About The Kyoto conference was organised in 1977 so as to reach agreements onreducing emissions. Governments promisedto reduce emissions of carbon-based gases below 1990 levels by 2012.
The Kyoto Protocol is an internationalagreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on ClimateChange(UNFCCC ), which aims to fight against global warming.
The Kyoto conference for climate changeThe Kyoto protocol, which follows theUnited Nations Framework Convention onClimate Change, is one of the chiefinstruments to tackle climate change. Itcontains the commitments undertaken bythe industrial countries meant to reducetheir emissions of certain gases whichcause the greenhouse effect and whichare responsible for global warming. Thetotal emissions of the developed countriesare to be reduced over 2008-2012 periodto an average of five percent against 1990levels.
In Kyoto, the European Union agreed to cutemission by 8 %, Japan by 6%, and USA by7%. At the conference Britain declared that itwas one of the few countries to havereduced its emissions but critics asked if thiswas due to the govermental policy or thedecline in the coal industry. The EUreminded the USA ( the world‘s biggestpolluter, producing 24% of the world‘semissions) that it had not met its targets.The USA firmly denied the fact, makingexcuses and asked why the targets were sounrealistic.
This conference is an important steptowards tackling the climate changes,because it provides some obligatory andestablished quantity plans how to limit andreduce the gasses that cause greenhouseeffect by cutting down emissions.
The Protocol suggests various means of attaining these objectives: stepping up or introducing national policies to reduce emissions (greater energy efficiency, promotion of sustainable forms of agriculture, development of renewable energy sources, etc.); cooperation with the other Contracting Parties (exchange of experience or information, coordination of national policies through issueing the emission permits, implementing joint projects of clean development mechanism).
World countries and the Kyoto conference: ██ Countries with binding targets ██ Developing countries without binding targets ██ States not Party to the Protocol ██ Signatory country with no intention to ratify the treaty ██ Countries that have denounced the Protocol
192 countries participating in the negotiation agreedthat the attempt to keep the climate change in safelimit includes radical reduction in emissions. The mainelement of the negotiation is an acknowledgementthat actions have to be taken by developed anddeveloping countries, considering their economicsituation. Although according to the Kyoto conferenceonly developed countries were committed to reduceemissions, it was acknowledged long time ago that itwould not be enough, especially having in mind theestimations, that emission of developing countries by2020 will exceed the one in developed countries.
The Kyoto protocol came into operation onthe 16th of February, 2005, on the ninetiethday after the protocol was ratified by Russia,whose CO² emissions reach 17,4 % of totalworld’s amount. In this way the condition ofthe Kyoto Protocol, according to which theProtocol has to be ratified by at least 55UNFCCC countries with not less than 55 %in all the CO² emission within this group,was accomplished.
Mechanisms The Kyoto Protocol provides three mechanisms, on the basis of which the countries that are listed in the Protocol’s annex I must implement their obligations in order to reduce CO2 discharging into the atmosphere. The latter countries’ obligations may be implemented using these mechanisms: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Joint Implementation (JI) International Emissions Trading (IET)
Joint Implementation (JI)It is an agreement between two countries, on the basis of which some countries (companies)invest into the projects carried out by anothercountry if these projects aim to reduce CO2discharge in specific sources of pollution in thatcountry. As a reward, the investing country getsemission reduction units from the projectdeveloping county.
International Emissions Trading (IET) It is an agreement between two countries on the basis of which companies of the first country buy corporate pollution allowances from the second country. The point of this mechanism is very similar to the aforementioned. The difference between these two mechanisms is that in this case one country does not invest but it buys the corporate pollution allowances from the other country.
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)It is an agreement,on the basis of whichone country invests into theimplementation of projects carried out bythe country which isn’t included in TheProtocol annex. Because of that, the firstcountry gets emission reduction units.
The main value of these mechanisms is that the investments in pollution reduction areattained in the areas that can use them most effectively.
Countries distribution Member-countries of the convention are divided into three categories: Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (40 states) . These are developed countries and those which are in transition towards the market economics, which are required to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. Annex II Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (23 states) include developed countries which provide support to developing countries. Developing Countries include the rest of the countries, which are exempted from the requirements.
Greenhouse effect It is a process because of which the infrared radiation absorbed by the atmosphere warms the planet. This effect was discovered by the French mathematician and physicist Joseph Fourier in 1824. Later, in 1896, it was further studied by Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius. The name comes from an analogy with the relative heat preservation in greenhouses.
Regulated gasesThese greenhouse gases are regulated by the KyotoProtocol:Carbon dioxideMethaneNitrous oxideHydrofluorocarbons PerfluorocarbonsSulfur hexafluoride
Kioto protocol and Lithuania In accordance with the Kyoto Protocol, Lithuania, as well as the EU, committed to reduce the emissions of the greenhouse gases by 8% below 1990 levels in the period from 2008 to 2012. In 1990 the amount of emissions into the atmosphere in Lithuania was around 50 million tons, and in 2004 it was around 17 million tons, so it is believed that the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol will be met.
In 2005 in Lithuania (the 13th state of the EU), the Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Inventory started working. Emissions trading allows you to raise money by investing in efficient technologies, exploitation of renewable energy resource.
What is soil pollution?Soil pollution is described as theconcentration of substances, that areharmful to living organisms and disruptingthe natural processes in the soil.
Soil contamination Factors1. Soil contamination with heavy metals.2. Pesticide remains in the soil.3. The elution of biogenic substances.4. Industrial and energy companies.5. Gases emitted by transport.
The impact of heavy metals Heavy metals are the metals that have the density higher than 5 g/cm³ . More than 40 chemical elements are described as heavy metals. Out of those, the most dangerous ones to living organisms are: Hg, Pb, Cd, Ar, V, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni. Majority of these chemical elements come into the soil from the atmosphere in which they occur during the natural biosphere phenomena (volcanic eruption) and because of the anthropogenic activities (fertilized fields, deposition of industrial emissions, etc.).
Usage of pesticides Fertilizers are one of the strongest agricultural tools to regulate the substance metabolism. By spraying the fields with pesticides people not only increase the yield, but they also harm themselves. Pesticides, that reduce the amount of pests, not only harm the soil, but also bug-eating birds and humans. Toxicologists warn, that pesticides can cause mutations in genes, weaken the immunosystem and cause other health problems
Industrial pollution Industrial plants are among the most polluting factors. Every year they emit millions tons of harmful substances, that have a significant negative impact on the soil. Industrial and energy objects emit around 152 thousand tons of pollutants, chemical and oil processing companies emit around 54 thousand tons, the construction and building materials industry emits around 53 thousand tons of waste. Their emissions cause both soil degradation processes and acid rains.
How does the waste get into the soil? With rainfall. With the industrial dust. With the vehicle exhaust gases. Wiyh the waste water. While fertilizing.
Acid rain Big damage to the soil is caused by acid rains, which include sulfur, salts and nitrogen acids. These substances are emitted into the atmosphere by transport, industrial companies and volcanoes. Every year, by average, around 40-45 kg/km2 sulfates and around 15-20 kg/km2 nitrates come down with the rainfall. Most of those compounds are brought by air masses from the developed Western European countries. These compounds increase the acidity of the soil, which slows down the mineralisation of substances. When the pH is below 3 the soil becomes barren and not suitable for agriculture and living organisms.
Pollution of soil in LithuaniaLithuanian soil is one ofthe cleanest soils inEurope, based on theinformation from thegeochemical atlas ofEurope and the amountof heavy metals in thesoil. The soil in Lithuaniais 3 to 6 times cleanerthan in Western Europe.
The reasons of the meeting Increased air polution; Rapid climate change.
Qatar meeting Climate change threat is growing, and world leaders failed to findsolutions to how to combat it, this topic is getting more attention. Atthe UN Climate Change Conference in Doha, Qatar governmentshave taken the next essential step in the global response to climatechange. Countries have successfully launched a new commitmentperiod under the Kyoto Protocol, agreed a firm timetable to adopt auniversal climate agreement by 2015 and agreed a path to raisenecessary ambition to respond to climate change. They alsoendorsed the completion of new institutions and agreed ways andmeans to deliver scaled-up climate finance and technology todeveloping countries. Governments have agreed to speedily worktoward a universal climate change agreement covering all countriesfrom 2020, to be adopted by 2015, and to find ways to scale upefforts before 2020 beyond the existing pledges to curb emissionsso that the world can stay below the agreed maximum 2 degreesCelsius temperature rise.
Objectives of the meeting To extend the validity of the Kyoto Protocol; Take a step further towards a global agreement between the parties on climate change; To speed up assistance to developing countries in order to enable them to join this global struggle .
What is the water? Water is the most common compound on Earth. Thehydrosphere occupies 71% of the Earth’s surface.
The types of water pollution Bacterial pollution of water, wich is defined by Koli index (amount of E. coli rods in one liter of water); Mechanical pollution of water (when sand, gravel or soil get into the water); Thermal pollution of water (when warm water get into the water); Chemical pollution of water is the most dangerous (when petroleum products, industrial and household wastewater, fertilizers get into the water).
Reduction means of pollution First of all we should realize the means of water saving; Installations of wastewater biological cleaning construction. Improvement and reconstruction of existing installations; Installation of the vascular systems in industry. Reduction of amount of pollution in technological processes; Tidy houses, farmsteads, companies and public places; Moderate and clever usage of mineral fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides; Avoid to built reservoirs of wastewater accumulation in farmsteads.
T he most important consequences of water pollution The deterioration of human health and the decline in the average age of the population. Increasing risk of epidemic outbreaks. The construction of water treatment stations are getting more expensive. Some flora and fauna species are really poor or even tend to disappear. Open bodies of water are unsuitable for human recreation purposes. Cities are becoming unattractive to potential investors, there is increasing unemployment and crime, occurs dissatisfaction with local authorities and institutions (eg Kaunas). There is a growing need for funds for water recovery and their adaptation to human needs. Creates an intolerable and unjustifiable economic life of the countrys image - to live at the expense of future generations.
The Baltic Sea and its pollution The Baltic Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean, which is deeply interfered in the northern part of Europe.Its contamination results from the fact that it is an internal sea, and it is not cleansed by the ocean and also due to the fact that the Baltic Sea washes the shores of nine industrialized countries. Moreover, after the Second World War, a lot of military waste went to the bottom of the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea pollution has become a global problem.