Hungary’s hydrography• Hungary is rich in underground waters. The Carpathian Basin is the closest or the most trapped basin on the earth and Hungary is located in the deepest point of it. Waters flow here from 3 directions and continue their ways to the south.• There is 12000 m3 water for each person in Hungary. But we do not have to worry about water resources because Hungary is among the first countries in Europe to have enough water supply.
• The quality of water is reasonably good that is why 90 % of the water consumption of our country is supplied from underground water. This water hardly needs any complicated purifying processes.• The pollution of underground water is mainly of natural origin. Some water soluble substances can get into the water (arsenic, iodin, several gases..) Pollution caused by human activities is a bigger problem because purifying needs an even more expensive technology.
Drinking water and mineral water• Bottled water business is very successful throughout Hungary. Most consumers consider that the quality of bottled water is better than running, tap water, but 95% of the households in Hungary have piped running water. Hungarians prefer sparkling mineral water to still water.
Supply of drinking water• The town sewage plant supplies drinking water to consumers, bought from Capital City Waterworks, via network of pipes rented from Dunaharaszti Council and leased equipments.• Many kits ensure the safe supply on the whole length of water network and in case of failure, the kits allow the quick repair under the least restriction.
Alternative water sources• Formerly people collected rain-water in barrels, and drilled wells. They watered the garden with ground- water. These alternative water sources gain ground nowadays.
Water sources near Dunaharaszti• Dunaharaszti and the surrounding territory are rich in waters. Actually, it is situated by the river Danube. Ground-water is high so there are a lot of small fishing lakes and mine lakes around. Drinking water comes from Budapest.
• Budapest has been the capital of spas since 1934.• In the Roman times the city of Aquincum was connected by the thermal waters of the territory.• Thermal baths were built in the 16th century during the Turkish invasion. Some of these still exist. There are 15 thermal baths in Budapest and several luxury hotels also maintain their own thermal spas.
Sewage drainage• Sewage generated during the usage of drinking water must be drained, cleaned in order not to infect the environment.• Ecological system balance of our living water would be tilted if sewage containing organics, pathogens and various solid contamination were flown without cleaning.• For some consumers, sewage is collected and led by various-diameter canals into the sewage plant. Sewage flows gravitationally where topography allows. In many cases, pumps in pumping stations must be used to ensure the appropriate pressure for flowing inside the sewage canals.
Wastewater treatment• First at sewage plants, big solid contamination is filtered by grids then arenaceous contamination is elutriated.• Then sewage’s organic material is removed by sludge biological cleaning. After the mechanical and biological purification, in particular cases chemical purification is needed which targets the removal of present vegetal nutrients ( phosphor, nitrogen compounds ) in the water.• The last purifying phase is the disinfection when micro-organisms left in the sewage must be destroyed by using disinfectant.
• At the end of the purifying procedure, quality-water is formed which is not drinking water-clean but this can be let into our living waters without danger.• Sewage sludge formed during wastewater treatment must be dehydrated first step because only 1-3 % of this is dry material, the rest is water. The leachate formed during dehydrating is led back to the beginning of the cleaning treatment. The dehydrated sewage sludge is composted and is used for soil melioration in agriculture under controlled circumstances.
Wastewater treatment in pictures...The sewage plant in Dunaharaszti
Consumption of water in our group Min. Max. AverageDrinking / 3l 4l 3,5 lCookingWashing-up 4l 7l 5,5 lCleaning 5l 10 l 7,5 lHand washing 10 l 15 l 12,5 l(repeteadly)Showering / 40 l 100 l 70 lBathingWashing 20 l 40 l 30 lToilet flushing 20 l 40 l 30 lOur group’s consumption of water ( litre / person / day): 159 l