International PR & Information Technology
• What is PR
• History of PR
• Current Issues
• The Industry
• Need for PR
• Functions of PR
• Components of PR
• Global PR
Definitions of Public Relations
• “The art and social science of analysing trends, predicting
their consequences, counselling organisational leaders,
and implementing planned programs of action which will
serve both the organisation and public interest”.
(Newsom et al., 2000, 2)
• “Public relations is about reputation – the result of what
you do, what you say and what others say about you”.
(Tench & Yeomans, 2009, 6-7)
What is PR
• Image – the way a multinational corporation relates to and
is perceived by its key constituents
• Public relations is the marketing communications function
charged with executing programmes to earn public
understanding and acceptance
(Czinkota & Ronkainen, 2007, 599)
What is PR
• PR is a global occupation
• PR is a product of economic and political circumstances
• PR is used in a wide range of industries
• PR is about image
• All organisations need PR
• PR is about managing communication
• PR is about building relationships
Starbucks – Reputation Survey
44% say Starbucks serves the best tasting coffee
33% say McDonald’s serves the most reasonably priced coffee
46% say Starbucks acts in the most socially responsible way
66% want the chunky white mugs to stay
47% believe high street chains threaten independent coffee
46% say the logo redesign is a waste of money
Source: OnePoll.com (2011) Starbucks stays on top, PR Week, 21 January, pp24-25
Internal Public Relations
• Internal communication is important to create an appropriate
• A basic part of most internal programmes is the employee
• Other media include e-mails, films, videotapes, slides, video
conferencing, booklets, manuals and handbooks
(Czinkota et al., 2011, 548)
External Public Relations
• External public relations (marketing public relations) is focused on
the interactions with customers
• Marketers are concerned about establishing global identities to
increase sales, differentiate products and services, and attract
• External campaigns can be achieved through the use of corporate
symbols, corporate advertising, customer relations programmes,
(Czinkota et al., 2011, 548)
William Seward, Lincoln's secretary of state in 1861, gained a large American
audience through his understanding of how to use the press. He told his friend
Jefferson Davis (they were friends before the war):
"I speak to the newspapers – they have a large audience and can repeat a
thousand times what I want to impress on the public.”
• H. S. ADAMS wrote the first magazine article about public relations in 1902 when
American Review published "What Is Publicity?"
• Public relations became a profession in 1903
• With the rise of the wealth and business in the early 19th century PR started to
flourish as new profession.
Who is the Public?
Where is the Public?
• Pressure groups
• The financial community
• Local community
• General public
• Publicity is the non personal stimulation of demand that is not
paid for by a sponsor which has released news to the media
• A company has less control over how the message will be used
by the media
• Methods include contribution of prizes, sponsorship of activities,
release of news about the company’s product, plant, and
personnel, and announcements about the promotional campaign
(Onkvisit & Shaw, 2009, 520)
• Publicity is the securing of editorial space to further marketing
• The public perceives it as more trustworthy than advertising
• With growing and evolving technology, consumers can find or initiate
topics of interest and engage in online discussions that strongly affect
their and others’ views
• The public relations function can be handled in-house or with the
assistance of an agency
(Czinkota et al., 2011, 549)
Ways to Segment Publics
• By geographics – where they live, work
• By demographics – age, gender, income
• By psychographics – attitudes, interests, opinions
• By group membership – e.g. clubs, societies, parents
• By overt and covert power – e.g. religious leader,
• By role in decision process, e.g. financial manager, CEO
& Yeomans, 2009, 185)
What is Strategy?
• The direction that the organisation chooses to follow in order to fullfil
its mission (Bennett, 1996)
• A plan as a consciously intended course of action
• A ploy as a specific manoeuvre intended to outwit an opponent or
• A pattern representing a stream of actions
• A position as a means of locating an organisation in an environment
• A perspective as an integrated way of perceiving the world
(Mintzberg et al, 1998)
(Oliver, 2007, 2)
• A communications strategy is the grand plan, the who,
why, what, where, when and how to achieve the stated
• Change is constant and the strategy will need to be
flexible enough to evolve as different situations arise
• Prioritise audiences and agree the desired response
• PR objectives are nearly always achieved by influencing
someone either to take action or not to take action
Public Relations Activities
Public Relations Activities
Table 2.1 Example of how public relations activity may be structured at various
stages of the organisational lifecycle
Source: Tench & Yeomans, 2009, 25
What do PR People do?
• Corporate PR
• Media Relations
• Internal communications
• Public affairs
• Community relations
• Investor relations
• Strategic Communication
Council of PR Firms
Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)
International PR Association (IPRA)
PR Consultants Association (PRCA)
Institute of Public Relations
Large PR companies
The Top Ten PR companies in 2001 were the following, ranked
% Fee Change
4. W2O Group, San Francisco
5. Ruder Finn, New York
6. MWW Group, East Rutherford, NJ
7. ICR, Norwalk, CT
8. DKC, New York
9. Finn Partners, New York
1. Edelman, New York
2. APCO Worldwide, Wash., D.C.
Waggener Edstrom Worldwide, Bellevue,
10. Qorvis Communications, Wash., D.C.
Public relations role in government:
The Government public relations contributes to:
• 1. Implementation of public policy.
• 2. Assisting the news media in coverage of government
• 3. Reporting the citizenry on agency activities.
• 4. Increasing the internal cohesion of the agency.
• 5. Increasing the agency’s sensitive to its public’s.
• 6. Mobilization of support for the agency itself.
Why do we need PR
• Identity Management
Mission & Vision
• Brand Management
• Communicate with External world
• Enhance Community Role
• Crisis Management
• Enhance Credibility
Functions of PR
Programs of Actions
• Policy Decision
• Finance & Funds Raising
• Employees and Community
• Government Relations
• Recruiting & Budgeting,
• Planning and Setting Objectives
• Implementation Efforts
• Develop Public Trust
Components of PR
• Research: You have to thoroughly understand not only your company but also your customers and
potential customers. What do you offer that is unique or special? What are customers looking for?
And how well do you fill those needs? Market research and an internal company audit are the
starting points of successful PR campaigns.
• Strategic planning: Define each target audience, your marketing objectives for that group, and the
messages you must communicate in support of those marketing objectives.
• Publicity: For most small businesses, the central public relations activity is publicity — getting
visibility for your products, the company, and the owners in print and broadcast media. You can think
of publicity as management and placement of information in the media for the purpose of protecting
and enhancing a brand or reputation. Simply put, this means getting ink and airtime.
Components of PR
• Community relations: You probably see examples every day. Here's one that's been
repeated in several different locations: Local citizens protest a big retail chain that wants to
build a store in their town, because the new construction would wipe out a popular wooded
area. That chain has a community relations problem in that town, and the PR professional's
job is to find a favorable solution that will get the store built while preserving the store's
goodwill with the citizens.
• Government relations: Community relations often involves relations with the local
government, and PR people are often called upon to help companies improve their
relationships with local, state, federal, and even foreign governments.
• Internal relations: Employees are the internal audience. When the unemployment rate is
low, good employees are hard to find, and a good public relations program job can help
improve loyalty and retain more of them.
Components of PR
• Investor relations: With the incredible stock market volatility of 2000, or more recently, the events
of September 11, 2001, and the hurricanes in 2005, citizens have seen how emotion and public
perception have the power to send stock prices soaring or plummeting. Investor relations is the
aspect of PR that communicates the company story to stock analysts and other financial
• Stakeholder relations: A stakeholder is anyone or any organization that holds a stake in how well
your company performs. A key vendor is a stakeholder; rumors that you are financially shaky may
cause them to restrict your credit terms. Other key stakeholders can include top consultants, board
members, your bank, suppliers, sales representatives, distributors, and industry gurus.
• Charitable causes: When a company gives to charity, it wants to help the cause, but it also wants
to be recognized for its contribution. PR specialists can help you get maximum publicity and
goodwill from the time, effort, and funds you donate.
• Communications training: In large corporations, PR specialists may spend a lot of time coaching
senior executives in dealing with the media and other communications skills. The specialists may
also advise the executives on strategy for day-to-day PR as well as PR crises.
Making it Newsworthy
Boston University Launches Bike Safety Initiative
Boston University and Mayor Menino Launch
Bike Safety Initiative
In aftermath of tragic accident, Boston University
and Mayor Menino Launch Bike Safety Initiative
• The world is a global village
• Political shift towards democracy
• Global & international standard
• Borderless PR
• Increased transparency
• Spread of Multinational, international, and global
• Operating internationally: “thinking global, acting local”
Types of Public Relations Writing
• Alerts the media to an upcoming event or announcement.
Explicitly calls out who, what, where, and when.
• Used for announcements, stories, or results
Quote from expert or company representative.
Full details of announcement and implications.
Includes information about where to learn more
Outreach to a specific journalist based on his or her interests
or beat. Less formal, more personal.
Used when the public seeks a response or position from you.
Components of a traditional press release
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:
These words should appear at the top left of the page, in upper case
City, State/Country - Month Day, Year
Quotes: Insert approved quotes from relevant individuals
Company/organization info (Boilerplate)
Include any background information about the company or organization featuring in this
1. PR Component
2. PR objective
3. Develop PR strategies
4. Develop PR program
1. Public Relations Objective
2. Communication program
3. Content / message development
4. Media Co-ordination
5. Impact / Result monitoring
PUBLIC RELATIONS OBJECTIVE
• S (Specific)
• M (Measurable)
• A (Achievable)
• R (Realistic)
• T (Time Limited)
“Objective: To immunize two million child of the state above the age of 3 and below
the age of 5 during the period of August 15 to August 30 to avert the Polio.
Evaluation: Success of the program can be determined by the actual number
Develop PR strategies
For effective implementation of the Public Relations objective a Public Relations
strategy is to be evolved. The process of strategy starts with planning which consist
a. Determining Key results area
b. Define roles
c. Selecting and setting objectives
d. Preparing action plans relating to programming, scheduling, budgeting, fixing
accountability and establishing rules and procedures.
Rice and Paisley suggest the guidelines for planning a successful campaign.
i. Assessment of the needs, goals and capabilities of target audiences.
ii. Systematic campaign planning and production
iii. Continuous evaluation
PUBLIC RELATIONS PROCESS
• What are the objectives in influencing public opinion?
• What are the alternative avenues of action for attaining
• What are the risks in taking each avenue?
• What are the potential benefits in each?
What are the potential consequences beyond each?
Which avenue do we choose to take?
What should be the structure of a proposal to proceed on the
course chosen embodying the projects and programs we want
to carry out?
In what form do we present our proposal to best advantage
for approval? To whom?
What is the minimum commitment in support and participation
acceptable from administration if the plan is to go forward and
PR Disaster & Crisis Management
• Ford introducing a car named PINTO in Brazil, which is
the slang for “ tiny male genitals”… big embarrassment ,
so they renamed the car CORCEL, meaning “ horse”.
• Colgate introduced a toothpaste in France called Cue,
the name of a notorious French porno magazine.
what is crisis?
• from the Greek word krinein meaning “to decide”
• “turning point for better or worse” – Fink, S.
7 Crisis Communication Strategies
• Attack the accuser
• Corrective action
• Full apology
Tesco comments from Tim Smith, Group Technical Director on FSAI
UK national press reported horse meat scandal online at 10pm
Scandal erupted everywhere- radio, television, newspaper and SOCIAL
Philip Clarke, Tesco CEO, posted a blog about TRUST on website at
Tesco gave out an apology statement at 7:33pm
Tesco took out full-page ads in UK national newspapers to apologise for
selling beefburgers that contained horsemeat
A tweet from Tesco Customer Care @UKTesco created buzz during
Tesco put out the statement on investigation into meat contamination
Findus beef lasagne was found 100% horse meat
Tesco withdrew all frozen product from the French food supplier
1. Respond quickly, openly and
informatively to media
• “The initial response represents the first public
statements the spokesperson makes about the
crisis...It also builds the organisation’s credibility.”
• “A quick response also helps to create the
impression of control.”
-W. Timothy Coombs
2. Communicate sincerely, responsibly and
considerately to customers
Set up centralised information centre
Choose channels to disseminate info.
• “Effective crisis management tries to move a
crisis out of the media.” -Higbee
• “Once stakeholders have the facts, particularly
the cause of the crisis, audience curiosity and
interest would fade…So the media loses its
-W. Timothy Coombs