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20111022 iconology and loving kindness meditation


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20111022 iconology and loving kindness meditation

  1. 1. Buddhist Association of Canada Cham Shan Temple Updated Mar 2010
  2. 2. Buddhist Association of Canada Cham Shan Templená mó fó tuó南 無 佛 陀 Namo Buddhaná mó dá mó南 無 達 摩 Namo Dharmaná mó sēng qié南 無 僧 伽 Namo Sangha Updated Mar 2010
  3. 3. Buddhist Association of CanadaBuddhist Practice and Cultivation 1 Take refuge in the Three Treasures of the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha. 皈依佛法僧(三寶) 2 Earnestly cultivate the Three Perfections of Morality, Calmness, and Wisdom. 勤修戒定慧(三學) 3 Shed the Three Poisons of Greed, Anger and Delusion. 息滅貪瞋癡(三毒) 4 Purify the Three Karmas of Action, Speech and Thought. 清淨身口意(三業) 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  4. 4. Buddhist Association of Canada Four Ways of Persuasion The Four Ways of Persuasion are the methods used by Bodhisattvas to present loving kindness to all sentient beings:  Giving without expectation of special treatment.  Offering Loving Kindness Speech sincerely.  Acting beneficially with wisdom.  Cooperating unconditionally – the best way is to lead by example. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  5. 5. Buddhist Association of CanadaMetta Transmission (Recite Heart sutra) May my love one be free from enmity (Recite Heart sutra) May my love one be free from mental suffering (Recite Heart sutra) May my love one be free from physical suffering. (Recite Heart sutra) May I take care of my love one happily. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  6. 6. Buddhist Association of CanadaHow to practice lovingkindness meditationDuring meditation you turn your attention to your love one and say to yourself words like:May my loved one be well and happy.May my loved one be peaceful and calm.May my loved one be protected from dangers.May his/her mind be bodhi and enlightened.May his/her heart be filled with love. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  7. 7. Buddhist Association of Canada Beginning Practice of Loving Kindness Meditation Position There is no one posture in which you cannot send intensive thoughts of metta. In intensive metta exercise, one radiate loving kindness all the time in whatever position one is in – standing, walking, sitting and lying-down. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  8. 8. Buddhist Association of Canada7 Postures: 調身七支坐法 1. 足支:結跏趺坐 Full/half lotus/free seat 雙單散盤,足心向上 2. 腰脊支:脊直肩平 Spine and neck straight, back flat 背平頸 直 3. 手支:手結定印 Left palm below abdomen, right palm on the left palm, thumbs touching each other 姆指相挂 4. 肩胛支:頂門向上 shoulder upright and head top 頭正容寬 ,收斂下顎 Chin withdrawn 5. 头颈支: Head upright and neck straight 6. 舌支:舌抵上顎 Tongue on upper jaw 兩唇輕合 7. 目支:雙眼平視 , 半開半閉 , 視若無睹Eyes level and natural 開合自然, 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  9. 9. Buddhist Association of CanadaPosture and Preparation The posture has to be balanced, back straight and legs folded in. This helps to keep the mind most alert. Relax from head to toe and toe to head, side to side, part by part, from external to internal. Make a resolution to put away all matters for the period of meditation. All matters must be put aside including random thoughts. Keep the mind relax and peaceful. Maintain an sharp awareness and mindfulness on an intended object. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  10. 10. Buddhist Association of CanadaPosture and Preparation After sitting in the desired posture, one ought to remain still with utmost relaxation. The body is as if it is not there at all. Proceed to giving metta to oneself first and then your love one. Each thought aroused is as if it is a very small, subtle, soft bubble out of the mind – increasing tranquility. One recites not just the words in the mind but rather sincerely makes the wish, understanding fully the meaning of each word. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  11. 11. Buddhist Association of CanadaPure Objective Setting Oneself Right – Right livelihood, morality, control of unlimited desires, Setting Right Motivation – Provide help to your love one to release his/her suffering without any conditions. Serves as preliminary concentration – Focus on meditation object Radiate metta to another person –  Extremely intimate  Lovable  Indifferent  Unpleasant  Hostile 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  12. 12. Buddhist Association of CanadaDiscover the Lovableness of Others Observe events from his/her point of view and appreciate what he/she is doing. Recall and Enumerate lovable events:  Gifts given at birthday  Help in time of stress  Counseling in career  Continuous learning  Hard working  Smiling  Gentle words When metta arises it has got to be sincere and come from the depth of your heart. Keep the flow of metta go on at any events as long as possible to deepen your aspiration and possilbe actions. Guard yourself against attachment. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  13. 13. Buddhist Association of CanadaHindrances to Concentration Sensual Desire – attachment, past experience, liking from five senses, etc. Ill Will - Repulsive object, anger, frustration, etc. Sloth and Torpor – Fall into deep sleep, Not enough energy and sleep, poor health, etc. Restlessness and Worry – Lack of mindfulness, too much extraneous thoughts, etc. Skeptical Doubts – Doubt the Three Gems or the method in practice of metta. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  14. 14. Buddhist Association of CanadaFive Jhana Stages/Factors Bringing the mind to the object (arousing, applying) Keeping the mind with the object (sustaining stretching, visualization) Finding, having interest in the object (Joy) Being happy and content with the object (Happiness) Unifying the mind with the object (fixing, one-pointedness) 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  15. 15. Buddhist Association of Canada DhyanaDhyāna in Sanskrit (Devanagari: ) or jhāna ( ) in Pāli canrefer to either meditation or meditative states. Equivalent termsare "Chán" in modern Chinese, "Zen" in Japanese, "Seon" inKorean, "Thien" in Vietnamese, and "Samten" in Tibetan.As a meditative state, dhyāna is characterized by profound stillnessand concentration. It is discussed in the Pāli canon and post-canonical Theravāda Buddhist literature on the Way that Buddhagot enlightened. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  16. 16. The Eight Auspicious Symbols of Buddhism
  17. 17. • Buddhism has evolved over the centuries a complex, yet discernable scheme of symbolism which has found adequate expression in Buddhist art.• The most popular of such symbols is the group of eight.• Each of these symbols is also individually associated with the physical form of the Buddha.
  18. 18. These eight auspicious symbols of Buddhism are:1). A Conch Shell2). A Lotus3). A Wheel4). A Parasol (Umbrella)5). An Endless Knot6). A Pair of Golden Fishes7). A Banner Proclaiming Victory8). A Treasure Vase
  19. 19. The Conch Shell• The conch shell has survived as the original horn.• trumpet since time immemorial.• During the actual practise of rituals, it is used both as a musical instrument and as a container for holy water.
  20. 20. The Lotus It is one of Buddhisms best recognized motifsThe roots of a lotus are in the mud, the stemgrows up through the water, and the heavilyscented flower lies above the water, basking inthe sunlight. This pattern of growth signifies theprogress of the soul from the primeval mud ofmaterialism, through the waters of experience,and into the bright sunshine of enlightenment.
  21. 21. The Lotus• the spirit of the best of men is spotless, like the lotus in the muddy water which does not adhere to it.• According to another scholar, in esoteric Buddhism, the heart of the beings is like an unopened lotus: when the virtues of the Buddha develop therein, the lotus blossoms; that is why the Buddha sits on a lotus bloom
  22. 22. The WheelThe wheel consists of three basic parts:the hub, the rim, and spokes (generallyeight in number). Its underlying form isthat of a circle, which is recognized acrossall traditions as a shape that is completeand perfect in itself, qualities which informthe teachings of the Buddha too.Individually, the rim represents theelement of limitation, the hub is the axisof the world, and the eight spokes denotethe Eightfold Path set down by the Buddha,which leads to the cessation of allsuffering.
  23. 23. The Wheel• a). The hub stands for training in moral discipline. Through this practise the mind is supported and stabilized. Thus it is the practise of moral discipline that upholds our meditation, just like the supporting axis of the world.• b). The spokes stand for the correct application of wisdom, which cuts off ignorance and ends suffering.• c). The rim denotes concentration, which holds the entire meditative practise together, just as the wheel of life is held together by its rim.
  24. 24. The Parasol• This is symbolized by the umbrella,whose important function is to cast ashadow, the shadow of protection. Thedictionary defines a parasol as anumbrella used for protection from the sun.Thus its function is to protect exclusivelyfrom the heat rather than the rain - as theword parasol, meaning to hold off thesun, and umbrella, meaning littleshade, similarly imply. The Sanskrit termchattra, also means mushroom, in anobvious reference to its shape.
  25. 25. The Parasol• The dome symbolizes wisdom,and the hanging skirt,compassion. Thus the composite• form of the parasolsignifies the union of these dual elements.
  26. 26. The Endless Knot• This image signifies the dramatic interplay and interaction of the opposing forces in the dualistic world of manifestation, leading to their union, and ultimately to harmony in the universe.• This fact is amply reflected in the symmetrical and regularform of the endless knot.
  27. 27. The Endless KnotSince all phenomena are interrelated, the placingof the endless knot on a gift or greeting card isunderstood to establish an auspicious connectionbetween the giver and the recipient. At the sametime, the recipient is goaded to righteous karma,being reminded that future positive effects havetheir roots in the causes of the present. This isbecause the knot represents a connection, a linkwith our fates, binding us to our karmic destiny.Not surprisingly, this is one of the most favouritesymbols in Tibetan Buddhism, and often occursindependently on its own.Since the knot has no beginning or end it also symbolizes the infinite wisdom of theBuddha.
  28. 28. The Golden FishesIn Buddhism, the golden fishessymbolize happiness,asthey have complete freedom in water.They represent fertility andabundance as they multiply very rapidly.Fish often swim in pairs, and inChina they represented conjugal unity and fidelity,where a pair of fishes would often be given as awedding present.
  29. 29. The Victory BannerThe flag of victory also denotesBuddhas triumph over Mara,who personifies hindranceson the path to spiritual realization.Specifically, there are said to be fourtypes of Maras, each one representing an individual hurdle on the path to spiritual progress.
  30. 30. The Victory Banner• These are: 1). The Mara of Emotional Defilement 2). Mara of Passion 3). Mara of the Fear of Death 4). Mara of Pride and Lust It was only after conquering these four negative traits that Buddha could proclaim victory over ignorance, and achieve nirvana.
  31. 31. The Treasure VaseIts symbolic meaning wasalmost always associated with the ideas of storage andthe satisfaction of material desires.In relation to Buddhism it specifically means the spiritual abundance of the Buddha, a treasure that did not diminish, however much of it he gave away.
  32. 32. The question still remains of the association of these eight symbols with theBuddhas actual physical body.An ancient text called the Heap of Good FortuneThe Vase of Inexhaustable Treasures Sutra, while addressing the Buddha, Has this to say on the issue:Veneration to you with your head like a protecting parasol,With eyes like the precious golden fishesWith neck like a precious, adorned vase of good fortune,With speech like a right-turning Dharma shell,With a mind infinite with wisdom like the never ending knot,With a tongue open like the auspicious pink lotus,With a body proclaiming triumph over the attacking armies of Mara,With feet that tread the path of dharma like the auspicious wheel.
  33. 33. Buddhist Association of CanadaPresentation Schedule1. October 15 - Three Sastra School by Grace Lau + Meditation Practice by Tom2. October 22 – Iconology by Edward Malek + Meditation Practice by Tom3. October 29 - Wutaishan Video Footages by Moshay Allen + Meditation Practice by Tom4. November 5 - The white lotus sutra by Dennis A.Yap + Meditation Practice by Tom5. Nov. 12 - The white lotus sutra by Dennis A.Yap + Meditation Practice by Tom6. Nov. 19 - The white lotus sutra by Dennis A.Yap + Meditation Practice by Tom7. Nov. 26 - The white lotus sutra by Dennis A.Yap + Meditation Practice by Tom 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  34. 34. Buddhist Association of Canada Questions and Comments 討論www.ChamShanTemple.orgwww.shengguangshi.blogspot.comShengguangShi@hotmail.comShengguang Shi 釋聖光Tom Cheung 張相棠Kam Cheung 張仁勤Dennis A. Yap 葉普智 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada
  35. 35. Buddhist Association of Canada回向 yuàn xiāo zhàng zhū fán năo s ā nParinamana (Transfer of Merit) 願消三障諸煩惱 We wish to rid ourselves of the three hindrances and all klesas. yuàn dé zhì huì zhēn míng l ĭ a o 願得智慧 真 明了 We wish to gain wisdom and real understanding. pŭ yuàn zuì zhàng xī chú x i ā o 普願罪障悉消除 We wish all sinful hindrances to be totally eradicated. shì shì cháng xíng pú sà dào 世世常行菩薩道 In one life after another we always follow Bodhisattvas’ paths. 加拿大佛教會 © 2006 Buddhist Association of Canada