Taiwo's chapter 2 presentation


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Taiwo's chapter 2 presentation

  2. 3. What are Lungs ? <ul><li>The lungs are a vital organ in our body, located in our chests. These pairs of cone-shaped breathing organs bring oxygen into our body and releases carbon dioxide. It is very important to make sure that they are functioning accurately because our life depends on it. Each lung is made up of lobes. </li></ul><ul><li>The left lung has 2 lobes and the right lung has 3. A hin membrane called pleura surrounds the lungs. Lungs are protected by rib-cage. Beneath the lungs is a dome-shaped muscle called diaphragm, that works with lungs allowing us to inhale (breath the air in) and to ex-hale (breath the air out). </li></ul>
  3. 4. What do your Lungs do? <ul><li>Your lungs do a vital job. Each day, you take about 23,000 breaths, which bring almost 10,000 quarts of air into your lungs. The air that you breath in contains several gases, including oxygen, that your cells need to function. With each breath, your lungs add fresh oxygen to your blood, which then carries it to your cells. The main function of your lungs is respiration. </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Mechanics of Breathing
  5. 6. What is Respiration? <ul><li>Respiration is the process of oxygen from incoming air entering the blood, and carbon dioxide, a waste gas from the metabolism of food leaving the bloodPrimary function is to obtain oxygen for use by body's cells & eliminate carbon dioxide that cells produce </li></ul><ul><li>Includes respiratory airways leading into (& out of) lungs plus the lungs themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Pathway of air: nasal cavities (or oral cavity) > pharynx > trachea > primary bronchi (right & left) > secondary bronchi > tertiary bronchi > bronchioles > alveoli (site of gas exchange) </li></ul>
  6. 7. The flow of air from the nose to the lungs <ul><li>The nose is a PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR and is also a sensory organ. It warms and moistens air, and hair like processes (cilia) filter the air before it reaches the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The pharynx or &quot;throat&quot; is a funnel shaped tube acting as a passage way for air and food. The lowest portion of the pharynx joins the esophagus (food tube). </li></ul><ul><li>The larynx or &quot;voice box&quot; is lined with mucous membrane, two folds of membrane divide the larynx in two, between these is the GLOTTIS which is the narrowest part of the air passage. The glottis is protected by a lid of fibro cartilage (the EPIGLOTTIS), this closes over the glottis when you swallow. </li></ul><ul><li>The trachea or &quot;windpipe&quot; is a tube composed of cartilage and lined with mucus membrane lying in front of the esophagus. The trachea diverges into the right and left bronchi. </li></ul><ul><li>The bronchi are &quot;C&quot; shaped rings of cartilage lined with ciliated mucus membrane that 'sweeps' out dust particles. The bronchi branch into SECONDARY BRONCHI as they enter the lungs, these further divide into BRONCHIOLES. As the secondary bronchi and bronchioles divide the walls become thinner and more elastic, branching into minute ALVEOLI which transfer gases in the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The lungs are the main organ of respiration. In the lungs millions of ALVEOLI and blood Capillaries exchange Oxygen and carbon dioxide. Each lung is housed in a separate PLEURAL CAVITY (which in turn are located in the larger THORACIC CAVITY). PLEURA are SACS of membrane that line the pleural cavity to lessen friction caused by breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>The diaphragm is the main muscle of respiration located at the base of the thoracic cavity. The muscle contracts and flattens so that the thorax and lungs have room for incoming air causing you to INHALE, it then relaxes causing you to EXHALE. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Diseases that affect the Lungs <ul><li>Mesothelioma and asbestosis are diseases that affect the lungs. They are caused inhalation of asbestos. </li></ul><ul><li>Common infectious diseases of the lung include pneumonia , tuberculosis , lung cancer , cystic fibrosis , and emphysema . </li></ul><ul><li>A pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic Beryllium Disease is a serious and sometimes fatal lung disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Silicosis is very serious and sometime fatal lung disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Black Lung Disease is a disease that often affects coal miners. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Medical Terminology related to lungs <ul><li>Roots, Suffixes, and Prefixes </li></ul>rhinoplasty = cosmetic surgery, a 'nose job'. nose Rhino- pneumonia = severe infection of the lungs. lung / Air PNEUM- pulmonary metastases = lung secondaries. lung PULMO- laryngitis = inflammation of the larynx. larynx LARYNG- Bronchoscope = instrument to examine the bronchi. bronchi BRONCH- dyspnea = difficult or painful breathing. breath PNEA- anosmia = lack of the sense of smell. lack of A- example meaning component
  9. 10. LUNGS REFERENCES <ul><li>Medical Terminology: A Living Language 4 th Edition. Fremgen & Frucht. Pearson Education. Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mamashealth.com/organs/lungs.asp </li></ul><ul><li>www.wikipedia.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/lungs-article.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.medicinenet.com/lungs/focus.h </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm11.htm#term </li></ul>