RAILWAYS Considered one of the earliest modes of transportation. Serves as one of the major transport services in many countries. Includes: India, Japan, China and South Korea. Widespread in European countries
RAILWAYS To date, this mode of transportation still attracts travelers as they continue to offer : Comfort Reasonable fares and; Less travel time
EUROPEAN RAILWAY SYSTEM Europe is home to one of the most extensive railway systems. The main international trains operating in Europe are: InterCityExpress (Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, France, Denmark, Switzerland and Austria) Thalys (France, Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands) Enterprise (Republic of Ireland & Northern Ireland/UK) Eurostar (Great Britain, France, Belgium) EuroCity (conventional trains operated by nearly all Western and Central European operators, with the notable exception of the United Kingdom and Ireland) TGV (France, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Luxembourg) Oresundtrain (Denmark, Sweden) SJ 2000 (Sweden, Denmark)
THE EURAIL The Eurail also known as the Eurorail One of the most exstensive railway systems in the world. Its major product, offers rail passes for train travel all across Europe The Eurail passes (Eurorail Passes) A passenger has largely unlimited ability to travel on nearly all European railroads and some shipping lines at a fixed price per day of travel or travel within a certain number of days.
THE EURAIL Covers 21 European Countries: • Austria • Luxembourg • Belgium • The • Croatia Netherlands • Czech Republic • Norway • Denmark • Portugal • Finland • Romania • France • Slovenia • Germany • Spain • Greece • Sweden • Hungary • Switzerland • Ireland • Italy
THE EURAIL PASSESTypes Global Pass: The Eurail Global Pass lets you visit 23 countries throughout Europe, and see them in any order you like. Select Pass: Gives you flexibility to plan your trip, and also comes with the most options. Can choose from 3, 4 or 5 bordering countries and 5 up to 15 travel days.
THE EURAIL PASSES Regional Pass: Combine two bordering countries. Offer the ability to concentrate your European adventure within a specific region. One Country Pass: The Eurail One Country Pass is for if you want to spend your time exploring one country or area. Valid for one month, and the number of travel days available varies per country.
THE EURAIL PASSES Unfortunately this service not available for everyone. Not available for residents of Europe, the UK, Morocco, Turkey, or any of the countries of the former Soviet Union. If you are a citizen of any of these countries, but are a resident of the United States, Caribbean, Mexico, Central America or Canada, Eurorail are able to sell the rail pass or tickets to you. Passes are based on residency not citizenship, and the country of your residence will be printed on the rail pass as well as the names on the pass and on the passport have to match.
UNDERSEA RAILWAY TUNNELS Links two countries or areas that are separated by bodies of water through an undersea tunnel.
UNDERSEA RAILWAY TUNNELS The Channel Tunnel Aka Chunnel; Euro tunnel Connects France and Britain Stretches around 49.89 kms The Longest Tunnel underneath the sea. Consists of three tunnels. The first 2 tubes serve rail traffic. The third is an emergency escape route.
UNDERSEA RAILWAY TUNNELS The Seikan Tunnel Located in Japan The longest seabed tunnel in the world. Passes by the Tsugaru strait to the Honshu and Hokkaido islands
MOTOR COACHES The bus is the most reasonable and practical mode of transportation. Dominated by two major players: Trailways Transportation Systems Greyhound lines
MOTOR COACHES Trailways Transportation Systems Composed of 80 small independent motor coaches that have merged to provide competitive markets. Operates over 2,000 luxury-styled motor coaches serving more than 1,00 destinations throughout north America and parts of Europe.
MOTOR COACHES Greyhound Lines Founded in 1914 The largest provider of intercity bus transportation serving more than 2,000 destinations across north America. They also operate with independent buslines to provide links from small towns to the national routes of the country.
RAILWAYS ANDMOTOR COACHES:An examination of the PhilippineSetting
HISTORY June 25, 1875, a general plan to establish the railroad line in Luzon was declared by King Alfonso XII of Spain. November 24, 1982: First 195km railway line from manila to Dagupan was opened. This was extended to reach Legaspi in the south and La Union in the north in 1940.
HISTORY June 20, 1946: RA 4156, a new charter that renamed the Railway system to the Philippine National Railways (PNR). The Strong Republic Transit System was born. Aims to provide an integrated mass transit system. The mass transit trains of the Philippines were created through E.O. 603, as amended by E.O. 830.
HISTORY The creation of the Light Rail Transit Authority (LRTA) aimed to create fast and efficient mas transit for the growing population in the Philippines.
THE TRAIN LINES IN THEPHILIPPINES Composed of five (5) existing lines Old Name New Name LRT Line 1/ Metrorail Yellow Line MRT Line 2/ Megatren Purple Line MRT Line 3/ Metrostar Blue Line PNR Northrail Green Line PNR Southrail Orange Line
THE TRAIN LINES IN THE PHILIPPINES And three (3) proposed extensions and lines Name Routes MRT-7 13-station, 21-kilometer line that starting in Quezon City and traverses Commonwealth Avenue, passing through Caloocan City and ends in San Jose del Monte, Bulacan MRT-8/ East Rail Line 48-kilometer (30 mi) line crossing through Metro Manila and the provinces of Laguna and Rizal. begin in Sta, Mesa, Manila and end in Angono, Rizal UP Diliman Monorail Vicinity of the University of the Philippines. 500- Meter Line starting from Philcoa and ands in the UP-Ayala Technohub
SEA TRANSPORTATION ANDCRUISING Sea Transportation: Watercraft carrying people or goods. Sea transport has been the largest carrier of freight throughout recorded history. Can be over any distance by boat, ship, sailboat or barge, over oceans and lakes, through canals or along rivers. May be for commerce, recreation or the Military. Virtually any material that can be moved, can be moved by water
SEA TRANSPORTATION AND CRUISINGCruise Vacation trip by ship. Travelling by water for purely recreational purposes. This is a leisure vacation experience with the ships staff doing all the work.
SEA TRANSPORTATION AND CRUISINGHistory of Cruising Ancient Times Ships sailed for practical reasons across the Mediterranean. However, there were a few who came on board in order to experience the far flung ports visited by these ships. Herodotus was one of those people. He compiled the list of interesting things he saw on his travels.
SEA TRANSPORTATION AND CRUISINGHistory of Cruising 500AD “Leisure” travel disappeared. Sea travel was mostly for exploration, trade and to conquer new lands. The 1800’s Shipping companies rediscovered that they could increase their profits by booking passengers. Shipping companies began building vessels (steamships as they were called before) to transport people.
SEA TRANSPORTATION AND CRUISINGHistory of Cruising The 1900’s: Ocean liners were among the most astonishing creations to appear during this period. The purpose of this was to carry immigrants and not the wealthy. There was two or three classes of service.
SEA TRANSPORTATION AND CRUISINGHistory of Cursing The First World War: Most ocean crossing vessels were converted into troop transport. During the 1920’s and 1930’s ocean liners began to provide more entertainment and tried to attract more of the middle class. Being seen inside ocean liners was the “in” thing.
SEA TRANSPORTATION AND CRUISINGHistory of Cursing The birth of contemporary cruising During the 1900’s a few smaller steamship lines created a product that is close to what we now call a cruise. During winter, these lines would switch routes from the transatlantic route to routes going to warmer places. 1958 marked the emergence of commercial jet service across the Atlantic ocean.
SEA TRANSPORTATION AND CRUISINGHistory of Cursing Development of modern cruising The smaller ships cruising the Caribbean became the model of nearly every company that pursued this product. Ships became floating resorts offering pleasurable activities. During the 1970’s cruising became a major phenomenon. Cruise companies were building ships designed primarily for cruising. The 1980’s and 1990’s saw the emergence of “megaships”.
SEA TRANSPORTATION AND CRUISINGCruising today: Cruises today have itineraries that range from a three-day, four-day (short itineraries) The more popular ones are the five- to twelve- day cruises. The seven-day cruise is the most common. A ships agenda can be a round trip or circle itinerary. The agenda can also be a one-way itinerary.
SEA TRANSPORTATION AND CRUISINGCruising Today: During the cruise, the passengers experience a plethora of different activities. The activities usually take place on at-sea days. When the ship is on port days, passengers have the option to go ashore or say on the ship.
THE PASSENGERS AND MOTIVATIONFOR CRUISINGWho Cruises? All age groups There are different cruises being offered for different demographics
THE PASSENGERS AND MOTIVATIONFOR CRUISINGWhy do people cruise? A cruise is a hassle-free vacation A cruise takes you away from it all Your pampered like nowhere else You can do it all- or nothing at all You can sample a broad geographic area A cruise is something new Cruises offere a huge variety of events, activities and meals
THE PASSENGERS AND MOTIVATIONFOR CRUISINGWhy do people cruise? A cruise facilitates shopping A cruise lend themselves to groups It’s easy to make friends on a cruise Cruises lend themselves to groups Cruise is a romantic experience A cruise is a learning experience There’s a cruise that can satisisfy virtually anyone
THE PASSENGERS AND MOTIVATIONFOR CRUISINGWhy do people cruise? It’s a great way to celebrate a special event Everybody’s talking about how wonderful cruises are Cruises represent a safe travel experience Value for money You know what your paying for in advance.
THE PASSENGERS AND MOTIVATIONFOR CRUISINGWhy do some people not go on cruises? Cruises are too expensive Cruises are boring Cruises are too stuffy and formal Cruises are for older people Cruises are too regimented There is not enough time in ports Ship environment is too confining
THE PASSENGERS AND MOTIVATIONFOR CRUISINGWhy do some people not go on cruises? Being forced to socialize with people I’ll eat too much and put on weight. Ship safety Worried about getting sick I don’t know that much about cruises
THE PASSENGERS AND MOTIVATIONFOR CRUISINGPricing Patterns for Cruises: The price of cruises is based on basis two or double occupancy The higher the deck, the stateroom is on the higher the price Outside staterooms (has windows) are more expensive than interior staterooms Larger staterooms are usually more epxensive Outside staterooms with obstructive that are obstructed are cheaper compared to those with unobstructed views
THE PASSENGERS AND MOTIVATIONFOR CRUISINGPricing Patterns for Cruises: Booking six to nine months or more in advance usually yields savings Last minute sales when a ship is not yet fully booked results in cheaper prices Repositioned cruises are almost always cheaper
THE PASSENGERS AND MOTIVATIONFOR CRUISINGSeasonality in Cruises Summer is high season Spring and Fall is shoulder seasons Winter is low season.
STYLES OF SHIPSThe Classic Ocean Liner: Epitomize the golden age of cruising Most ships were built during the 1970’s Sleek, streamlined and built to cut their way through ocean waves
STYLES OF SHIPSContemporary Cruise Ship These are broader, boxier vessels built to accommodate uniformly sized staterooms and numerous activity venues These are usually called “Megaships” *Megaships are ships that can accommodate 2,000 or more passengers and have 12 or more decks.
STYLES OF SHIPSSmall Ships Accommodates less than 200 passengers. Emphasis is on an up closed more intimate experience These ships look like miniature cruise ships or oversized yachts
STYLES OF SHIPSMasted Sailing Ships Have masts and sails and are partly or almost entirely powered by the wind Geared towards people who want to experience ships rooted in other times.
STYLE OF SHIPSRiver Boats Also called the paddle wheeler Modeled after great steamboats of the 19th century. These ships permit passengers to experience America’s great rivers in the style immortalized by the works of Mark Twain.
OLD SHIPS VS. NEW SHIPOlder or “Classic” Boats Newer or “Modern” ShipsUses wood, brass and other natural Synthetic materials are usedmaterialsModest-sized public areas Large Public AreasCan travel up to 30 knots Can travel at 20-25 knotsHulls have deep drafts; therefore Hulls have shallow drafts; ports moreinaccessible and/or require tendering accessibleMany Different sized staterooms; More standardized stateroom size;staterooms are relatively large some staterooms may be small
SIZING SHIPSShips are sized in the following ways: Based on the number of staterooms Based on the number of passengers it can accommodate. And; Based on the Gross Registered Tonnage (GRT)
SIZING SHIPS Number of Pax GRTVery Small Under 200 pax Under 10,000 GRTSmall 200-500 pax 10,000-20,000 GRTMEdium 500-1,200 pax 20,000-50,000 GRTLarge 1,200-2,000 pax 50,000-70,000 GRTMegaship More than 2,000 pax 70,000 GRT or more
SIZING SHIPSSpace Ratio The space or “elbow room” each person will have Computed through: Gross Registerred Tonnage Number of Passengers The higher the Space Ratio, the higher the roominess of the ship. However, high space ratios are not critical to the enjoyment of a cruise experience.
SIZING SHIPS Large Ships Small ShipsCan offer many facilities, activities Offers more intimate atmospherechoices and optionsOften more dramatic looking Can sail into smaller placesAble to serve a wider spectrum of Permit easier embarkation andguest types debarkationCan accommodate easily groups Makes it simple for the passengers to get familiar with the ship and the other passengers on boardStable in water
SHIPS FACILITIES There are three types of Facilities: Stateroom space Private Space Public Space
SHIPS FACILITIES Stateroom Space The cabin The ships equivalent to the guest room in a hotel. Has three types: Outside Staterooms: Rooms that have windows. Ideal for clients who worry about feeling cramped Inside Staterooms: Inside the ships interior They usually have no windows The least expensive room on the ship
SHIPS FACILITIES Suites The most expensive accommodation facilities on a ship Some vessels have only a few suite rooms but some boast entire decks for it. The suite consists of a sitting area and sleeping area which is usually divided by a curtain Ideal room for families
SHIPS FACILITIES P & O Cruises’ Aurora Ship: Suite Stateroom
SHIPS FACILITIES Private Space This includes the Bridge, the galley or kitchen and the mechanical areas. Mostly employees areas only.
SHIPS FACILITIES Public Areas Where the passengers/guests mingle
PUBLIC AREASPublic areas include the following: The reception Area Where the pursuers area is located. (similar to a front desk or information desk) The dining room Where guests eat meals. There can be several main dining rooms in a hotel Alternate Dining Areas More informal dining settings Includes the Lido Deck (pool side), or al fresco (outside) dining. The Showroom Where entertainment events take place
PUBLIC AREAS Royal Caribbean’s Mariner of the Seas Atrium/ Reception Area
PUBLIC AREAS Royal Caribbean’s Liberty of the Seas: Dining Room
PUBLIC AREAS The pool area Ships usually have several swimming pools The heath club Areas for exercise with gym equipment Some ships also have their own spas that are part of the health clubs The Children’s area The gift shops Medical Facilities Movie Theatre Photo Gallery
PUBLIC AREASRoyal Caribbean’s Sovereign of the Seas:Showroom Royal Caribbean’s Explorer of the Seas: Solaris Pool