José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda
his life and works
Dr. Jose Rizal is a unique example of many splendored genius
who become the greatest hero of nation. Endowed by God with
versatile gifts , he truly ranked with the worlds genius. He was a
surgeon.), poet, dramatist, novelist, surveyor, engineer, magecian and
The Birth of the Hero
Jose Rizal was born on the moonlit night of Wednesday, June 19 1861
in the lakeshore of town of Calamba, Laguna Province , Philippines.
His mother almost died during the delivery because of his big head.
He was baptized in the catholic church of his town on June 22 aged
three days old, by the parish priest, Father Rufino Collantes, who was a
His god father was father pedro casanas
His name Jose was chosen by his mother who was a devotee of the
Christian Saint San Jose.
Francisco Mercado Rizal (1818-1898)
- Father of Jose who was the youngest of 13 offspring of Juan and Cirilia Mercado.
- Born in Binan Laguna on April 18, 1818.
-Studied in San Jose College Manila anD died in manila.
Teodora Alonso (1827-1913)
Mother of Jose who was the second child of Lorenzo ALONSO and Brijilia de Quintos.
She studies at Collegio de Santa Rosa.
She was business minded woman, courteous, religious and hardworking.
She was born on Santa Cruz Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in manila.
EARLY CHILDHOOD MEMORIES
Happy days in family garden when he was three years old.
He remembered his aya (nurse maid) a kind old woman who was
employed to look after him.
Daily Angelus Prayer.
When he was four years old , his sister Conception died and
considered his first sorrow.
Rizal made a pilgrimage to Antipolo to fulfill the vow made by his
mother to take the child to the shrine of the Virgin of Antipolo.
At the age of eight he wrote his firsy poem entitled “Sa Aking mga
E A R LY E D U C AT I O N I N
C A L A M BA
Rizals first teacher was his mother, who was remarkable woman
with a good character and fine culture.
His parents employed private tutors to give him lessons at home.
The first one was Maestro Celestino and the second was Maestro
He was brought by Paciano to the School of Maestro Justiniano
T H E T R AV E L’ S O F R I Z A L
Disillusioned with how Filipinos in the Philippines were regarded as second-class citizens in institutions of
learning and elsewhere, the National Hero Jose Rizal left the country in May 1882 to pursue further studies
abroad. He enrolled in a course in medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid in Spain. In June 1883, he
traveled to France to observe how medicine was being practiced there
After his three-month sojourn in France, Rizal returned to Madrid and thought about publishing a book that
exposed the colonial relationship of Spain and the Philippines. This idea was realized in March 1887, with the
publication of the novel Noli Me Tangere in Germany.
Rizal was actively involved in the Propaganda movement, composed of Filipinos in Spain who sought to
direct the attention of Spaniards to the concerns of the Spanish colony in the Philippines. He wrote articles for
publications in Manila and abroad; convened with overseas Filipinos to discuss their duty to the country; and
called on Spanish authorities to institute reforms in the Philippines, such as granting freedom of the press and
Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes.
Rizal returned to Manila in August 1887, after five years in Europe. However, his homecoming
was met by the friars’ furor over Noli Me Tangere. The Archbishop of Manila issued an order banning
the possession and reading of the novel, an order that was later reinforced by the governor-general.
Six months later, pressured by the Spanish authorities as well as by his family and friends to leave the
country and avoid further persecution, Rizal left Manila for Hong Kong.
From Hong Kong, Rizal traveled to Macau and Japan before going to America. Entering San
Francisco, California, in April 1888, he visited the states of
Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Nebraska, Illinois, and New York. He jotted down his observations of the
landscape in his diary.
Rizal arrived in England in May 1888. In August, he was admitted to the British Museum, where he
copied Antonio de Morga’s massive study of the Philippines, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, which
Rizal later annotated for publication “as a gift to the Filipinos.” In the museum he devoted his time
reading all the sources on Philippine history that he could find. He kept up his correspondence with
various people, including his family, who were being oppressed by the Spanish religious landowners;
the Filipino patriots in Spain; and his Austrian friend, Ferdinand Blumentritt, with whom he planned
to form an association of Philippine scholars. From 1888 to 1890 he shuttled between London and
Paris, where he wrote ethnographic and history-related studies, as well as political articles. He also
frequently visited Spain, where he met with fellow Filipino intellectuals like Marcelo H. del
Pilar, Mariano Ponce, and Graciano Lopez-Jaena.
In March 1891, Rizal finished writing his second novel, El Filibusterismo, in France. He
planned to publish the book in Belgium, but was financially hard up. His brother’s support from
back home was delayed in coming, and he was scrimping on meals and expenses. Finally, in
September 1890, El Filibusterismo was published in Ghent using donations from Rizal’s friends.
Meanwhile, a rivalry had ensued between Rizal and del Pilar over the leadership of the
Asociación Hispano Filipino in Spain. Rizal decided to leave Europe to avoid the worsening rift
between the Rizalistas and Pilaristas, and to help maintain unity among Filipino expatriates. After
staying for some time in Hong Kong, where he practiced medicine and planned to build a “New
Calamba” by relocating landless Filipinos to Borneo, Rizal came home to the Philippines in June
WOMEN WHO LINKED
SEGUNDA KATIGBAK: RIZAL'S FIRST LOVE
Jose Rizal was only a young boy of sixteen (16) when he first fell
in love, and it was with Segunda Katigbak, a girl from
Lipa, Batangas and two years his junior. According to Rizal, "She
was rather short, with eyes that were eloquent and ardent at times and languid
at others, rosy-cheeked, with an enchanting and provocative smile that revealed
very beautiful teeth, and the air of a sylph; her entire self diffused a
When Rizal was a sophomore at the University of Santo Tomas and was boarding in the
house of Dona Concha Leyva in Intramuros he met Leonor "Orang" Valenzuela, his next-
door neighbor and daughter of Capitan Juan and Capitana Sanday Valenzuela. She was a tall
girl who carried herself with grace and elegance.
Exchanging Love Notes
Rizal was always welcome at the Valenzuela home. He eventually courted Leonor by sending
her love notes, which he wrote in invisible ink made from a mixture of water and table
salt. He taught Leonor how to read his letters by heating them over a lamp or a candle to allow
the words to surface.
Unfortunately, as with his first love, Jose failed to ask for the lady's hand in marriage.
LEONOR RIVERA :
THE FIRST ENGAGEMENT
Leonor Rivera was a young lady from Camiling, and a cousin of Jose Rizal. Leonor's father had
provided room and board in Casa Tomasina, Intramuros for Rizal when the youth was still starting his third
year at the university. The young girl was then a student at La Concordia College where Soledad, Rizal's
little sister was also studying.
A Secret Relationship
Leonor was "tender as a budding flower with kindly, wistful eyes." She and Rizal eventually became
engaged. In her letters, she signed her name as "Taimis" in order to hide their intimate relationship from
the girl's parents.
In the autumn of 1890, however, Rizal received a letter from Leonor telling him of her coming
marriage to a man whom her mother chose to be her mate -- an Englishman -- and begged for his
forgiveness. This broke Rizal's heart deeply.
CONSUELO ORTIGA Y
In 1882, when Rizal was a student at the Universidad Central de Madrid, he frequented the home of Don Pablo
Ortiga y Rey, the former city mayor of Manila. He lived with his son Rafael and his daughter Consuelo.
Taken by Charm
Rizal, though he wasn't a handsome man, possessed a great deal of charisma and was gifted with many talents and
a deeply noble character. For this reason, it is of no surprise that Consuelo, the prettier of Don Pablo's
daughters, was very taken with him.
Being lonely and somewhat isolated in a foreign country, Rizal found comfort in Consuelo's vivacious
company. He wrote her a poem entitled A La Senorita C.O. y P. (To Miss C.O.y P.), in which he expressed his great
admiration for the lady.
Rizal's romance with Consuelo did not turn into a serious affair; he decided to take a step back for two
reasons: first, he was still engaged to Leonor Rivera at that time; and second, he was aware of his friend's (Eduardo
de Lete) affection for the girl and he did not want to ruin their friendship over her.
O-SEI-SAN: LOVE AT
When Rizal was in Tokyo a few days after he had moved to the Azabu district in 1888, he spotted a pretty
Japanese girl walking past the legion gate. He was captured by the lady's regal air and charisma and endeavored to find
ways to meet her. The girl's name was Seiko Usui. She lived with her parents and often took afternoon walks by the
legation. Rizal waited by the gate one afternoon and introduced himself.
Rizal and O-Sei-San, as he fondly called her, met almost daily. They toured the beautiful city spots, enjoyed the
scenery, and visited the picturesque shrines. Rizal was then a lonely young physician, disillusioned by his frustrated
romance with Leonor Rivera and burdened by soured hopes for justice in his country. O-Sei-San provided the
beautiful escape that he deeply needed, and he saw in her the qualities of his ideal woman. He was her first LOVE.
Because of his deep affection for her, Rizal was almost tempted to settle down in Japan. Conveniently enough, he
was also offered a good position at the Spanish Legation during that time. Rizal, however, had set his sights on other
matters. He decided to leave Japan and forget his romance, which pained him gravely as attested by an entry in his
diary. His 45-day sojourn in Japan was one of the happiest interludes in his life.
G E RT RU D E B E C K E T T: A
C H I S E L E D B E AU T Y
In May 1888 Rizal visited London for a short time, boarding the house of the Beckett family: Mr.
& Mrs. Beckett, their two sons, and their four daughters. The eldest daughter was named Gertrude.
Gertrude was a buxom young lady with blue eyes and brown hair. She fell in love with Rizal and
gave him all of her attention during the family picnics and gatherings. When Rizal stayed indoors
during rainy days painting and sculpting, she helped him mix his colors and prepare his clay.
Rizal enjoyed her company. Eventually their flirtatious friendship drifted towards a blossoming
romance. He affectionately called her "Gettie," and in return she called him "Pettie.“
Rizal withdrew before his relationship with Gettie could become more serious, realizing that he
had a greater mission to fulfill and that in order to accomplish it he could not yield to the option of
marrying her. He suppressed the yearnings of his heart and decided to leave so that the lady may
forget him. Before he did, however, he finished a number of sculptural works, one of which was a
carving of the heads of the Beckett sisters.
S U Z A N N E J A C O B Y: A L OV E
Suzanne fell in love with Rizal, and wept when he left for Madrid in July 1890. She wrote to him in
"Where are you now? Do you think of me once in a while? I am reminded of our tender conversations, reading your
letter, although it is cold and indifferent. Here in your letter I have something which makes up for your absence. How pleased I
would be to follow you, to travel with you who are always in my thoughts.
You wish me all kinds of luck, but forget that in the absence of a beloved one a tender heart cannot feel happy.
A thousand things serve to distract your mind, my friend; but in my case, I am sad, lonely, always alone with my thoughts -nothing, absolutely nothing relieves my sorrow. Are you coming back? That's what I want and desire most ardently -- you cannot
I do not despair and I limit myself to murmuring against time which runs so fast when it carries us toward a separation, but
goes so slowly when it's bringing us together again.
I feel very unhappy thinking that perhaps I might never see you again.
Goodbye! You know with one word you can make me very happy. Aren't you going to write to me?"
NELLIE BOUSTEAD: A
FA I L E D
n 1891, Rizal took a vacation in Biarritz in order to find reprieve from his troubles in Madrid. He was a guest of the
Boustead family in their winter residence, Villa Eliada. Mr. and Mrs. Boustead had two beautiful daughters, Adelina
After having lamented his frustrated romance with Leonor Rivera on account of the lady's engagement to another
man, Rizal came to develop considerable affection for Nellie, the prettier and younger daughter of Mr. Eduardo
Boustead. He found her to be intelligent, morally upright, and full of life. Rizal wrote to his closest friends about
his intention to marry her
Rizal's friends were delighted to hear that he had found a suitable girl whom he at last wished to settle down
with. Even Antonio Luna, who had previously loved Nellie, encouraged Rizal to court her and ask for her hand in
marriage. With all the encouragement from the friends he held dear, Rizal wooed Nellie (also called Nelly) who, in
turn, returned his affections.
Rizal's marriage proposal failed for two reasons: first, Nellie demanded that he give up his Catholic faith and convert
to Protestantism, which was her religion. Rizal did not like this idea. Second, Nelly's mother did not approve of
Rizal, as she had no desire to entrust her daughter to a man who was wanting in wealth and persecuted in his own
country. In spite of the circumstances, Rizal and Nellie parted as good friends.
J O S E P H I N E B R A C K E N : T RU E
L OV E I N E X I L E
Rizal's exile in Dapitan was one of the most lonesome and sorrowful periods of his life. He missed the company of his
friends and family, and the death of Leonor Rivera on August 28, 1893 left a gaping void in his heart.
osephine Bracken arrived at the shores of Dapitan accompanying her blind adoptive father, Mr. George Taufer. No
ophthalmologist in Hong Kong, their home country, could cure the man's blindness and so they sought the services of the
famous Dr. Jose Rizal.
Rizal and Josephine fell in love at first sight. Their romantic interlude went on for about a month, after which they decided to
marry. The priest of Dapitan, however, refused to conduct the ceremony without consent from the Bishop of Cebu.
When Mr. Taufer heard of his daughter's plan to marry he became so enraged at the thought of losing Josephine that he
attempted to kill himself with a razor to his throat. Rizal prevented this tragedy by holding the man's wrists back. Josephine left
with her father on the first available steamer to Manila in order to avoid more trouble. Since Mr. Taufer's blindness was venereal
in nature, it was incurable.
Mr. Taufer went back to Hong Kong alone, and Josephine stayed in Manila with Rizal's family. At length, she returned to
Dapitan. Since no priest would marry them, Rizal and Josephine held hands, exchanged vows, and married themselves before
Rizal and Josephine lived together in Dapitan as husband and wife, and in early 1896 they were expecting a
baby. Unfortunately, Josephine had to go into premature labor after Rizal played a prank and frightened her. A little boy of eight
months was born, who lived for only three hours. Rizal named him Francisco in honor of his father, and buried the child in
After five years of memorabale sojourn in europe , he returned to the philipines
Decision to returned home:
• To operate his mothers eyes.
• To serve his people who had long been oppressed by spanish tyrants.
• To find out for himself how the Noli and his writings were affecting filipinos and
spaniards in the philippines.
• To inquire why Leonor Rivera remained silent.
T WO FA M O U S B O O K S
Noli Me Tángere (Touch me Not / Don't touch me) is a
novel written by José Rizal, the national hero of the
Philippines, during the colonization of the country by
Spain to expose the inequities of the Spanish Catholic
priests and the ruling government. The title, in Latin
meaning Touch me not, refers to John 20:17 in the Bible
(King James Version) as Mary Magdalene tried to touch
the newly risen Jesus, He said "Touch me not
; for I am not yet ascended to my Father." Early
English translations of the novel used titles like An Eagle
Flight (1900) and The Social Cancer
(1912), disregarding the symbolism of the title, but the
more recent translations were published using the original
Latin title. It has also been noted by French writer D.
Blumentritt that “Noli me tangere” was a name used by
ophthalmologists for cancer of the eyelids. That as an
ophthalmologist himself Rizal was influenced by this fact
is suggested in his dedication, “To My Country”.
El Filibusterismo (lit. Spanish for "The
Filibustering"), also known by its English alternate title The
Reign of Greed, is the second novel written by Philippine
national hero José Rizal. It is the sequel to Noli Me Tángere
and, like the first book, was written in Spanish. It was first
published in 1891 in Ghent, Belgium.
The novel's dark theme departs dramatically from the
previous novel's hopeful and romantic atmosphere, signifying the
character Ibarra's resort to solving his country's issues through
violent means, after his previous attempt at reforming the
country's system have made no effect and seemed impossible with
the attitudes of the Spaniards towards the Filipinos. The novel
along with its predecessor were banned in some parts of the
Philippines as a result of their portrayals of the Spanish
government's abuse and corruption. These novels along with
Rizal's involvement in organizations that aim to address and
reform the Spanish system and its issues led to Rizal's exile to
Dapitan and eventual execution. Both the novel and its
predecessor, along with Rizal's last poem, are now considered
Rizal's literary masterpieces
O RG A N I Z AT I O N S
Goals Specifically, the Propagandists aims were:
he Propaganda Movement was a literary and
Representation of the Philippines in the Cortes
cultural organization formed in 1872 by Filipino
Generales, the Spanish parliament;
émigrés who had settled in Europe. Composed of
Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students
attending Europe's universities, the organization
Secularization of the clergy;
Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality;
Creation of a Public school (government funded)public
school system independent of the friars;
aimed to increase Spanish awareness of the needs
Abolition of the polo (labor service) and vandala (forced sale
of its colony, the Philippines. Its prominent
of local products to the government).
members included José Rizal, author of Noli Me
Guarantee of basic freedoms of speech|speech and Freedom
Tangere (novel) and El Filibusterismo, Graciano López
Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter
Jaena, publisher of La Solidaridad, the movement's
principal organ, Mariano Ponce, the organization's
Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain;
secretary and Marcelo H. del Pilar.
Secularization of Philippine parishes;
Recognition of human rights
La Solidaridad (The Solidarity) was an organization
created in Spain on December 13, 1888. Composed of
Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending
Europe's universities, the organization aimed to increase
Spanish awareness of the needs of its colony, the
Philippines, and to propagate a closer relationship
between the colony and Spain.
Headed by José Rizal's cousin, Galicano Apacible, it
also issued a newspaper of the same name which was
published in Barcelona, Spain on February 15, 1889. It
was edited by Graciano López Jaena and later on by
Marcelo H. del Pilar. The newspaper published not only
articles and essays about the
economic, cultural, political, and social conditions of the
country, but also current news, both local and foreign, and
speeches of prominent Spanish leaders about the
LA LIGA FILIPINA
La Liga Filipina was a civic organization founded by
the Philippine National Hero, Jose Rizal in July 3, 1892 in
Tondo, Manila. As the founder and consultant of the said
organization, Rizal also prepared the Constitution of La
Liga Filipina (La Constitución de La Liga Filipina). The
constitution was partly printed in London, at the London
Printing Press, No. 25 Khulug St. in both Spanish and
Tagalog. But in Retana's account of The Liga in Nuestro
Tiempo, he stated that the constitution of La Liga Filipina
was printed in Hong Kong, when in fact, the constitution
was indeed printed in Hong Kong. The London printing
was deliberately mentioned so as to mislead the Spanish
authorities. Rizal sent a copy of the draft to Jose
Basa, who later had it printed and smuggled to the
E X I L E I N DA P I TA N
Rizal was implicated in the activities of nascent rebellion so he was deported to Dapitan.
In Dapitan he built a school, hospital, and a water supply system.
RIZALS FINAL HOURS
-Rizal washes up , takes breakfast , attend to his personal needs.
-He writes a letter to his parents, read bible and meditates.
Facing the firing squad who will kill him, Rizal still had a normal pulse.
When he was shot, he still managed to face the morning sun. His last
words were “ Consummatum” it is finished.