Pathogens, immunity & inflammations


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Pathogens, immunity & inflammations

  1. 1. Pathogens, Immunity & Inflammations<br />By<br />TemitopeOlubode<br />
  2. 2. Pathogens<br />Definition<br />A pathogen is any organism that causes a disease in another organism.<br />
  3. 3. Types of Pathogens<br />Viruses- which cause chicken pox<br /> Bacteria- which cause food poisoning<br />Fungi - which cause ringworm, athlete’s foot, and Oral thrush.<br />
  4. 4. How Pathogens are spread<br />Contact with bodily fluids<br /> Ingesting undercooked food <br /> Swimming in contaminated water<br /> Personal contact thru Saliva, feces, intercourse and unsanitary practices<br />
  5. 5. Control of Pathogens<br />Pathogens can be controlled by<br />Sterilization- Complete removal of all pathogens<br />Disinfection- Inhibition of pathogens by disinfectant <br />Antisepsis -Inhibition of pathogens on living surface by antiseptic<br />Antibiotic-An agent that is used to kill pathogens inside the host<br />Body, (naturally produced by some microbes)<br />
  6. 6. Inflammation<br />What is inflammation?<br />Inflammation is the body's basic response to injury.<br />
  7. 7. Signs of inflammation<br />Inflammatory reactions are characterized by 5 distinct sign<br />Pain- due to chemical released by damaged cells<br />Edema- due to influx of fluid into damaged region<br />Redness- due to expansion of the blood vessels<br />Heat- due to increase in blood flow<br />Imperative function- due to increased swelling and pain<br />
  8. 8. Stages of inflammatory reaction<br />Tissue injury- Damage that occurs during trauma<br />Release of Chemicals – Histamine Prostrogladins , Kinins<br />Leukocyte migration- Macrophages and Neutrophils- They neutralize and engulf harmful bacteria and ingest them<br />
  9. 9. Tissue healing<br />Collagenation- Wound healing, Occurs toward inflammatory process<br />Revascularization- Damaged area forms new capillaries for blood in the region<br />Proliferation- Which lasts up to 4 weeks<br />Remodeling - New cell mould to produce a functioning tissue<br />
  10. 10. Immunity<br />What is immunity?<br />Immunity - protection from disease and especially infectious disease. <br />Cells and molecules involved in such protection constitute the immune system<br />The response to introduction of a foreign agent is known as the immune response.<br />
  11. 11. Types of immunity<br />Innate or natural immunity- Made up of several components<br />Physical barriers are the first line of defense against infection.E.g.The skin and mucous membranes<br />Physiological factors-such as pH, temperature and oxygen tension limit microbial growth<br />Protein secretionssuch as lysozyme also help resist microbial invasion. <br />Molecules such a C-reactive protein are of considerable importance in protection against infection. <br />
  12. 12. Types of Immunity<br />Adaptive or acquired Immunity- <br /> Develops to meet the specific needs brought about by an individual’s circumstances. <br />Constantly evolves its capacity to defend the body against pathogens.<br />Strengthened as a result of exposure to diseases<br />Vaccinations also facilitate the adaptive system’s efficiency<br /> Leukocytes, commonly known as WBC are the dedicated agents of acquired immunity<br />
  13. 13. Types of Immunity<br />Adaptive immune system can be broken down into two components:<br />Humoral immunity- involves the production of immunoglobins (antibodies) by B cells in response to bacteria and viruses.<br />Cell-mediated immunity- involves the production of immunoglobins by T cells in response to virus-infected cells. <br />
  14. 14. References<br /><br /><br /><br />