2012 03-24

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Introduction to Buddhism and Meditation

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  • The receptacle-consciousness or alayavijñana as cause The receptacle-consciousness (alayavijñana)possesses the nature of cause, because it contains – or rather it is constituted by – all the vasanas(subliminal impressions) produced by any cognition or experience that affects the individual; and it is the vasanas that, on being reactivated, give rise to the conscious life of the individual. The alayavijñana is the cause of the activity of the function-consciousness ( pravrittivijñana).The transformation of the representations, etc., from subliminal into conscious (their passage from the alayavijñana to the pravrittivijñana), the arising of the ego-consciousness (manas) and the birth of one of the six types of cognition or consciousness (cakshur-vijñana or visual consciousness, etc.) are not successive processes; they are totally simultaneous, i.e., they take place at the same moment. Moreover, none of the different aspects of the mind (vasanas= subliminal elements, the vasanas transformed into conscious experiences, the ego) can exist without the others; they are mutually dependent.At a certain moment in the life of the individual, when adequate conditions occur, the vasanas are transformed from unconscious into conscious, and from the receptacle-consciousness of the mind (alayavijñana ) they become the function-consciousness ( pravrittivijñana) of the one and the same mind. They are constituted, as before, by a subject who is in front of an object and cognizes it, but now that subject has a full awareness of this confrontation, he knows in a complete and determinate way what the object of his knowledge is, and also has a full awareness of his own cognitive nature, that he is a subject, an ego which knows; now he is provided with the consciousness of himself, he possesses self-consciousness, manas. At the moment in which the transformation of the subliminal cognition into conscious cognition takes place, and in which the ego-consciousness, the self-consciousness is produced, the mind receives the name of manas, or its manas-aspect, its manas-function comes to being. The manas is, in other words, the self-consciousness, the ego-awareness. Of course this self, this ego, is not a real entity, but only an idea, only a perishable element of the equally perishable act of cognition.When all this accumulation of unrealities ceases to be, thanks to theBuddhist teachings, the empirical reality also vanishes and there remains only what truly always existed, exists and will exist: the Absolute, the third nature, the third way of being ( parinishpanna), defined as ‘the eternal non-existence as it appears of what appears’ (Vasubandhu,Trisvabhava3), the total absence of the dependent and the imaginary natures with their accompaniment of the unreal subject-object duality – in other terms the nirvana, the final aim of Buddhist efforts.
  • 2012 03-24

    1. 1. Buddhist Association of Canada Cham Shan Temple Introduction to Buddhism 2012/03/24 Updated March 2012
    2. 2. Buddhist Association of Canada Cham Shan Templená mó fó tuó南 無 佛 陀 Namo Buddhaná mó dá mó南 無 達 摩 Namo Dharmaná mó sēng qié南 無 僧 伽 Namo Sangha Updated March 2012
    3. 3. Buddhist Association of Canada Previous Classes Review加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    4. 4. Buddhist Association of Canada佛教的教理 – Dharma, Teaching of Buddha 1. 三法印 3 Dharma Seals 2. 四依法 4 Reliance 3. 十善 10 Good Deeds 4. 四聖諦 4 Noble Truths 5. 八正道 8 Fold Path 6. 十二因緣 12 Links of Causation 7. 六度 6 Paramitas 8. 八萬四千法門 84,000 Approaches 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    5. 5. Buddhist Association of CanadaBuddhist Belief “Every existent is compounded by causes and conditions and is void of an independent self” THE TEACHINGS OF THE BUDDHA by Dharma Master Fa-Fang 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    6. 6. Buddhist Association of Canada三法印 – 3 Zeal of the Dharma 諸行無常 諸法無我 湼槃寂靜 Impermanent No self Nirvana 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    7. 7. Buddhist Association of CanadaFour Noble Truths 四諦十六行相 苦 滅 Suffering Cessation of the 果 苦, 無常, 空, 無我 cause of suffering Effect 滅, 靜, 妙, 離 集 道 Cause of suffering Eightfold Path to end 因 集, 因, 生, 緣 suffering Cause 道, 理, 行, 出 世間 出世間 Mundane Supra-mundane 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    8. 8. Buddhist Association of CanadaDukkha 1 ordinary suffering (dukkha-dukkha) 2 dukkha as produced by change (veparinama- dukkha) 3 dukkha as conditioned states (samkhara- dukkha) 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    9. 9. Buddhist Association of CanadaDukkha as conditioned states  Most important philosophical aspect of the First Noble Truth  The Buddha says : – In short these five aggregates of attachment are dukkha‟ – O bhikkhus, what is dukkha? It should be said that it is the five aggregates of attachment‟ 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    10. 10. Buddhist Association of CanadaThe Five Aggregates 1. Form 2. Sensations 3. Perceptions 4. Mental Formations and Volition 5. Consciousness 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    11. 11. Buddhist Association of CanadaYogacara - Mind Only school Function Consciousness Arising of the ego- (6 kinds) consciousness (Pravrittivijñana) (manas) 7 Vasanas Other Store Consciousness Skandhas subconscious - subliminal Conditions (Alayavijñana) 8 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    12. 12. Buddhist Association of CanadaFive aggregates  The five aggregates are in flux of momentary arising and disappearing  One thing disappears, conditioning the appearance of the next in a series of cause and effect.  There is no unchanging substance in them.  There is nothing behind them that can be called a permanent Self (Atman) 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    13. 13. Buddhist Association of CanadaNo Soul-Anatta  Mere suffering exists, but no sufferer is found; The deeds are, but no doer is found Buddhaghosa  There is no unmoving mover behind the movement  Thought itself is the thinker 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    14. 14. Buddhist Association of CanadaSecond Noble Truth 集 Cause of suffering 因 集, 因, 生, 緣 Cause 世間 Mundane 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    15. 15. Buddhist Association of CanadaThe Arising of Dukkha  Depends on ‟thirst, desire, greed, craving or attachment to Sense pleasure Views Conceptions Wealth and Power Opinions Beliefs Ideas and Ideals Theories 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    16. 16. Buddhist Association of CanadaThe Arising of Dukkha  Thirst gives rise to all forms of suffering and the continuity of beings  Thirst depends for its arising (samudaya) on sensation (vedana)  Sensation depends on contact (phassa) And so on….  „Thirst has as its centre the false idea of self arising out of ignorance 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    17. 17. Buddhist Association of CanadaIgnorance (Avidya) 無明 Delusion, full of confusion (惑) – the fundamental seeds of allsufferings.Two categories: 1. Incorrect understanding or misconception (見惑) 2. Incorrect thoughts (思惑) – the function of incorrect understanding Four contra-facts (四顛倒):Take impermanence, sufferings, no-self, unclean as permanence happiness selfclean (以無常苦無我不淨為常樂我淨)::依四念處消 除顛倒「觀身不淨、觀受是苦、觀心無常、觀法無我」。 Four severity levels of Avidya: People with sharp faculties believe in and accept the Dharma teaching as soon as they are exposed to; with fruitful present conditions believe in and accept the Dharma teaching after diligent effort by the expounders; with weak faculties or little good deeds believe in and accept the Dharma after persevered effort by the expounders; with severe karmic obstacles never believe in or respect the Dharma teaching in this lifetime. 或有 利根,聞即信受。或有善果,勤勸成就。或有暗頓,久化方歸。或有業重,不 生景仰。 (地藏菩薩本願經KsitagarbhaBodhisattva’s Fundamental Vows Sutra) Complete cleansing of misconceptions and incorrect thoughts is the first level of enlightenment – Shravaka(聲聞) 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    18. 18. Buddhist Association of Canada 6 Fundamental Avidyas 六根本煩惱Greed (貪)Anger (瞋)Ignorance (癡)Arrogance (慢)Doubt about Dharma (疑)Incorrect Self (身見)–me, I have, I am (我,我所,我主)understanding Dichotomy (邊見)– this orthat, existence or emptyor Precept (戒取見)– e.g. asceticism (苦行)misconception(見惑) Prejudices or bias (見取見) All other improper views (邪見)– the law of causality 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    19. 19. Buddhist Association of CanadaCauses of an Human Being There are four Nutriments (ahara) in the sense of cause or condition‟ necessary for the existence and continuity of beings: 1. Ordinary material food 2. Contact of our sense-organs with the external world 3. Consciousness 4. Mental volition or Will (It creates the root of existence and continuity, striving forward by way of good and bad actions (4th aggregate) 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    20. 20. Buddhist Association of Canada 十二因緣與三世因果12 Links in Chain of Causation- 3 Periods in Life Cycle 過去因 惑Avidya 無明 Delusion 2 past causes 業Karma 行 Action 現世果 苦Dukkha 識 Consciousness 5present effects 名色 Name and form (corporeality and mentality) 六入 Six sense organs 觸 Contact/Impression 受 Perception/Feeling 現世因 惑Avidya 愛 Desire/Craving 3 present causes 取 Grasping/Clinging 業Karma 有 Existence 未來果 苦Dukkha 生 Birth 2 future effects 老死 Death 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    21. 21. Buddhist Association of Canada12 Links of Causation 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    22. 22. Buddhist Association of Canada Questions and Comments 討論www.ChamShanTemple.orgwww.shengguangshi.blogspot.comShengguang Shi 釋聖光Tom Cheung 張湘棠Kam Cheung 張仁勤 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    23. 23. Buddhist Association of Canada回向 yuàn xiāo zhàng zhū fán năo s ā nParinamana (Transfer of Merit) 願消三障諸煩惱 We wish to rid ourselves of the three hindrances and all klesas. yuàn dé zhì huì zhēn míng l ĭ a o 願得智慧 真 明了 We wish to gain wisdom and real understanding. pŭ yuàn zuì zhàng xī chú x i ā o 普願罪障悉消除 We wish all sinful hindrances to be totally eradicated. shì shì cháng xíng pú sà dào 世世常行菩薩道 In one life after another we always follow Bodhisattvas’ paths. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    24. 24. Buddhist Association of CanadaThe Arising of Dukkha  The arising of dukkha is within dukkha itself  Thus dukkha (Five Aggregates) has within itself the nature of its own arising, and has also within itself the nature of its own cessation 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    25. 25. Buddhist Association of Canada名色 Name and FormThe four great elements:Solid, Liquid, Gas, Energy begin toconverge (四大,地水火風聚合) into fiveaggregates / skandhas (五蘊、五蔭), createsthe fetus from which body, organs, andsenses begin to develop. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    26. 26. Buddhist Association of CanadaThe doctrine of no soul: Anatta Paticca-samuppada Conditioned Genesis‟:  1. Through ignorance are conditioned volitional actions or karma-formations  2. Through volitional action is conditioned consciousness  3. Through consciousness are conditioned mental and physical phenomena  4. Through mental and physical physical phenomena are conditioned the six faculties  5. Through the six faculties is conditioned contact 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    27. 27. Buddhist Association of CanadaThe doctrine of no soul: Anatta  6. Through (sensorial and mental) contact is conditioned sensation  7. Through sensation is conditioned desire, thirst‟  8. Through desire (thirst) is conditioned clinging  9. Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming  10. Through the process of becoming is conditioned birth  11. Through birth are conditioned  12. decay, death 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    28. 28. Buddhist Association of CanadaFive effects in the present現在果識 Consciousness名色 Name and Form六入Cognitive Sense faculties/organs觸 Contact - Our sense organs or facultiesbegin to receive external stimuli.受 Feelings - Five types:Sadness, Happiness, Depression, Joy, Equanimity (苦樂憂喜捨) 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    29. 29. Buddhist Association of CanadaThree causes in the present現在因愛 Attachments - Dwelling onthings, tangible or intangible, dwelling onlikes and dislikes.取 Grasping - Driven by ourattachments, we pursue conditions.有 Existence - New seeds resulted fromgrasping are deposited in ourconsciousness. These seeds with properconditions will produce the future rebirth. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    30. 30. Buddhist Association of CanadaDukkha effect in the future未來苦果生 Birth, the karmiceffect of our currentAttachment, Grasping, andExistence. As soon asthere is Birth, Aging andDeath are unavoidable.老死 Aging and Death, Deathis the worst of allsufferings: Buddha toldus it’s like “a liveturtle being de-shelled” 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
    31. 31. Buddhist Association of CanadaCultivation approach修道解脫 The repeating cycle of death-and-rebirth never ends unless the chain is broken. Control the three causes in the present life: Attachments (愛), Grasping (取), and Existence (有). Breaking out from the chain to liberates from the vicious suffering cycle of death-and-rebirth. Pratyeka-Buddha (緣覺) accomplish their level of enlightenment by breaking out of the chain. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada

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