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International PR & Information Technology Jamal Nassar 2013


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A course on International Public Relations and role of Technology and Social Media.

Published in: Business, Technology
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International PR & Information Technology Jamal Nassar 2013

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL PR & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 24-28 August 2013 Trainer Jamal Nassar
  2. 2. International PR & Information Technology
  3. 3. International PR & Information Technology • What is PR • History of PR • Current Issues • The Industry • Need for PR • Functions of PR • Components of PR • Global PR
  4. 4. Definitions of Public Relations • “The art and social science of analysing trends, predicting their consequences, counselling organisational leaders, and implementing planned programs of action which will serve both the organisation and public interest”. (Newsom et al., 2000, 2) • “Public relations is about reputation – the result of what you do, what you say and what others say about you”. (CIPR, 2009) (Tench & Yeomans, 2009, 6-7)
  5. 5. What is PR • Image – the way a multinational corporation relates to and is perceived by its key constituents • Public relations is the marketing communications function charged with executing programmes to earn public understanding and acceptance (Czinkota & Ronkainen, 2007, 599)
  6. 6. What is PR • PR is a global occupation • PR is a product of economic and political circumstances • PR is used in a wide range of industries • PR is about image • All organisations need PR • PR is about managing communication • PR is about building relationships
  7. 7. Starbucks – Reputation Survey 44% say Starbucks serves the best tasting coffee 33% say McDonald’s serves the most reasonably priced coffee 46% say Starbucks acts in the most socially responsible way 66% want the chunky white mugs to stay 47% believe high street chains threaten independent coffee shops 46% say the logo redesign is a waste of money Source: (2011) Starbucks stays on top, PR Week, 21 January, pp24-25
  8. 8. Internal Public Relations • Internal communication is important to create an appropriate corporate culture • A basic part of most internal programmes is the employee publication • Other media include e-mails, films, videotapes, slides, video conferencing, booklets, manuals and handbooks (Czinkota et al., 2011, 548)
  9. 9. External Public Relations • External public relations (marketing public relations) is focused on the interactions with customers • Marketers are concerned about establishing global identities to increase sales, differentiate products and services, and attract employees • External campaigns can be achieved through the use of corporate symbols, corporate advertising, customer relations programmes, and publicity (Czinkota et al., 2011, 548)
  10. 10. History William Seward, Lincoln's secretary of state in 1861, gained a large American audience through his understanding of how to use the press. He told his friend Jefferson Davis (they were friends before the war): "I speak to the newspapers – they have a large audience and can repeat a thousand times what I want to impress on the public.” • H. S. ADAMS wrote the first magazine article about public relations in 1902 when American Review published "What Is Publicity?" • Public relations became a profession in 1903 • With the rise of the wealth and business in the early 19th century PR started to flourish as new profession.
  11. 11. Top News of 2012
  12. 12. Public Relations Who is the Public? & Where is the Public?
  13. 13. Publics/Stakeholders • Customers • Suppliers • Distributors • Government • Regulators • Pressure groups
  14. 14. Publics/Stakeholders • Employees • The financial community • Media • Local community • General public
  15. 15. Publicity • Publicity is the non personal stimulation of demand that is not paid for by a sponsor which has released news to the media • A company has less control over how the message will be used by the media • Methods include contribution of prizes, sponsorship of activities, release of news about the company’s product, plant, and personnel, and announcements about the promotional campaign (Onkvisit & Shaw, 2009, 520)
  16. 16. Publicity • Publicity is the securing of editorial space to further marketing objectives • The public perceives it as more trustworthy than advertising • With growing and evolving technology, consumers can find or initiate topics of interest and engage in online discussions that strongly affect their and others’ views • The public relations function can be handled in-house or with the assistance of an agency (Czinkota et al., 2011, 549)
  17. 17. Ways to Segment Publics • By geographics – where they live, work • By demographics – age, gender, income • By psychographics – attitudes, interests, opinions • By group membership – e.g. clubs, societies, parents • By overt and covert power – e.g. religious leader, information gatekeeper • By role in decision process, e.g. financial manager, CEO (Tench & Yeomans, 2009, 185)
  18. 18. What is Strategy? • The direction that the organisation chooses to follow in order to fullfil its mission (Bennett, 1996) • A plan as a consciously intended course of action • A ploy as a specific manoeuvre intended to outwit an opponent or competitors • A pattern representing a stream of actions • A position as a means of locating an organisation in an environment • A perspective as an integrated way of perceiving the world (Mintzberg et al, 1998) (Oliver, 2007, 2)
  19. 19. Strategy • A communications strategy is the grand plan, the who, why, what, where, when and how to achieve the stated objectives • Change is constant and the strategy will need to be flexible enough to evolve as different situations arise • Prioritise audiences and agree the desired response • PR objectives are nearly always achieved by influencing someone either to take action or not to take action
  20. 20. Raising Visibility Public Relations Activities Publicity Corporate communications Exhibitions and conferences Sponsorship Media relations Public speaking Events
  21. 21. Raising Visibility Public Relations Activities Customer relations Special events Lobbying Research Community relations Crisis management Financial relations
  22. 22. Table 2.1 Example of how public relations activity may be structured at various stages of the organisational lifecycle Source: Tench & Yeomans, 2009, 25
  23. 23. What do PR People do? • Corporate PR • Media Relations • Internal communications • Business-to-Business • Public affairs • Community relations • Investor relations • Strategic Communication
  24. 24. PR Trends 2012 Mobile Consumer Strategy Engagement On 24/7 Search for Social Media Metrics Free Media Top Trends 2012 Integrating Digitally Power of Consumer In House Social Media Contents Instant Marketing
  25. 25. The Industry
  26. 26. Industry Bodies Council of PR Firms Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) International PR Association (IPRA) PR Consultants Association (PRCA) Institute of Public Relations
  27. 27. Large PR companies The Top Ten PR companies in 2001 were the following, ranked % Fee Change by revenues 2012 from Firm Net Fees Empl. 2011 $655,900,289 4,518 +12.4 121,800,000 606 +1.0 118,426,000 939 +2.2 4. W2O Group, San Francisco 62,005,000 262 +30.0 5. Ruder Finn, New York 56,148,000 485 -2.5 6. MWW Group, East Rutherford, NJ 42,875,000 207 +11.0 7. ICR, Norwalk, CT 36,554,283 97 +14.0 8. DKC, New York 32,896,560 154 +22.0 9. Finn Partners, New York 32,293,000 233 +35.8 29,500,000 102 flat 1. Edelman, New York 2. APCO Worldwide, Wash., D.C. 3. Waggener Edstrom Worldwide, Bellevue, WA 10. Qorvis Communications, Wash., D.C. Source:
  28. 28. PR Services  Crisis Management  Issues Management  Branding and Marketing  Public Affairs/Lobbying  Reputation Management/Corporate PR  Investor Relations/Financial PR
  29. 29. Public/Govt. PR Public relations role in government: The Government public relations contributes to: • 1. Implementation of public policy. • 2. Assisting the news media in coverage of government activities. • 3. Reporting the citizenry on agency activities. • 4. Increasing the internal cohesion of the agency. • 5. Increasing the agency’s sensitive to its public’s. • 6. Mobilization of support for the agency itself.
  30. 30. Why do we need PR • Identity Management Mission & Vision • Brand Management Brand Value • Communicate with External world Media • Enhance Community Role CSR • Crisis Management Take Responsibility • Enhance Credibility Building Trust
  31. 31. Functions of PR Public Opinion Counseling Management Programs of Actions & Communication Public Policy Media Relations • Analyze • Anticipate • Interpret • Policy Decision • Communication • CSR • Finance & Funds Raising • Employees and Community • Government Relations • Recruiting & Budgeting, • Planning and Setting Objectives • Implementation Efforts • Develop Public Trust
  32. 32. Components of PR • Research: You have to thoroughly understand not only your company but also your customers and potential customers. What do you offer that is unique or special? What are customers looking for? And how well do you fill those needs? Market research and an internal company audit are the starting points of successful PR campaigns. • Strategic planning: Define each target audience, your marketing objectives for that group, and the messages you must communicate in support of those marketing objectives. • Publicity: For most small businesses, the central public relations activity is publicity — getting visibility for your products, the company, and the owners in print and broadcast media. You can think of publicity as management and placement of information in the media for the purpose of protecting and enhancing a brand or reputation. Simply put, this means getting ink and airtime.
  33. 33. Components of PR • Community relations: You probably see examples every day. Here's one that's been repeated in several different locations: Local citizens protest a big retail chain that wants to build a store in their town, because the new construction would wipe out a popular wooded area. That chain has a community relations problem in that town, and the PR professional's job is to find a favorable solution that will get the store built while preserving the store's goodwill with the citizens. • Government relations: Community relations often involves relations with the local government, and PR people are often called upon to help companies improve their relationships with local, state, federal, and even foreign governments. • Internal relations: Employees are the internal audience. When the unemployment rate is low, good employees are hard to find, and a good public relations program job can help improve loyalty and retain more of them.
  34. 34. Components of PR • Investor relations: With the incredible stock market volatility of 2000, or more recently, the events of September 11, 2001, and the hurricanes in 2005, citizens have seen how emotion and public perception have the power to send stock prices soaring or plummeting. Investor relations is the aspect of PR that communicates the company story to stock analysts and other financial professionals. • Stakeholder relations: A stakeholder is anyone or any organization that holds a stake in how well your company performs. A key vendor is a stakeholder; rumors that you are financially shaky may cause them to restrict your credit terms. Other key stakeholders can include top consultants, board members, your bank, suppliers, sales representatives, distributors, and industry gurus. • Charitable causes: When a company gives to charity, it wants to help the cause, but it also wants to be recognized for its contribution. PR specialists can help you get maximum publicity and goodwill from the time, effort, and funds you donate. • Communications training: In large corporations, PR specialists may spend a lot of time coaching senior executives in dealing with the media and other communications skills. The specialists may also advise the executives on strategy for day-to-day PR as well as PR crises.
  35. 35. Making it Newsworthy Boston University Launches Bike Safety Initiative Boston University and Mayor Menino Launch Bike Safety Initiative In aftermath of tragic accident, Boston University and Mayor Menino Launch Bike Safety Initiative
  36. 36. Global PR • The world is a global village • Political shift towards democracy • Global & international standard • Borderless PR • Increased transparency • Spread of Multinational, international, and global corporations • Operating internationally: “thinking global, acting local”
  37. 37. Types of Public Relations Writing Media Advisory: • Alerts the media to an upcoming event or announcement. • Explicitly calls out who, what, where, and when. Press Release: • Used for announcements, stories, or results • • • Quote from expert or company representative. Full details of announcement and implications. Includes information about where to learn more Pitch: • Outreach to a specific journalist based on his or her interests or beat. Less formal, more personal. Public Statement: • Used when the public seeks a response or position from you.
  38. 38. Components of a traditional press release FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: These words should appear at the top left of the page, in upper case Headline City, State/Country - Month Day, Year Body Quotes: Insert approved quotes from relevant individuals Company/organization info (Boilerplate) Include any background information about the company or organization featuring in this press release. ###
  39. 39. Example
  40. 40. PR Program 1. PR Component 2. PR objective 3. Develop PR strategies 4. Develop PR program
  41. 41. COMPONENT 1. Public Relations Objective 2. Communication program 3. Content / message development 4. Media Co-ordination 5. Impact / Result monitoring
  42. 42. PUBLIC RELATIONS OBJECTIVE • S (Specific) • M (Measurable) • A (Achievable) • R (Realistic) • T (Time Limited) Example “Objective: To immunize two million child of the state above the age of 3 and below the age of 5 during the period of August 15 to August 30 to avert the Polio. Evaluation: Success of the program can be determined by the actual number immunized.”
  43. 43. Develop PR strategies For effective implementation of the Public Relations objective a Public Relations strategy is to be evolved. The process of strategy starts with planning which consist of: a. Determining Key results area b. Define roles c. Selecting and setting objectives d. Preparing action plans relating to programming, scheduling, budgeting, fixing accountability and establishing rules and procedures. Rice and Paisley suggest the guidelines for planning a successful campaign. i. Assessment of the needs, goals and capabilities of target audiences. ii. Systematic campaign planning and production iii. Continuous evaluation
  44. 44. PUBLIC RELATIONS PROCESS Research Listening Planning & Decision Making Communication –Action Evaluation
  45. 45. PR Process • What are the objectives in influencing public opinion? • What are the alternative avenues of action for attaining them? • What are the risks in taking each avenue? • What are the potential benefits in each?
  46. 46. PR Process  What are the potential consequences beyond each?  Which avenue do we choose to take?  What should be the structure of a proposal to proceed on the course chosen embodying the projects and programs we want to carry out?  In what form do we present our proposal to best advantage for approval? To whom?  What is the minimum commitment in support and participation acceptable from administration if the plan is to go forward and succeed?
  47. 47. Planning & Designing a PR Program
  48. 48. PR Crisis Management
  49. 49. Code of Ethics - PRSA
  50. 50. PR Disaster & Crisis Management • Ford introducing a car named PINTO in Brazil, which is the slang for “ tiny male genitals”… big embarrassment , so they renamed the car CORCEL, meaning “ horse”. • Colgate introduced a toothpaste in France called Cue, the name of a notorious French porno magazine.
  51. 51. what is crisis? • from the Greek word krinein meaning “to decide” • “turning point for better or worse” – Fink, S. •
  52. 52. Timothy Coombs: 7 Crisis Communication Strategies Defense • Attack the accuser • Denial • Excuse • Justification Accommodative • Ingratiation • Corrective action • Full apology
  53. 53. How does Company X perform?
  54. 54. Timeline 15 JA N 16 JA N 17  Tesco comments from Tim Smith, Group Technical Director on FSAI beef survey  UK national press reported horse meat scandal online at 10pm  Scandal erupted everywhere- radio, television, newspaper and SOCIAL MEDIA  Philip Clarke, Tesco CEO, posted a blog about TRUST on website at 6:39pm  Tesco gave out an apology statement at 7:33pm JA N  Tesco took out full-page ads in UK national newspapers to apologise for selling beefburgers that contained horsemeat … …  A tweet from Tesco Customer Care @UKTesco created buzz during the night 30  Tesco put out the statement on investigation into meat contamination JA N 6 FE B  Findus beef lasagne was found 100% horse meat  Tesco withdrew all frozen product from the French food supplier Comigel
  55. 55. 1. Respond quickly, openly and informatively to media • “The initial response represents the first public statements the spokesperson makes about the crisis...It also builds the organisation’s credibility.” • “A quick response also helps to create the impression of control.” -W. Timothy Coombs
  56. 56. 2. Communicate sincerely, responsibly and considerately to customers
  57. 57. *Source:
  58. 58. Set up centralised information centre Choose channels to disseminate info. • “Effective crisis management tries to move a crisis out of the media.” -Higbee • “Once stakeholders have the facts, particularly the cause of the crisis, audience curiosity and interest would fade…So the media loses its newsworthiness.” -W. Timothy Coombs
  59. 59. CASE STUDY
  60. 60. 4. Other parts of business need to be considered! *
  61. 61. Result
  62. 62. PR Strategic Plan
  63. 63. Public Relations & Information Technology
  64. 64. What is Social Media
  65. 65. PR 2.0 • Instant • Global • Free publicity • Campaign can be turned into disaster (McdonalndsStories#) • Social Media is a strategy • Managing Social Media
  66. 66. Social Media
  67. 67. Managing Social Media Plan Review Measure Strategize Integrate your Digital Identity Analyze Integrate your Communication
  68. 68. Analyzing
  69. 69. Measure
  70. 70. Growth