How to Understand the Tourists• Understanding tourists is a key element in providing good service.• Successful tourism enterprises understand that knowing their market (customers) is important.
How to Understand the Tourists“A professional understanding of theconsumer is at the core of the successfulbusiness practice in the tourist industry. Agood grasp of who their tourists are wouldguide businesses in their operations,marketing and research and developmenttasks.” »Goeldner and Ritchie, 2003
Travel MotivationsMotivation: Something that stimulatesinterest or causes a person to act in acertain way. – The needs and wants of tourists are seen as a driving force that causes an individual to travel.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• From Abraham Maslows work in 1943 entitled “ A Theory of Human Motivation”.• This theory posits that as humans meet their basic needs, they seek to satisfy successively higher needs that occupy a set of hierarchy.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• The higher the needs in the hierarchy will only come to focus once all the lower needs are mainly or entirely satisfied.• The different levels are the different intrinsic factors that could drive a person to travel.• Tourism enterprises could come up with different facilities and services with features that address certain needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsPhysiological• Tour packages that offer frequent rest stops• Easily accessible food outlets in theme parks• Sleeping shelters are strategically locatedSafety• Reservation service provided at government-approved agencies or locations• Cruise ship lines providing medical facilities and doctors• Tour guide services provided in exotic or un familiar locations.Belonging• Group tours with people having similar interests and backgrounds• Group recognition gained by membership in frequent user programs.Esteem• Elite status in frequent user programs• Incentive travel awards for superior companySelf-Actualization• Educational Tours and Cruises• Theme parks providing educational opportunities and glimpses of other cultures
Leisure Ladder Model• Developed by Philip Pearce• Attempts to explain individual behaviors on the basis of stages in a tourist life cycle.• Tourists become more experienced and will become more proficient and effective.
Leisure Ladder ModelRelaxation and Bodily Needs• Need for basic services for restoration and personal maintenanceStimulation• Need for excitement and safety (fun and thrill of rides)Relationship• Need to build and extend personal relationshipsSelf-Esteem and Development• Need to develop skills, knowledge and abilitiesFulfilment• Need to feel peaceful, profundly, happy
Leisure Ladder Model• Similar to the Hierarchy of Needs in some ways as tourists ascend to higher level only when they fulfil a lower level need.
Crompton’s Push and Pull• Choice of a destination of a tourist is driven by two forces: push and pull.• People travel because they are: – “Pushed” into making travel decisions by internal, psychological forces • Intangible desires to travel generated from within – “Pulled” by external forces of the destination’s attributes • Attractions such as Disneyland or Sea World
Tourists’ Decision Making Process• How tourists decide on what products/services they purchase.• How tourists decide on where to spend their money is a very important piece of information for the tourism industry.
Tourists’ Decision Making Process• Schmoll• Matheison and Wall• Hansal and Eiselt
Schmoll Model• Emphasizes four succesive fields which exerts influence on the decision of tourists. – Travel Stimuli – Personal and social determinants – External variables – Field characteristics and features of the service
Schmoll ModelTravel Stimuli External Stimuli that can awaken an individual’s desire or need to travel in the form of promotional stimulationPersonal and Social Determine customer goals in the form of travelDeterminants desires and expectationsExternal Variables Involve the prospective traveler’s confidence in the service provider destination image and past experience and cost and time constraintsCharacteristics and Examples cost/value relations,Features of the Service attractions/amenities
Matheison and Wall• A five stage model of travel buying behavior.• This model also identifies four interrelated factors.
Matheison and WallTourist Profile• Age, education, income, attitudes, previous experience and motivationTravel Awareness• Image of destination’s facilities and services. This is based upon the credibility of the sourceDestination Resources and Characteristics• Attractions and features of the destinationTrip Features• Distance, trip duration and perceived risk of the area visited.
Matheison and WallFelt need or Travel Desire to travel is felt andDesire reasons against the desire are weighedInformation and Potential tourists utilize travelEvaluation info to get knowledge.Travel Decision Stage advancement occurs with destinations mode of travel, accommodations and activities being selected.Travel Preparations Travel takes place onceand travel bookings are made andequipment confirmed.Travel Satisfaction During and after travel overallevaluation experience is evaluated.
Five-Stage Model of Decision-Making by Matheison and WallFelt need/ Information Travel decisionTravel Desire Collection and (choice between Evaluation by image alternatives) Travel preparations Travel satisfaction And travel experience Outcome and evaluation
Gilbert’s Model• This model suggests that there are two levels of factors which have an effect on the consumer.• The first level of influence is close to the person and include psychological influences such as perception and learning.• The second level of influence includes those which have been developed during the socialization process and include reference groups and family influences.
Hansal and Eiselt• Divides the process into two phases: – Planning Phase • Travelers decide on the basic parameters concerning their trip. – Modification Phase • During which details are decided. Covers modifications made during the trip
Models describing tourist decision-making process would make a long-list. They have basically the same purpose and that is to guide the tourism industry in understanding how tourists get motivated in traveling, what things influence or discourage them to travel, and where they information, and purchase their selected product.In short, these models have two fundamental roles: to identify factors that influence the decision-making of the tourists and to enumerate the stages of their decision- making