Buddhist Association of Canada<br />Cham Shan Temple<br />加拿大佛教會   湛山精舍 禪修學佛入門 <br />Introduction to <br />Buddhism and Me...
Buddhist Association of Canada<br />Cham Shan Temple<br />ná	mó	fó	tuó<br />南	無	佛	陀<br />Namo Buddha<br />ná	mó	dá	mó <br ...
námóbōrĕhuìshàngfópúsà(3 times)<br />南無般若會上佛菩薩	(三稱)<br />Blessed be the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas in the Prajna Assembly.<b...
guānzìzàipúsàxíngshēnbōrĕbōluómìduōshí<br />zhàojiànwŭyùnjiēkōng<br />觀自在菩薩  行深般若波羅密多時  照見五蘊皆空<br />The Bodhisattva Avalok...
sè jí shì kōng   kōng jí shì sè   shòu xiăng xíng shí   yì fù rú shì<br />色即是空  空即是色  受想行識  亦復如是<br />Form is sunyata, and...
sè jí shì kōng   kōng jí shì sè   shòu xiăng xíng shí   yì fù rú shì<br />色即是空  空即是色  受想行識  亦復如是<br />Form is sunyata, and...
bù zēng bù jiăn   shì gù kōng zhōng wú sè   wú shòu xiăng xíng shí<br />不淨不減  是故空中無色  無受想行識<br />non-increasing, non-decre...
wú yăn ĕr bí shé shēn yì   wú sè shēng xiāng wèi chù fă<br />wú yăn jiè năi zhì   wú yì shí jiè<br />無眼耳鼻舌身意  無色聲香味觸法  無眼界...
wú wú míng   yì wú wú míng jìn   năi zhì wú lăo sĭ   yì wú lăo sĭ jìn<br />無無明  亦無無明盡  乃至無老死  亦無老死盡<br />No ignorance and ...
wú kŭ jí miè dào   wú zhì yì wú  dé   yĭ wú suŏ dé gù<br />無苦集滅道  無智亦無得 以無所得故<br />Also, there is no truth of suffering, o...
pú tí sà duō   yī bō rĕ bō luó mì duō gù   xīn wú guà ài<br />菩提薩埵  依般若波羅密多故  心無罣礙<br />Because there is nothing to be att...
sān shì zhū fó   yī bō rĕ bō luó mì duō gù   dé ā nòu duō luó sān miăo sān pú tí<br />三世諸佛  依般若波羅密多故 得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提 <br />The ...
gù zhī bō rĕ bō luó mì duō   shì dà shén zhòu   <br />shì dà míng zhòu   shì wú shàng zhòu   <br />故知般若波羅密多  是大神咒  是大明咒  是...
shì wú dĕng dĕng zhòu   néng chú yī qiè kŭ   zhēn shí bù xū <br />是無等等咒  能除一切苦  真實不虛<br />the unequal equal mantra which c...
jié dì jié dì   bō luó jié dì   bō luó sēng jié dì   pú tí sà pó hē<br />揭諦揭諦  波羅揭諦  波羅僧揭諦  菩提薩婆訶 (三稱)<br />Gate gate pāra...
TEN  SPIRITUAL REALMS<br />The ten spiritual realms are part of Buddhist cosmology and the belief of some forms of Buddhis...
SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />	The lowest six realms are often illustrated by the Bhavachakra or Wheel of Life. They are known...
SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />HELL<br />	Hell is a condition of total claustrophobic aggression. One feels totally trapped by ...
SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />HUNGER<br />	Hunger is a condition characterized by possessiveness and insatiable desires which ...
SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />ANIMALITY<br />Animality is a condition in which one is governed by instinct, in which one has n...
SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />ARROGANCE  (ASURA OR  ANGER)<br />	Arrogance is the condition in which one is dominated by the s...
SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />HUMANITY (OR PASSIONATE IDEALISM)<br />	Humanity is  based on passion, desire, doubt and pride. ...
SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />HEAVEN (OR RAPTURE)<br />	Heaven is the condition of pleasure, when one's desires are fulfilled ...
FOUR HIGHER (NOBLE) REALMS<br />	The four higher realms are: Learning, Realization, Bodhisattva and Buddhahood.  These fou...
FOUR HIGHER (NOBLE) REALMS<br />REALIZATION (OR ABSORPTION)<br />	Realization is a state in which one discovers a partial ...
FOUR HIGHER (NOBLE) REALMS<br />BODHISATTVAHOOD<br />Bodhisattvahood is an enlightened being.  This is a condition in whic...
FOUR HIGHER (NOBLE) REALMS<br />BUDDHAHOOD<br />Buddhahood is the highest of the Ten Worlds, a condition of pure, indestru...
INTERPENETRATION OF TEN REALMS<br />	Each of the Ten Worlds possesses all Ten Worlds.  Each has the potential to reveal an...
Meditation禪修<br />Towards a<br />Liberated and<br />Enlightened Life<br />煩惱輕智慧長<br />
Nine Stages of Calming Abiding (Samatha) 九住心<br />Inner placement - Monk chasing elephant and monkey 內住<br />Continual pla...
The Nine Stages of SamathaMeditation – 6 forces<br />There are 6 forces that come into play: <br />the force of hearing, <...
Five Hindrances<br />1) Laziness;<br />2) Forgetting the Object; <br />3) Sinking and excitement; <br />4) Not applying th...
Antidotes<br />1) faith; <br />2) aspiration; <br />3) perseverance; <br />4) blissful pliancy of mind;  <br />5) mindfuln...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation1st Stage<br />(1) The first of these is called "placing the mind within." Or, you co...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation1st Stage<br />So in the course of this, one will recognize discursiveness; one will ...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 2nd Stage<br />(2) Then through the force of contemplating of that object, bringin...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 2nd Stage<br />And so at that second stage the mind is able to remain placed on th...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 3rd Stage<br />(3)  The next stage is accomplished through one’s mindfulness becom...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 3 Stage<br />So at this point of the patch-like placement, the period of the distr...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 4th Stage<br />(4) As the mindfulness gets stronger and stronger, the mind becomes...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 4th Stage<br />You’re familiar with the object already; the idea is that you’re re...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 5th Stage<br />(5) Now, continuing to meditate from this fourth sage of close plac...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 5th Stage<br />What happens as the mind gets so intensely withdrawn is that it get...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 6th Stage<br />(6) The next stage is called "pacifying," meaning pacifying the exc...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 7th Stage<br />(7) At the seventh stage, one’s mind no longer goes under the influ...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 8th Stage<br />(8) By continuing to meditate, then, with the force of joyful effor...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 9th Stage<br />(9) Through the force of complete familiarity, then one reaches the...
The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 9th Stage<br />And not only does one’s mind become totally pliant, in this way, an...
Ten Virtuous Actions 行十善<br />1. Not to take a life(Protect life) 不殺生(護生)<br />2. Not to take what is not given(Giving) 不偷...
CULTIVATING VIRTUE<br />In cultivating virtue, there is a sense of balance. Our mind is no longer afflicted by or inundate...
Basic Terms<br />5 aggregates (skandhas)<br />4 elements<br />6 sense organs, 6 sense objects, 6 sense consciousness<br />...
Additional Basic Terms<br />10 Chinese schools<br />Life story of the Buddha<br />Buddhist History in India<br />Buddhist ...
The Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism:<br />1. Reality School or Kosa School or Abhidharma School.2. Satysiddhi School or Ch...
The following topics are for the upcoming Saturday Meditation Class:<br />June 11 to the end of August - Heart Sutra by Ve...
Questions and Comments 討論<br />www.ChamShanTemple.org<br />www.shengguangshi.blogspot.com<br />ShengguangShi@hotmail.com<b...
20110611 heart sutra, meditation and ten realms 2
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20110611 heart sutra, meditation and ten realms 2

  1. 1. Buddhist Association of Canada<br />Cham Shan Temple<br />加拿大佛教會 湛山精舍 禪修學佛入門 <br />Introduction to <br />Buddhism and Meditation<br />2011/06/11<br />
  2. 2. Buddhist Association of Canada<br />Cham Shan Temple<br />ná mó fó tuó<br />南 無 佛 陀<br />Namo Buddha<br />ná mó dá mó <br />南 無 達 摩<br />Namo Dharma<br />ná mó sēng qié<br />南 無 僧 伽 <br />Namo Sangha<br />
  3. 3. námóbōrĕhuìshàngfópúsà(3 times)<br />南無般若會上佛菩薩 (三稱)<br />Blessed be the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas in the Prajna Assembly.<br />bōrĕbōluómìduōxīnjīng<br />般若波羅密多心經<br />PrajnaparamitaHrdaya Sutra (Heart Sutra)<br />
  4. 4. guānzìzàipúsàxíngshēnbōrĕbōluómìduōshí<br />zhàojiànwŭyùnjiēkōng<br />觀自在菩薩 行深般若波羅密多時 照見五蘊皆空<br />The Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara: When coursing in the deep Prajna Paramita, one perceives the five skandhas are sunyata; <br />
  5. 5. sè jí shì kōng kōng jí shì sè shòu xiăng xíng shí yì fù rú shì<br />色即是空 空即是色 受想行識 亦復如是<br />Form is sunyata, and sunyata is form; the same is true for feelings, perceptions, volitions and consciousness.<br />shĕ lì zĭ shì zhū fă kōng xiàng bù shēng bù miè bù gòu bù jìng<br />舍利子 是諸法空相 不生不滅 不垢不增<br />Sariputra, the characteristics of sunyata of all dharmas are non-arising, non-ceasing, non-defiled, non-pure,<br />
  6. 6. sè jí shì kōng kōng jí shì sè shòu xiăng xíng shí yì fù rú shì<br />色即是空 空即是色 受想行識 亦復如是<br />Form is sunyata, and sunyata is form; the same is true for feelings, perceptions, volitions and consciousness.<br />shĕ lì zĭ shì zhū fă kōng xiàng bù shēng bù miè bù gòu bù jìng<br />舍利子 是諸法空相 不生不滅 不垢不增<br />Sariputra, the characteristics of sunyata of all dharmas are non-arising, non-ceasing, non-defiled, non-pure,<br />
  7. 7. bù zēng bù jiăn shì gù kōng zhōng wú sè wú shòu xiăng xíng shí<br />不淨不減 是故空中無色 無受想行識<br />non-increasing, non-decreasing. Therefore, in sunyata there are no forms, no feelings, perceptions, volitions or consciousness.<br />
  8. 8. wú yăn ĕr bí shé shēn yì wú sè shēng xiāng wèi chù fă<br />wú yăn jiè năi zhì wú yì shí jiè<br />無眼耳鼻舌身意 無色聲香味觸法 無眼界乃至 無意識<br />No eye, ear, nose, tongue, body or mind; no form, sound, smell, taste, touch or mind object; no realm of the eye, until we come to no realm of consciousness.<br />
  9. 9. wú wú míng yì wú wú míng jìn năi zhì wú lăo sĭ yì wú lăo sĭ jìn<br />無無明 亦無無明盡 乃至無老死 亦無老死盡<br />No ignorance and also no ending of ignorance, until we come to no old age and death and no ending of old age and death.<br />
  10. 10. wú kŭ jí miè dào wú zhì yì wú dé yĭ wú suŏ dé gù<br />無苦集滅道 無智亦無得 以無所得故<br />Also, there is no truth of suffering, of the cause of suffering, of the cessation of suffering nor of the Path. There is no wisdom, and there is no attainment whatsoever. <br />
  11. 11. pú tí sà duō yī bō rĕ bō luó mì duō gù xīn wú guà ài<br />菩提薩埵 依般若波羅密多故 心無罣礙<br />Because there is nothing to be attained, the Bodhisattva relying on Prajna Paramita has no obstruction in the mind.<br />wú guà ài gù wú yŏu kŏng bù yuăn lí diān dăo mèng xiăng jiū jìng niè pán<br />無罣礙故 無有恐怖 遠離顛倒夢想 究竟涅槃<br />Because there is no obstruction, one has no fear and passes far beyond all confused imagination and reaches ultimate nirvana.<br />
  12. 12. sān shì zhū fó yī bō rĕ bō luó mì duō gù dé ā nòu duō luó sān miăo sān pú tí<br />三世諸佛 依般若波羅密多故 得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提 <br />The Buddhas of the past, present and future, by relying on Prajna Paramita, have attained anuttara samyak sambodhi.<br />
  13. 13. gù zhī bō rĕ bō luó mì duō shì dà shén zhòu <br />shì dà míng zhòu shì wú shàng zhòu <br />故知般若波羅密多 是大神咒 是大明咒 是無上咒<br />Therefore, the Prajna Paramita is the great spiritual mantra, the great illuminating mantra, the unsurpassed mantra,<br />
  14. 14. shì wú dĕng dĕng zhòu néng chú yī qiè kŭ zhēn shí bù xū <br />是無等等咒 能除一切苦 真實不虛<br />the unequal equal mantra which can truly protect one from all suffering without fail.<br />gù shuō bō rĕ bō luó mì duō zhòu jí shuō zhòu yuē<br />故說般若波羅密多咒 即說咒曰<br />Therefore he chanted the mantra of Prajna Paramita, saying:<br />
  15. 15. jié dì jié dì bō luó jié dì bō luó sēng jié dì pú tí sà pó hē<br />揭諦揭諦 波羅揭諦 波羅僧揭諦 菩提薩婆訶 (三稱)<br />Gate gate pāragate pārasamgate bodhi svāhā (3 times)<br /> ▽ ││ ○ ││ ○ ││ ○│ ◎ ││ <br />mó hē bō rĕ bō luó mì duō<br />摩訶般若波羅密多 (三稱)<br />Maha Prajñāpāramitā (3 times)<br />○ ││ ◎ ││ ○ ││ ○│ ○ ││ ○<br />
  16. 16. TEN SPIRITUAL REALMS<br />The ten spiritual realms are part of Buddhist cosmology and the belief of some forms of Buddhism that there are ten conditions of life which sentient beings are subject to, and which they experience from moment to moment. <br />The ten spiritual realms are consist of four higher realms –Learning, Realization, Bodhisattva and Buddhahood and six lower realms – Hell, Hunger, Animality, Arrogance, Humanity and Heaven.<br />
  17. 17. SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br /> The lowest six realms are often illustrated by the Bhavachakra or Wheel of Life. They are known as the Six Paths or Six Realms. These six states of existence: Hell, Hunger, Animality, Arrogance, Humanity and Heaven are subjected to birth and death, and then rebirth for many lives. <br /> These six lower worlds arise automatically from within people’s lives in response to external surroundings. The majority of sentient beings spend most of their time moving between these six conditions of life, from Hell to Heaven, governed by their reactions to external influences and therefore highly vulnerable to all of the six lower realms. <br />
  18. 18. SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />HELL<br /> Hell is a condition of total claustrophobic aggression. One feels totally trapped by one's circumstances, the being is dominated by anger, hatred and frustrated rage and the urge to destroy oneself and everything else. They drive away anyone who shows them love and kindness. It is a very difficult realm to escape from, since the condition tends to be self-perpetuating, with intense suffering and aggression feeding each other. <br />
  19. 19. SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />HUNGER<br /> Hunger is a condition characterized by possessiveness and insatiable desires which govern one's actions, for food, power, wealth, fame, pleasure and so on. In this state one is tormented by relentless craving and the inability, even when the desire is achieved. This realm is characterized by a total lack of willpower and the disregard of all things except the fulfillment of desires.<br />
  20. 20. SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />ANIMALITY<br />Animality is a condition in which one is governed by instinct, in which one has no sense of morality and lives only for the present moment. In this state one won't hesitate to prey on weaker beings for personal gain, and will try to attract the attentions of stronger beings in order to side with them. This realm is characterized by the total lack of good judgment and reason and as their behavior follows instinct with deliberation, their karma is neutral, i.e. neither good nor evil.<br />
  21. 21. SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />ARROGANCE (ASURA OR ANGER)<br /> Arrogance is the condition in which one is dominated by the selfish ego, competitiveness, paranoid jealousy and the need to be superior in all things. The experiencer is a slave to his/her delusions, material enjoyment and psychic power and reluctant to learn and practice the Buddhist teaching. This realm is characterized by viewing other beings as potential threats.<br />
  22. 22. SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />HUMANITY (OR PASSIONATE IDEALISM)<br /> Humanity is based on passion, desire, doubt and pride. In this realm, we have both happiness and suffering, it is a material world and the mind activities are always connected with the principles of matter. It is characterized by ambitious passion for abstract ideals and role models, and is unique among the lower realms in providing both the potential means and the motivation to transcend suffering, it is also characterized by shortness of life in comparison to the Heaven and Asura realms.<br />
  23. 23. SIX REALMS OF DESIRE<br />HEAVEN (OR RAPTURE)<br /> Heaven is the condition of pleasure, when one's desires are fulfilled and one experiences short-lived but intense feelings of joy. Unlike the true happiness of Buddhahood, however, this state is temporary and, like Humanity, easily disrupted by even a slight change of circumstances. This realm is characterized by not feeling negative emotions and being less vulnerable to external influences than the lower realms.<br />
  24. 24. FOUR HIGHER (NOBLE) REALMS<br /> The four higher realms are: Learning, Realization, Bodhisattva and Buddhahood. These four states of existence are beyond birth and death and liberated from the Samara. They are characterized by the belief that humans need to make an effort to reveal themselves from within their lives.<br />LEARNING<br /> Learning is a condition in which one seeks some skill, lasting truth or self-improvement through the teachings of others. To access this realm, the experiencer must first develop the desire to gain wisdom and insight into the true nature of all things. This realm is characterized by the seeking of truth and wisdom through external sources, e.g. other people and pre-recorded information.<br />
  25. 25. FOUR HIGHER (NOBLE) REALMS<br />REALIZATION (OR ABSORPTION)<br /> Realization is a state in which one discovers a partial truth through one's own observations, efforts and concentration. This realm is characterized by the seeking of truth and wisdom through direct internal perception.<br /> The two above realms are known as ‘the two vehicles’. Though these realms are based upon the desire to increase wisdom and insight, ego is still present as these desires are primarily self-oriented.<br />
  26. 26. FOUR HIGHER (NOBLE) REALMS<br />BODHISATTVAHOOD<br />Bodhisattvahood is an enlightened being. This is a condition in which one not only aspires for personal enlightenment but also devotes oneself to relieving the sufferings of others through compassionate and truly altruistic actions, e.g. enlighten others and benefit others. This realm is characterized by the feeling that happiness achieved through the benefit of others is superior to happiness achieved through the benefit of only the self. All these relationships are mutual and interdependent.<br />
  27. 27. FOUR HIGHER (NOBLE) REALMS<br />BUDDHAHOOD<br />Buddhahood is the highest of the Ten Worlds, a condition of pure, indestructible happiness . It is a condition of perfect and absolute freedom, characterized by boundless wisdom, courage, compassion and life force. This realm is difficult to describe and is generally only obtained through the direct internal perception of the realm of realization. This realm is characterized by not being shifted into lower realms due to external sources, and the non-reliance on external sources for happiness. This condition is that of a fully enlightened Buddha.<br />
  28. 28. INTERPENETRATION OF TEN REALMS<br /> Each of the Ten Worlds possesses all Ten Worlds. Each has the potential to reveal any of the others at any moment. Some sects of Buddhism believe that as people practice Buddhism they make Buddhahood the dominant state of their lives, as it acts as a kind of filter, revealing the positive aspects of the other nine worlds from Hell to Bodhisattva.<br /> The realms are labeled the same by Buddhist sects that see them as planes of existence, the difference being the only way to shift between them is through rebirth. This is governed by karma – action and volition: the choices made during life.<br />
  29. 29. Meditation禪修<br />Towards a<br />Liberated and<br />Enlightened Life<br />煩惱輕智慧長<br />
  30. 30. Nine Stages of Calming Abiding (Samatha) 九住心<br />Inner placement - Monk chasing elephant and monkey 內住<br />Continual placement 續住<br />Patch-like placement 安住<br />Close placement or Good fixation 近住<br />Becoming disciplined 調順<br />Pacifying or becoming peaceful 寂靜<br />Fully pacifying 最極寂靜<br />Becoming single-pointed 專住一趣<br />Fixed absorption or meditative equipoise 等持<br />
  31. 31. The Nine Stages of SamathaMeditation – 6 forces<br />There are 6 forces that come into play: <br />the force of hearing, <br />the force of contemplating, <br />the force of mindfulness, <br />the force of introspection, <br />the force of enthusiasm and<br />the force of complete familiarity; <br />These are the 6 forces for developing the state of Samatha. <br />
  32. 32. Five Hindrances<br />1) Laziness;<br />2) Forgetting the Object; <br />3) Sinking and excitement; <br />4) Not applying the antidotes;<br />5) Over-application of the antidotes. <br />
  33. 33. Antidotes<br />1) faith; <br />2) aspiration; <br />3) perseverance; <br />4) blissful pliancy of mind; <br />5) mindfulness;<br />6) introspection;<br />7) vigilance<br />8) applying the antidotes;<br />9) non-application of antidoteswhen they’re not necessary. <br />
  34. 34. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation1st Stage<br />(1) The first of these is called "placing the mind within." Or, you could say "inner placement." There are six forces that are coming to play in this process. And it’s said that that first placement, the inner placement of the mind, comes about through the force of the hearing. So through the force of hearing the description, then one has found the object, and then places the mind on it. <br />
  35. 35. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation1st Stage<br />So in the course of this, one will recognize discursiveness; one will recognize thoughts. And it will seem like there’s even more thoughts appearing than normal. But actually, prior to placing the mind on the object like this, the mind has been distracted, wandering around, we just never noticed how many thoughts were coming into the mind. Thus you get an experience of recognizing the thoughts. <br />
  36. 36. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 2nd Stage<br />(2) Then through the force of contemplating of that object, bringing it to mind again and again, then one becomes able to extend the period of holding the object a bit longer. And that’s the next stage, which is called "the continual placement." <br />The measure of this would be that, say, if during the course of meditating on the object, or sitting for three minutes, that for one minute one would be able to hold the object without losing it. So, comparing these two stages, the first and the second, in the first stage where the mind is placed, inwardly placed on the object, there’s a lot more distraction outside at that stage than there is in the second stage.<br />
  37. 37. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 2nd Stage<br />And so at that second stage the mind is able to remain placed on the object for a longer period than in the first stage. And at that second stage of continual placement, one has an experience, and it seems like one’s thoughts are losing energy. . .the thoughts are getting exhausted, they’re not coming so often as before. This second placement is accomplished through the force of contemplating, so among the six forces, that’s the force that enables one to attain this second placement, which means contemplating of the object again and again. <br />
  38. 38. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 3rd Stage<br />(3) The next stage is accomplished through one’s mindfulness becoming stronger and stronger, such that at a certain point, as soon as the object is lost, as soon as the mind wanders outward to something else, then the power of the memory or the mindfulness becomes so strong that it can immediately bring the mind back to the object. And if it happens again and again, [it] immediately brings the mind back to the object. And this is called the "patch-like placement of the mind." <br />
  39. 39. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 3 Stage<br />So at this point of the patch-like placement, the period of the distraction has become very much reduced, so that the period of placing the mind, abiding on the object is now much more than the length of the distraction. For instance, maybe in the course of one minute of meditating on the object, maybe only 13 seconds of that would be time that was distracted from the object. So at this point it’s said that one has the experience of the "elimination of the intensity of the thoughts." So before, the thoughts were getting tired, right? But now, it’s called the erasure of the intensity of those thoughts. This stage of the patch-like placement is accomplished through the force of mindfulness, of remembering the object. <br />
  40. 40. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 4th Stage<br />(4) As the mindfulness gets stronger and stronger, the mind becomes more and more focused inwardly, brought in, collected in. Then one reaches the next stage, the fourth stage, which is called the "close placement." And at that point, there is no longer any loss of the object. The object is never lost, it’s always kept in the awareness. But even though the object is no longer lost, at any time, the sinking and excitement at that time present a lot of problems. <br />The difference between the third and the fourth stage is that [in] the third stage the object is still lost from time to time...but in the fourth stage it’s no longer lost: even though there may be sinking and excitement occurring, the object itself is not lost. So that fourth stage is also accomplished through the force of the mindfulness. <br />
  41. 41. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 4th Stage<br />You’re familiar with the object already; the idea is that you’re remembering it through mindfulness. <br />And to that mindfulness, the aspect of the object needs to be something that’s clear, something that’s been understood clearly or seen clearly. So the function of that mindfulness is the prevention of the mind from wandering away from the object. So mindfulness is just like a rope taking the example of the elephant, it’s like "tying the elephant to a stake." <br />
  42. 42. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 5th Stage<br />(5) Now, continuing to meditate from this fourth sage of close placement, and because the mind has become very withdrawn, very much drawn inward, then there’s a lot of obstructions that arise from the sinking. So that’s why the fifth stage is called "subduing." Because at that stage there needs to be a lot of vigilance paid to subduing that "sinking" that occurs. That fifth stage of subduing is attained through the force of introspection that alertness, or that introspection. <br />
  43. 43. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 5th Stage<br />What happens as the mind gets so intensely withdrawn is that it gets kind of lowered, it gets brought down too much, and so the mind therefore needs to be uplifted somewhat at that stage in order to subdue that sinking. So in order to do that, one reflects on the advantages and the benefits of developing that calm abiding, that perfectly focused, peaceful state of mind. But as one applies this uplifting of the mind by thinking of such things as the benefits of samatha meditation, it subdues that sinking, but then it can overbalance into the excitement again. <br />
  44. 44. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 6th Stage<br />(6) The next stage is called "pacifying," meaning pacifying the excitement that occurs. Because at that stage, one needs to be very vigilant towards seeing excitement arise, and applying antidotes to that. So the difference between the fifth and the sixth stages is that [in] the fifth stage there’s a lot of danger from the sinking that needs to be countered, and one needs to be vigilant about that; but at the sixth stage, it’s the excitement that’s more prevalent, and one needs to be vigilant about applying the antidotes for that. This sixth stage of pacifying is also attained through the force of introspection or alertness. <br />
  45. 45. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 7th Stage<br />(7) At the seventh stage, one’s mind no longer goes under the influence of the sinking and excitement. The sinking and excitement still need to be countered at that time, but the mind is never lost to them; at that stage it never comes under the influence of the sinking and excitement. So at that point the sinking and excitement become like fighting each other and need to be countered and subdued. They still need the antidotes applied to them, but the mind no longer can be beaten or come under the influence or be controlled by the sinking and excitement. So the name of this seventh stage is "complete pacification." So at that stage, it’s still possible that the excitement and sinking can occur, but it becomes much less, much rarer. And that seventh stage is also attained through the force of introspection. <br />
  46. 46. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 8th Stage<br />(8) By continuing to meditate, then, with the force of joyful effort, or enthusiasm, then the sinking and excitement no longer occur at all. And one no longer even has to watch out for them; one no longer has to be vigilant for them. This is the eighth stage, which is called "becoming single pointed." And it’s accomplished through the force of enthusiasm. <br />
  47. 47. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 9th Stage<br />(9) Through the force of complete familiarity, then one reaches the ninth stage. And at that point the object of the meditation appears effortlessly and spontaneously. And that ninth stage is called "equipoise," or "equal placement." Now as one continues the meditation at this stage, then at a certain point one starts to get a heavy feeling on the crown of one’s head. It would be similar to the feeling of, say, in cold weather, and your head was shaved, then a hand was placed on the crown of your head. A kind of a warm feeling, there, on the crown of one’s head, and then because of that, what happens next is that there’s a kind of warmth that arises in one’s navel area. <br />
  48. 48. The Nine Stages of Samatha Meditation – 9th Stage<br />And not only does one’s mind become totally pliant, in this way, and blissful, but then one’s body also develops this pliancy, and one gets a feeling of being very light, as if one could fly through space. And based on this pliancy of the body, this experience coming, then there’s a physical bliss that then one experiences. And then after that, then one experiences the bliss of mental pliancy, where one’s mind also becomes very blissful-feeling. And then at a certain point, that experience of the bliss of the mental pliancy subsides somewhat, and at that point one is said to have obtained what’s called "immutable pliancy." And it’s at that point that one has accomplished samatha meditation. <br />
  49. 49. Ten Virtuous Actions 行十善<br />1. Not to take a life(Protect life) 不殺生(護生)<br />2. Not to take what is not given(Giving) 不偷盜(布施)<br />3. Avoid Sexual Misconduct(Pure Sangha) 不邪淫(梵行)<br />4. Not to Deceive (Honesty) 不妄語(誠實)<br />5. Avoid Slander of others(Harmonizing) 不兩舌(和諍)<br />6. Avoid Harsh words(Kind Words)不惡口(愛語)<br />7. Avoid Empty Speech(Truthful)不綺語(質直)<br />8. Avoid Greedy Thoughts((Pure Thoughts)不貪(清淨)<br />9. Not to be Malicious(Compassion)不瞋(慈悲)<br />10. Avoid the Wrong View(Right View)不癡(正見)<br />
  50. 50. CULTIVATING VIRTUE<br />In cultivating virtue, there is a sense of balance. Our mind is no longer afflicted by or inundated淹沒 with discursiveness and negativity. There's a naturalness in the mind. If we see another person being hurt, our response would be compassion, not laughter. If someone is doing well, or has something, we feel a sense of joy. Instead of feeling jealous, we celebrate their good fortune. At this stage, you achieve immeasurable mind.<br />
  51. 51. Basic Terms<br />5 aggregates (skandhas)<br />4 elements<br />6 sense organs, 6 sense objects, 6 sense consciousness<br />12 links of causation (nidāna)<br />4 noble truths <br />8 fold path<br />6 paramitas<br />4 persuasions<br />3 / 5 vehicles<br />10 realms<br />
  52. 52. Additional Basic Terms<br />10 Chinese schools<br />Life story of the Buddha<br />Buddhist History in India<br />Buddhist History in China<br />Practice<br />
  53. 53. The Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism:<br />1. Reality School or Kosa School or Abhidharma School.2. Satysiddhi School or Cheng-se School. 3. Three Sastra School or San-lun School.4. The Lotus School or T'ien-t'ai School <br />5. The Garland School or Hua-yen School or Avatamsaka School. 6. Intuitive School or Ch'an School or Dhyana School.7. Discipline School or Lu School or Vinaya School. 8. Esoteric School or Mi School or Mantra School.9. Dharmalaksana School or Wei-Shi School or Fa-siang School.10. Pure-land School or Sukhavati School or Ching-t'u School.<br />中国的佛教共分十宗,分别是:俱舍宗、成实宗、三论宗、天台宗、华严宗、唯识宗、律宗、禅宗、净土宗、密宗。 <br />
  54. 54. The following topics are for the upcoming Saturday Meditation Class:<br />June 11 to the end of August - Heart Sutra by Ven. Shengguang Shi (1st hour) <br />June 11 - Ten realms presented by Winnie Tsang (2nd hour)<br />June 18 - 3/5 Vehicles by Moshay Allen<br />June 25 - Pure Land School by Jimmy Li<br />July 2 - Esoteric School by Edward Malek<br />July 9 - Chan School by Kitty Cheung<br />July 16 - Satysiddhi School by Waifun Lai<br />
  55. 55. Questions and Comments 討論<br />www.ChamShanTemple.org<br />www.shengguangshi.blogspot.com<br />ShengguangShi@hotmail.com<br />Shengguang Shi 釋聖光<br />Tom Cheung 張相棠<br />Kam Cheung 張仁勤<br />Dennis Yap 葉普智<br />

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