a model that involves his and his colleagues times being split into 3categories. 70% of time is spent managing day to day tasks. 20% of time is spent doing special projects relatedto day to day work, and 10% is spent on pursuing projects that are not related to the core business (Batelle,2005)Models such as this have been used as the basis of theories relating to workplaceeducation and time allocation in organisations such as Google (Perkin, 2012), andcan be equally useful in the way agency teams and their clients plan their marketingbudget. (Fig.15)Fig. 15 By adopting Eric Schmidt’s model for time, and applying it to marketing planning actively beginsprocess of creating the future. This creates a system of learning, where we both introduce new techniques andtools into the day to day, but also optimise everything on an on going basis
  29. 29. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700329By organising resource, or indeed finances in this way, clients and their agencies canbegin to plan for a future that they are responsible for creating, rather than reacting toconditions as they happen. It is a “failure of management” (Levitt, 1975, p. 2) whichcauses businesses to falter in light of changing market conditions rather than marketconditions themselves, and so it is vital that businesses plan, and allocate resource,for markets and opportunities which may not exist yet.‘Fast and slow’ will improve our work now, as well as helping us prepare forthe futureI believe that structuring and organising our businesses around the principles of fastand slow will act as evolutionary tool that will protect both our clients and our industryin the long term. In the short term, ordering ourselves in this way makes practicalsense – our core product, advertising and communications, has already shifted towork in this way and aligning with this will improve our work immediately.“One of the key tensions that...exists for modern marketers is the changingrelationship between longer-term always-on communications, and the kind of short-term speed bumps that has long characterised traditional campaigning” (Perkin,2011). The arrival of tools and channels such as Pay Per Click (PPC) advertising,Search Engine Optimisation (SEO), social platforms, email and database marketingand tools such as websites now sit alongside the traditional range of mass mediachannels. The new tools require on going support, and changes within thesechannels can be implemented extremely quickly. Accordingly, there is an increasingneed to balance communications that work in “real time” and those that work “overtime” (Gray & Himpe, 2012) (Fig.16). More and more, the real skill of brandmanagement and brand communication will lie in managing these fast and slowcommunications in tandem to create an overarching, holistic brand narrative.
  30. 30. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700330Fig. 16 Understanding the timelines involved in each new media channel, and therefore how they worktogether, is imperative for the modern brand guardian (Source: Gray & Himpe, 2012)By organising our businesses and our output around the ideas of fast and slow, wecan tackle this problem today, as well as building for the future. The followingexamples demonstrate creative businesses, of all types, that are using the ideas of“fast” and “slow” organisation in the way they work.Moving Fast and Slow: Applications for CommunicationsCase Study A: Wieden and Kennedy // Old Spice‘The Old Spice Guy’ has become one the most revered ad campaigns of recenttimes. Launched as a traditional TV spot, which was filmed over “3 days and 57takes” (CBS News, 2010), ‘The man your man could smell like’ went on to capturethe hearts of both men and women in America. As this traditionally crafted anddistributed piece of content began to gain traction online, agency Wieden andKennedy saw an opportunity to create a reactive and highly interactive digitalelement to the campaign to compliment the standard TV spots.
  31. 31. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700331Filmed over 2 days, the ‘response campaign’ saw a team of writers, creatives,producers and social media analysts create 186 individual 30” videos featuring the‘Old Spice Guy’ as he answered questions and reacted to posts from fans all overthe world (Grant, 2010). These films were then posted onto Youtube as soon as theywere filmed – reacting, in relation to a traditional advertising production, in real time.To achieve this the creative team shot on a basic handheld camera in a small studio- and then used proprietary social and digital data analytics software to ascertainwhich tweets and comments they should reply to in order to gain as much exposurefor the work. Traditional and lengthy approval processes were circumvented byworking to the terms of engagement agreed in advance with the client. (Borden,2010)This campaign has in many ways become the quintessential example of how old andnew media can work together in a digital age. Older, ‘slower’, glossy brandcommunication, months in the making, used as a catalyst to consumers engagingwith an idea in more personal, digital environments via ‘quick’, personalized,interactive and data driven brand communications. It is also a perfect example ofhow a flat, autonomous and fully skilled team of creative staff can work quickly,
  32. 32. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700332reacting to real consumer interaction, creating content of the highest quality in theprocess.Key Applications for Agencies:• Old and new media compliment each other; they do not compete against oneanother. The strength of this campaign is the idea at its heart, and the craftdemonstrated by Wieden+Kennedy in bringing it to life.• Fast and reactive doesn’t mean that long term planning isn’t relevant anymore.This example shows that working hard in advance to agree brand behaviours,and acceptable parameters with clients is the key to allowing the phenomenalspeed required to work in this way.• Getting the right skillset on a team can be more important than having a largeteam of many people. Understanding the task at hand, and constructing a smallbut comprehensive team allows for rapid productivity.Moving Fast and Slow: Applications for Organisational DesignCase Study B: Ringier AG Publishing, SwitzerlandThe publishing business has been one of the most affected by the ‘creativedestruction’ caused by the onset of digital technology. Always a high frequencybusiness, the speed at which the publishing industry has to work at now in the era of24-hour news is remarkable.The biggest problem facing this industry is that the ‘slow’ element, printed products,are still the channels that drive the greatest revenue. The ‘fast’ channels, extremely
  33. 33. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700333important from an audience retention standpoint, generate far less revenue. The keychallenge then from a commercial point of view is to create an organisation thatbalances these two elements, optimising output in order to maximize revenues whilstmaintaining audience share vs. the competition. From an editorial standpoint themodern editor must manage the numerous and constantly active ‘fast’ touch pointssuch as Twitter, as well as the ‘slow’ traditional outlets and ensure that editorially anewspaper or magazine remains cohesive and consistent in its approach over time.Ringier AG, a Swiss publisher, has gone to significant lengths to integrate its old andnew media divisions, building a new wing of its office, which acts as a physical bridgebetween “publishing and slow departments… and online and fast departments…..this is the command post of the newsroom” (Zemp, 2010), where all decisions aremade. (Fig.17)Elsewhere, journalists began working across all touch points rather than singlegenres for single titles or touch points (Fig.18 and Fig.19). Decisions to prioritise‘exclusives’ became based on the time sensitivity of the story.If it had a long shelf life, it would be kept back for paid for channels in order tomaximize revenue, if it was likely to expire quickly or be broken by a competitor thenfaster, digital channels are used to publish the story in order to gain as big a share ofaudience as possible.The publisher also began to use digital to inform how they prioritised traditionalpublishing, using a proprietary data analytics dashboard to monitor buzz, consumerbehaviour such as sharing and commenting of stories, with the most interacted withpieces of content becoming developed as fuller features in the printed product
  34. 34. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700334Fig. 17 The ‘Command Centre’ became the physical hub of the publishing company. All editorial decisions,irrespective of channel or subject, where made here before being re-routed to the appropriate placeThe publishing business arguably hasn’t won the fight to preserve revenues in adigital world just yet, but structural changes such as those implemented by Ringier,which allow it to balance the fast and slow of its business are the industry’s nextdefence in this battle.Fig. 18 AG Ringiers portfolio of Blick titles and it’s editorial staff operated in a disjointed and isolated fashionprior to the integration of the "fast" and "slow" elements of their business (Source: Zemp, 2010)
  35. 35. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700335Fig. 19 Post integration, editorial teams worked across numerous touch points, operating at both "fast" andslow" speeds within their specialist disciplines (Source: Zemp, 2010)Key Applications for Agencies:• ‘Bridging’ the old and new, fast and slow requires effort and thought. This can bedone either through a physical manifestation; such as the ‘command centre’ or inmore abstract terms such as departmental and job design• The prioritisation of fast and slow channels must be aligned to long-term businessobjectives.• Planning brand communications will require agencies and clients to understandhow short term, faster digital communications work in tandem with slower,traditional communications to create a cumulative brand or product narratives
  36. 36. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700336Moving Fast and Slow: Applications for Product DesignCast Study C: LinuxWhilst terms such as ‘crowd sourcing’ and ‘open source’ production may havebecome mainstream in the era of web2.0, the most famous product of thesemovements launched in 1991, years before high speed internet access was widelyavailable in homes. Linus Torvalds’ operating system, Linux, “proved that acommunity of like minded peers was capable of creating a better product than acorporate behemoth like Microsoft” (Howe, 2008, p. 8). Not only is it the bestexamples of open source design, but it is also one of the best examples of how thenotion of ‘fast and slow’ methods can be deployed in creating and developingproducts, in all categories.Crowd sourcing as a principle often falls down because it imagines an almost utopianstate where people go to work of their own free will, and arrive harmoniously at asolution. What Torvalds realised in the creation of Linux, was that you need a“benevolent dictator…. Someone to play the role of decider” (Howe, p. 285), he alsorealised that the ‘crowd’ are good for some tasks and institutions are good for others.Torvalds built a slower, institution like organisation to create and perfect his productand employed “a hierarchy of talented software programmers around him” (Carr,2007). In stark contrast to other companies, such as Apple or Microsoft who tend tobe ultra protective over their software and its development, he then allowed outsidersaccess to the source code
  37. 37. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700337Fig. 20 Linux exemplifies the idea of ‘fast and slow’ or as Eric Raymonds called it the “Cathedral and Bazaar”(Raymonds, 1997), the “cathedral characterizes the heavily managed, hierarchical approach” (Howe, p. 55)of modern organisations, whilst the ‘bazaar’ denotes “a large and informal community of volunteers inaggregate” (Carr, 2007) who rally around a problem, task or project. Linux demonstrates how the two canwork together.Allowing access has empowered a huge voluntary work force that helps him and histeam improve this product, the Internet allowing them to work remotely, quickly andin parallel. They carry out simple debugging exercises that are set and coordinatedby the central team. Torvald’s team then implement these changes. This is in starkcontrast to a project such as Wikipedia, which allows all users a level playing field,and in doing so has found itself with serious quality control issues.Torvald’s acknowledgment is that slower, hierarchical institutions are ideally suited todelivering brilliant ideas and creating products, which may need help being perfected.The crowd, by contrast, lacks the creative capacity required to conceive groundbreaking new ideas, yet can work at speed to help refine the institution’s work.
  38. 38. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700338Key Applications for Agencies:• Whilst the idea of ‘crowd sourcing’ has come in and out of fashion, this exampleshows just how useful these methods can be – it is not about utilising free labourto do the work for you, but it instead about how human resource can benetworked and harnessed in a digital age.• Faster, more agile networks of teams can invigorate older, slower organisations,but setting the responsibilities of each and how the two sections integrate shouldbe based on the specific objectives of a particular project or initiative.“The future doesn’t arrive all at once” – Syd Mead (Bryant, 2011)In 1975 Theodore Levitt said that in order “to survive, plot the obsolescence of whatproduces your livelihood now” (Levitt, p. 4). In a business environment where theonly certainty is change, this is sage advice. We must prepare for the future, nottomorrow, but today. Practically, we cannot implement huge structural changesovernight, and nor should we. Technological advancement does not play out in a“tidy timeline of progress” (Edgerton, 2006); it is a gradual process rather thanabsolute one, and therefore the skills and qualities our industry has perfected overnearly a century are extremely valuable, and it would be foolish to abandon the waywe have worked overnight for newer, more fashionable techniques being used by anindustry in the ascendency. Agile methodologies will help us in certain areas of ourbusiness as we begin to work more and more in the field of technology, but only asan addition, rather than instead of, our current hierarchical and slow moving agencyoperating systems.
  39. 39. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700339We must therefore create an organisational framework that allows us to bothpreserve the value that currently exists within our businesses as well as begins toevolve our capabilities so that we are fit for the future.I believe in a new agency operating system, an operating system that fuses togetherour past and our near future, a system which helps us apply our knowledge and skillto new problems, a system which moves both fast and slow.Word Count (Excl. Titles, Abstract, Bibliography and Acknowledgements andAppendix): 6,947
  40. 40. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700340BibliographyAmazon. (2012). Amazon Mechanical Turk. Retrieved July 2, 2012, from AmazonMechanical Turk:, P. (2012, January 12). The Year Ahead For Adland. Campaign , 13.Batelle, J. (2005, December 1). The 70 Percent Solution. Retrieved July 14, 2012,from CNN Money:, C. (2012, May 25). History suggests DDB can be revived by A&E. (C. Beale,Ed.) Campaign , 2.Bochenski, M. (2012, February 1). The Creativity Club: An Interview with Sir JohnHegarty. Retrieved July 2, 2012, from Google Think Quarterly:, M. (2010, July 14). The Team Who Made Old Spice Smell Good AgainReveals Whats Behind Mustafas Towel. Retrieved June 26, 2012, from FastCompany:, T. (2009). Short-term Effects may be Easier to Measure but Long-TermEffects are More Important. In J. Lannon, & M. Baskin, A Masterclass in BrandPlanning: The Timeless works of Stephen Kind (pp. 159-162). Chichester: Jon Wileyand Sons.Bryant, D. (2011, August 19). Encapsulation, Tree Rings & Why the Future is DrivenBy the Past. Retrieved July 13, 2012, from BBH Labs:, J. (2012, May 31). Foreword. Retrieved June 11, 2012, from The SqauredReport 2012:, N. (2007, May 29). The Ignorance of Crowds. Retrieved June 27, 2012, fromStrategy and Business:, N. (2010). The Shallows. London: Atlantic.CBS News. (2010, February 2010). Steamy Old Spice Super Bowl Ad Goes Viral.Retrieved June 26, 2012, from CBS News:, C. M. (1997). The Innovators Dilemma. Harvard: Harvard BusinessSchool.Cotton, E. (2008, September 1). Brand 2.0 and being useful to people. RetrievedJune 2012, 2012, from Influx:
  41. 41. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700341Davies, R. (2012, June 15). Business cannot afford to be snails in the long digitalfight. (C. Beale, Ed.) Campaign , p. 26.Davies, R. (2007, February 27). Good Better Than Bad Shock. Retrieved May 20,2012, from Russell Davies:, C. (1997). A Tale of Two Cities. London: Penguin Classics.Draycott, R. (2012, April 25). Marketing is Dead says Saatchi and Saatchi CEO.Retrieved June 6, 2012, from The Drum:, S. (2011, April 15). Learning to iterate. Retrieved July 15, 2012, fromSlideshare:, S. (2010, August 2). The Lean Start up Movement. Retrieved May 30, 2012,from Made by Many:, D. (2006). The Shock of the old: Technology and Global History since1900. London: Profile.Goodman, J. (2012, July 6). Close Up: Its time agencies started building their ownbrands. (C. Beale, Ed.) Campaign , 14.Google. (2012, May 4). Adopt a mantra of agile creativity. Retrieved May 29, 2012,from Google Adwords Agency Blog:, V. (2006, March 10). Strategy as Transformation. Retrieved July 7,2012, from Vijay Goveindarajans Blog:, V., & Trimble, C. (2010). The Other Side of Innovation: How to solvethe innovation challenge. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.Graham, P. (2012, June 22). Redefining Creativity. Retrieved June 29, 2012, fromYoutube:, R. (2010, August 10). W+Ks Old Spice Case Study. Retrieved June 26, 2012,from We Are Social:, G., & Himpe, T. (2012, January). Organisational Structure: Loosen up and letgo. Admap .Ha, P. (2008, April 2). Game neverending rises from the dead. Retrieved June 6,2012, from Tech Crunch:
  42. 42. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700342Hammersley, B. (2011, September 11). Check Against Delivery: My Speech to theIAAC. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from Ben Hammersley:, J. (2008). Crowdsourcing: How The Power of theCrowd is Driving the Futureof Business. London: Random House.Inamoto, R. (2012, March 1). Why Ad Agencies Should Act More Like Tech Startups.Retrieved May 20, 2012, from Fast Company Create:, T. (1996). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (3 ed.). London: University ofChicago Press.Levitt, T. (1975). Marketing Myopia. Harvard Business Review.Liker, J. K. (2004). The Toyota Way. New York: McGraw-Hill.Malbon, T. (2010, January 11). Agile as a Cargo Cult. Retrieved May 31, 2012, fromMade By Many:, C. (2012, July 6). How Strategy Can Save Ad Agencies. (C. Beale, Ed.)Campaign , 22-23.Perkin, N. (2011, November 28). Slow, Fast and Spiky Communications. RetrievedJuly 13, 2012, from Only Dead Fish:, N. (2012, February 5). The 70, 20, 10 model. Retrieved July 8, 2012, fromOnly Dead Fish:, E. S. (1997, May 21). The Cathedral and the Bazaar. Retrieved June 27,2012, from The Cathedral and the Bazaar:, E. (2011). The Lean Startup. London: Portfolio Penguin.Robinson, S. K. (2005, July 14). Presentation by Sir Ken Robinson. Retrieved July 1,2012, from Education Commission of the States: Capital. (2008, October 10). RIP Goodtimes. Retrieved May 31, 2012, fromslideshare:, C. (2009, June 1). How Social Media Can Make History. Retrieved October13, 2011, from TED:
  43. 43. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700343Thinkbox. (2012, January 24). Thinkbox Quarterly Review Q4 2011, Annual Review .Retrieved June 3, 2012, from Thinkbox: Sydow, G. (2010, July 5). Agile Advertising: Burt at Cannes Lions. RetrievedMay 31, 2012, from Slideshare:, J. (2002). Last Word On The 1970s. In J. Myserson, & G. Vickers, Rewind:40 years of D&AD (pp. 178-179). London: Phaidon.Wikipedia. (n.d.). Watferfall model. Retrieved June 2, 2012, from Wikipedia:, P. (2010, September 15). The Newsroom of the Blick Group. Retrieved June26, 2012, from Ifra:$File/Pascal%20Zemp.pdf
  44. 44. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700344AcknowledgementsI would like to briefly thank the following for the time they kindly gave to helpme write this essay: Andrew Lloyd, Garrett O’Reilly, John V Willshire, JonGhazi, Lisa Myers, Mel Exon, Neil Perkin, Ollie Gandy and Ros Godber.I would also like to thank Chloe Williams at the IPA for all her assistance overthe last 18 months.
  45. 45. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700345Appendix A: A survey of 74 agency workers, investigating attitudes andpractices that exist in their organisations concerning innovationQ1. What Best describes the agency or organisation you currently work in?Organisation Respondents %Media 53 72Advertising 7 9Digital Specialist 2 3Boutique Comms/Strategy Agency 0 0Advertiser (‘Client’ Side) 2 3Media Owner 7 9Other 3 4Q2. What best describes your job title/level of seniority?Job Title/Level Respondents %Exec 8 11Manager 16 22Associate Director 17 23Director/Head of Department 22 30Other 11 15Q3. How frequent are your typical planning cycles?Job Title/Level Respondents %Yearly 14 19Half Yearly 7 9Quarterly 10 14Monthly 8 11Weekly 6 8
  46. 46. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700346Ad hoc 19 26Other 10 14Q4. How important is innovation to your role/clients?Scale Respondents %1 – Not Important 0 02 2 33 21 284 24 245 – Very Important 26 26Q5. Do you actively allocate budget for ‘innovation’ in your planning?Answer Respondents %Yes 21 29No 53 71Q6. If so, roughly how much of your total budget is dedicated to new/innovativeactivity?Answer Respondents %1-5% 6 286-10% 10 4711-15% 4 1916-20% 0 020-30% 0 030-40% 0 040-50% 0 050%+ 1 6
  47. 47. IPA Excellence Diploma 2012 Candidate# 700347Q7. Do you think Agencies or Client Organisations value innovation more?Answer Respondents %Agency 60 81Client Organisations/Advertisers 13 18Q8. Comparing the marketing and advertising community with ‘consumers’, do youthink the advertising community overestimate the impact of new technology incomparison to actual usage/adoptionAnswer Respondents %Yes 60 81No 13 18Q9. Do you think novelty, rather than effectiveness/client payback is the biggestdriver in the advertising industry’s usage of new technology?Answer Respondents %Yes 70 95No 3 4Q10. Is the current model of advertising/comms agencies dead?Answer Respondents %Yes 7 9No 38 51Maybe 28 38