20110430 chan temples and patriarches and four persuasions


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Buddhism, Blue Cliff Record, Meditation, Koan

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20110430 chan temples and patriarches and four persuasions

  1. 1. Buddhist Association of Canada<br />Cham Shan Temple<br />加拿大佛教會 湛山精舍 禪修學佛入門 <br />Introduction to <br />Buddhism and Meditation<br />2011/04/30<br />
  2. 2. Buddhist Association of Canada<br />Cham Shan Temple<br />ná mó fó tuó<br />南 無 佛 陀<br />Namo Buddha<br />ná mó dá mó <br />南 無 達 摩<br />Namo Dharma<br />ná mó sēng qié<br />南 無 僧 伽 <br />Namo Sangha<br />
  3. 3. Buddhist Practice and Cultivation in Four Lines<br />1 Take refuge in the Three Treasures of the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.<br />2 Earnestly cultivate the Three Perfections of Morality, Calmness, and Wisdom. <br />3 Shed the Three Poisons of Greed, Anger and Delusion.<br />4 Purify the Three Karmas of Action, Speech and Thought.<br />
  4. 4. Buddhist Practice and Cultivation in Four Lines<br />皈依佛法僧(三寶) <br />勤修戒定慧(三學)<br />息滅貪瞋癡(三毒)<br />清淨身口意(三業)<br />
  5. 5. Basic Terms<br />5 aggregates (skandhas)<br />4 elements<br />6 sense organs, 6 sense objects, 6 sense consciousness<br />12 links of causation (nidāna)<br />4 noble truths and 8 fold path<br />6 paramitas <br />4 persuasions<br />3 / 5 vehicles<br />10 realms<br />
  6. 6. The Six Chán Patriarchs<br />It would be useful to understand the social context of the rise of Chán. After the Han Dynasty (漢朝), China had a fairly long period of civil unrest between 220 and 589CE, and was split into many small, ever changing kingdoms, which were roughly divided into north and south regions. It was one of the few occasions that China is split like this. The formal split amplified their differences and polarized the northern and southern cultures on one hand. However, the juxtaposition of the cultures also grew into an integrated, synergistic environment. This was the China that Bodhidharma came to. <br />At the time, religion, especially Buddhism, met the needs of desperate, war torn people. The northerners were influenced by nomadic habits and social mores, whereas the southerners were influenced by the farming sphere. Confucian order, personal discipline, and vigorous sitting meditation, were popular in the north. In the south, however, Daoism, free-spirited naturalism, and Sutra study had the edge. The relatively peaceful and economically advantaged situation in the south provided fertile ground for merit accumulation practice while the ascetic practices in the north produced breath-taking artistic achievements like the Dunhuang grotto. <br />
  7. 7. The Six Chán Patriarchs<br />There was large scale migration of nobles, artisans and refugees due to endless wars and famines. Many ethic groups were intermixed as well as international exchanges were fairly common. Bodhidharma and other Indian monks were welcome as well as Koreans were seeking Chán teachers. Buddhism, being very tolerant and powerful, addressed and rehabbed people’s plights and sufferings. It thrived both in the north and south for its encompassing teaching. <br />There was large scale migration of nobles, artisans and refugees due to endless wars and famines. Many ethic groups were intermixed as well as international exchanges were fairly common. Bodhidharma and other Indian monks were welcome as well as Koreans were seeking Chán teachers. Buddhism, being very tolerant and powerful, addressed and rehabbed people’s plights and sufferings. It thrived both in the north and south for its encompassing teaching. <br />
  8. 8. The Six Chán Patriarchs<br />Hóngrěn was born after such turmoil when the Sui and Tang Dynasties reintegrated China into one Empire. All the early Patriarchs worked tirelessly to adapt and integrate the teaching one way or the other. The rise of Shenxui in the north and Huineng in the south can be viewed in similar context, as well as later, the unification of Chán by the school of Huineng. These reflect the long and complex development and integration of Chán from an Indian tradition to a Chinese tradition. Chán is a harmonized integration of the unfathomable wisdom of Buddhism with two highly developed civilizations. Buddhism is very encompassing and tolerant, and flourishes despite such challenging and complex environment. <br />
  9. 9. Story of Bodhidharma​, the First Patriarch of Chán​ (?-535, 初祖菩提達摩)<br />Two Entrances:<br />Through Study<br />Through Practices<br />Four Practices:<br />报怨行 Retribution of enmity<br />随缘行 Acceptance of circumstances<br />无所求行 Absence of craving<br />称法行 Accordance with the Dharma<br />LaṅkāvatāraSūtra (楞伽經)<br />
  10. 10. Story of Huì​kě​, the Second Patriarch of Chán​ (487-593, 二祖神光慧可)<br />Huì​kě​: “Can you tell me the mind seal of the Buddhadharma?” Bodhidharma: “The mind seal of Buddhadharma cannot be obtained from others.” Huì​kě​: “My mind is not at ease. Can the Venerable pacify it?” Bodhidharma: “Give me your mind and I shall pacify it.” Huì​kě​: “I cannot find the mind upon searching.” Bodhidharma: “I have finished pacifying your mind.”<br />He was awaken that “unease”, “mind” are all delusions. He stayed and served Bodhidharma for six (some say nine) years. He received the transmission of the bowl and robe from Bodhidharma and later transmitted them to the Third Patriarch Sēngcàn (僧璨). He went to Yèdū (邺都) and taught for 34 years. Sometimes he changed robes and taught at any opportunities. Sometimes he went to bars and slaughter houses, or talked street talks and worked with laborers.  People in all directions followed his words and took refuges. <br />
  11. 11. Story of Huì​kě​, the Second Patriarch of Chán​ (487-593, 二祖神光慧可)<br />His Chán style is based on the LaṅkāvatāraSūtra (楞伽經, léngqiéjīng). He  emphasized the importance of sitting meditation and the cultivation of the mind instead of endless debates on words.  His method gave the cartwheel of the Chán school momentum which has carried it through to our time.<br />
  12. 12. The Third Chán​ Patriarch Jianzhi Sēngcàn​ (506-606, 三祖鑑智僧璨大師)<br />According to Vietnamese tradition, Sēngcàn also had a student monk from India, Vinitaruci who started the Chán (Thiền in Vietnamese) teaching in Vietnam in 580 upon patronized by a Minister in Guangdong, China.<br />There is no record about the Chán style of Sēngcàn except the famous XìnxīnMíng (Inscription on Faith in Mind, 信心铭) which continues to make a big impact on the development of Chán despite being a very short verse. Not only does it illustrate the level of the Patriarch’s awakening, it also established the right understanding and right view for Chán cultivators. Every line has great benefit and many cultivators use it as a training guide. It is translated in the next section.<br />
  13. 13. The Fourth Chán​ Patriarch DàyīDàoxìn (580–651, 四祖大醫道信大師)<br />Actually, our feeling of pressure and stress is not caused by the outside world, but by our own mind. We feel not free because our mind is inverted and deluded. That is, the mind is stuck scheming, discriminating, and grasping. If we can break through such delusions, realizing that they come from nowhere and go nowhere, without any essence whatsoever, then we would find ourselves free from their bindings - liberated right there and then. If our mind is not free, we are not at ease no matter where we go. The matter of liberation has to do with the mind and nothing about the outside world.<br />
  14. 14. The Fourth Chán​ Patriarch Dàyī Dàoxìn (580–651, 四祖大醫道信大師)<br />The teachings of Dàoxìn are recorded as The Expedient Means of Entering the Way and Easing the Mind (入道安心方便法門) contained within the compendium The Record of the Masters and Disciples of the Lankavatara Sutra (楞伽師資記). It teaches about Single Mode Samadhi, (一行三昧, skt. ekavyuha-samadhi ), True Mark Repentance, Practice both Samadhi and Vipasyana, Mutual dependence of Theory and Practice, Focus on One without Moving (守一不移). He also wrote The Way of the Bodhisattva Precepts (菩萨戒法) which is now lost.<br />
  15. 15. The Fourth Chán​ Patriarch Dàyī Dàoxìn (580–651, 四祖大醫道信大師)<br />His Chán style is a significant milestone in the following ways:<br />The teaching is based on the Lankavatara Sutra. “All the different Dharmas are destinated in the same spot. All the wonderful virtues are source from the mind (百千法门, 同归方寸; 河沙妙德, 总在心源。).” He included more Sutras in his teachings, which can be seen as the precursor to the subsequent tradition of utilizing the Diamond Sutra in lieu of the Lankavatara Sutra. <br />Emphasized sitting meditation. <br />Teach expedient means to enter the Way such as Mindfulness of the Buddha, Chanting Buddha’s name. “Buddha is the mind. Outside of the mind there is no Buddha (离心无别有佛, 离佛无别有心; 念佛即是念心, 求心即是求佛。)”<br />Re-integrated Chán practice back with the Vinaya practice.<br />
  16. 16. The Fourth Chán​ Patriarch Dàyī Dàoxìn (580–651, 四祖大醫道信大師)<br />Re-integrated Chán practice back with the Vinaya practice.<br />The first Chán master to replace the wandering ascetic practice with a stable monastic community-style living which drew a large number of followers. The Chán monastery is a self-sustaining farm, which differs greatly from other Teaching or Vinaya monasteries (which are patronized by royalties or the laity). This self-sustaining lifestyle helped the Chán school survive and thrive throughout centuries of political and social turmoil, ever enduring, ever practicing.<br />Chán practice extends beyond seating meditation to the daily duties as well, and became a central theme in Chán teachings. <br />
  17. 17. The Fifth Chán Patriarch Dàmǎn Hóngrěn (601-674, 五祖大满弘忍大師)<br />Hóngrěn’s teaching, compared with his earlier generations for a selected few, he taught in a much larger and more diverse group. With such a following, the sustainability and organization of the Chán monastery, now called the Fifth Patriarch Temple (五祖寺), was already a very significant achievement. <br />Hóngrěn’s teaching was compiled as the Treatise on the Essentials of Cultivating the Mind, (修心要論) by his followers. It follows similar Chán traditional teaching based on Lankavatara Sutra. As with his teacher Dàoxìn, he increased the elements of Prajna and recommended the Diamond Sutra as well as many other Sutras also. <br />
  18. 18. The Fifth Chán Patriarch Dàmǎn Hóngrěn (601-674, 五祖大满弘忍大師)<br />The main theme of his teaching is first and foremost to guard the true mind which is the root of nirvana, the gate to the Way, the principle of the Tripitaka, the Master of all Buddhas. The practice is to guard the single mode, the true mind, the pure mind. He emphasized the traditional insight into the mind, but also taught the expedient means of insight into purity for integrating the Pureland trend. He emphasized guarding the true mind first, then practice Bodhisattva path as well as ascetically like wearing worn cloth, eating rough and pretending dumb. Otherwise, it is very unwise.<br />
  19. 19. The Sixth Chán Patriarch Dàjiàn Huineng (638-713, 六祖大鑒慧能大師)<br />One day, a customer bought some firewood and had me deliver it to his shop, where he took it and paid me. As I was leaving the shop, I saw a man/customer/guest reciting a sutra. As soon as I heard the words of the sutra my mind was awaken. I then asked the person what sutra he was reciting, and he said, ‘The Diamond Sutra.’<br />
  20. 20. The Sixth Chán Patriarch DàjiànHuineng (638-713, 六祖大鑒慧能大師)<br />Shenxiu:<br />The body is the Bodhi tree; <br />The mind is like a stand of bright mirror. <br />Be always diligent in swiping it; <br />Do not let it attract any dust.<br />Huineng:<br />Originally, there is no Bodhi tree; <br />Nor any stand of bright mirror. <br />Originally, there is not a single thing, <br />Where could any dust be alight?<br />
  21. 21. The Sixth Chán Patriarch Dàjiàn Huineng (638-713, 六祖大鑒慧能大師)<br />How unexpectedly, the self-natures are originally pure. <br />How unexpectedly, the self-natures are originally neither born nor ceased. <br />How unexpectedly, the self-natures are originally self-sufficient. <br />How unexpectedly, the self-natures are originally without movement. <br />How unexpectedly, the self-natures are able to generate everything.<br />Diamond Sutra<br />Sudden Teaching <br />
  22. 22. Meditation禪修<br />Towards a<br />Liberated and<br />Enlightened Life<br />煩惱輕智慧長<br />
  23. 23. Symbols<br />Monk – Meditator<br />Winding path – toward equilibrium, enlightenment<br />Turbulent river – Distractions<br />Grey monkey – restless mind<br />Grey Elephant – Dullness mind<br />Rabbit – laziness<br />White – the mind is stabilizing<br />Ax/Hook – Vigilance, detect distractions,<br />Rope – Mindfulness, continual awareness<br />Raging fire – tremendous effort<br />
  24. 24. Nine Stages of Calming Abiding 九住心<br />Placement - Monk chasing elephant and monkey 內住<br />Fixation with some continuety續住<br />Patch-like placement 安住<br />Close placement or Good fixation 近住<br />Becoming disciplined 調順<br />Pacifying or becoming peaceful 寂靜<br />Fully pacifying 最極寂靜<br />Becoming single-pointed 專住一趣<br />Fixed absorption or meditative equipoise 等持<br />
  25. 25. Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment (Samatha – Calm Abiding)<br />How to train our monkey mind?<br />Use tools to progress in nine stages of calming abiding i.e. mindfulness and vigilance<br />Use methods discribed in “Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment” by Atisha.<br />To be successful in calm abiding and the perfectly concentrated, you need to begin with six collections of causes/conditions.<br />
  26. 26. Six Collection of Causes/Conditions to Samatha<br />Abiding in a harmonious or a conducive place<br />To have few desires<br />To be content<br />To be free of the hustle and bustle of a lot of different activities.<br />To be able to protect well whatever resolution one has taken. ["pure morality" or moral discipline.] <br />Reduce one’s attachment to objects of desire. <br />
  27. 27. Four Ways of Persuasion 四攝- Giving (Dana)布施<br />For those poor and disabled, a Bodhisattva helps them with money in order to satisfy their basic need. <br />For those who have no skill to work, a Bodhisattva teaches them to work in society, to earn a living without relying on the financial support from others. <br />For those who live in despair, fear and anxiety, a Bodhisattva takes care of them, and encourage them to overcome any difficulties encountered. <br />By giving, a Bodhisattva will get acquaintance with the sentient beings, so that he can reveal and show them the ways to liberation. <br />
  28. 28. Four Ways of Persuasion - Affectionate Speech (Priyavacana)愛語<br />A Bodhisattva has to be neat and gentle in appearance, good and pure in conduct, kind and sincere in speech. A Bodhisattva with Right Speech will be respected. <br />If the sentient beings have done something good, a Bodhisattva will praise and encourage them to continue. <br />If the sentient beings are in fear, despair and anxiety, a Bodhisattva will say a few words to comfort them. <br />If the sentient beings have evil thoughts or perform evil deeds, a Bodhisattva will give them advices to stop doing so. <br />A Bodhisattva respects others, listens carefully to what they say, and understands their problems and needs. In this way, a Bodhisattva can persuade them with appropriate words in an appropriate manner. It is known as affectionate speech. <br />
  29. 29. Four Ways of Persuasion - Beneficial Actions (Arthakrtya)利行<br />A Bodhisattva always performs in such a way to benefit others in order to save them from suffering. As a Bodhisattva has no discrimination among all sentient beings, he/she is always humble and ready to serve and help. <br />A Bodhisattva always has an equal mind of kindness and compassion to benefit all sentient beings of all races, ranks, social position, rich or poor. <br />A Bodhisattva does not mind the praises or the blames from others for his/her beneficial actions, because it is the nature of a Bodhisattva to do so. <br />
  30. 30. Four Ways of Persuasion - Co-operation (Samanartharta)同事<br />The best way of teaching is to lead by example. A Bodhisattva cannot alienate the sentient beings. He/she should always live, work, study with the sentient beings, in order to understand them and to develop the friendship and trust. <br />A Bodhisattva should also co-operate with sentient beings in cultivating the Buddhist Way. <br />
  31. 31. Questions and Comments 討論<br />www.ChamShanTemple.org<br />www.shengguangshi.blogspot.com<br />ShengguangShi@hotmail.com<br />Shengguang Shi 釋聖光<br />Tom Cheung 張相棠<br />Kam Cheung 張仁勤<br />Dennis Yap 葉普智<br />