Tour 104 tourism planning


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Tour 104 tourism planning

  1. 1. TOURISMPLANNING School of Hospitality Management
  2. 2. Planning defined• It is a multidimensional activity and seeks to be integrative. It embraces social, economic, political, psychological, a nthropological, and technological factors. It is concerned with the past, present and the future. School of Hospitality Management
  3. 3. General Concepts of Planning• What is Planning - In its broadest definition, planning is organizing the future to achieve certain objectives. School of Hospitality Management
  4. 4. General Concepts of Planning• Major types of Planning - Economic development planning. - Physical land use planning; - Infrastructure planning – transportation facilities and services, water supply, electric power, sewage and solid waste disposal, and telecommunications; - Social facility planning – educational, medical, and recreation facilities and services - Park and conservation planning - Corporate planning - Urban and regional planning – applies the comprehensive planning approach integrating economic, land use, infrastructure, social facility and park and conservation planning School of Hospitality Management
  5. 5. What is Planning? Basic human activity Problem Rational Solving PLANNING Choice Activity Control of Future Action School of Hospitality Management
  6. 6. What Planning is NOT• Not a purely individual activity• Not present-oriented• Has little or nothing in common with the “trial-and-error” approach in problem solving• Not just the imagining of desirable futures• Planning is the deliberate social or organizational activity of developing an optimal strategy for achieving a desired set of goals School of Hospitality Management
  7. 7. Tourism Planning• Aimed at bringing certain benefits to society while maintaining sustainability of the industry• Prepared within a time framework• Must apply a flexible, comprehensive, integrated, environm ental and sustainable, community-based and implementable approach• May be incorporated into the general planning of an area School of Hospitality Management
  8. 8. General Concepts of Planning• Objective – refers to what is expected to be achieved from the planning• Policy – refers to the development approach applied to guide and determine decision-making – expressed in term of a set of statements and relates directly to the development objectives; School of Hospitality Management
  9. 9. General Concepts of Planning• Plan – refers to an orderly arrangement of parts of an overall system that reflects the policy; – consists of maps, other graphic representations, and explanatory text including statements on recommendations;• Strategy – refers to the means accomplishing the policy and plan recommendations• Conservation – refers to the planned management of specific sites and places natural and cultural resources in general School of Hospitality Management
  10. 10. What does the scientific and technical literature say about ourtourism and sustainability?• Jensen and Bonnevie (1995) - On a global scale, the only fully sustainable tourism is to make tourists stay at home• McKercher (1993) - The concept of sustainability is itself a threat to the longevity of the tourism industry, because, moving toward an ecological definition of sustainability may reduce access to the natural resources upon which the industry depends.• Campbell and Heck (1997) - Suggested that sustainability is the condition where actions are socially desirable, economically feasible and ecologically viable. School of Hospitality Management
  11. 11. What does the scientific and technical literature say abouttourism and sustainability?• A sustainable solution occurs at the intersection of what is socially desirable, ecologically viable and economically feasible Sustainable Ecologically Solution Viable Socially Economically Desirable Feasible School of Hospitality Management
  12. 12. What does the scientific and technical literature say abouttourism and sustainability?• Sustainability must consider Temporal, Spatial, and Functional Scales – Three important aspects: time, space, and function -Time – concerns over what period do we measure the sustainability of tourism five years, a decade, a generation? -Space – concerns over how we judge sustainability by community, municipality, province, region, or country -Function – concerns over the functionality of state institutions School of Hospitality Management
  13. 13. What does the scientific and technical literature say abouttourism and sustainability?• Sustainability deals with concept of equity - Intra-generational equity deals with creating or strengthening opportunity, equalizing income or redistributing power within the host population where tourism is occurring. - Inter-generational equity the need to preserve natural resources for future generations rather than considering how tourism development may affect those living in the future. School of Hospitality Management
  14. 14. What does the scientific and technical literature say abouttourism and sustainability?• Achieving sustainability leads to social, economic and ecological systems that are more resilient - Social resilience – the ability of human communities to respond or adapt to change - Economic resiliency – communities with diverse economies are resilient in the sense that downturns in one industry do not significantly adverse the entire community’s economy. - Ecological resiliency – the ability of an ecosystem to return to a state of equilibrium following some type of disturbance School of Hospitality Management
  15. 15. Useful indications of Sustainable Tourism• What are indicators? - Indicators measure of information with which decision-makers may reduce the chances of unknowingly taking poor decisions (WTO, 1996) - Indicators are both a tool for management today and an investment in the future, since they reduce the risk of inadvertent damage to the resource base on which the industry depends (WTO, 1996) - Indicators are pieces of information which measure things that are important to real decisions. School of Hospitality Management
  16. 16. Indicator MeasureStress Number of visitors/tourists (per annum/season)Social Stress Ratio of visitor/tourist members to local population (per annum/per season)Attractiveness List of natural and cultural resources Rate of attractiveness of cultural and natural resourcesPlanning process Existence of local/regional plan for developmentTourism Planning process Existence of local/regional plan for tourism developmentArea protection Category of protection Percentage of protected area compared to the whole territory of the destinationLocal involvement Ratio the number of locally owned tourist business to the total number of tourist businessesLocal control Existence of formal measures (public hearing, community meeting, local referendum) to ensure local control over development planning and implementationEmployment Number of jobs created in tourism (full time equivalent) Ratio of local employee number to the number guest workersTourism contribution to the local Proportion of local tax income generated by tourism only economyEconomic Diversity Share of different economic activities in the total tax incomeEnergy Consumption Ratio of renewable energy sources to non-renewable energy sources (consumption)Waste Management Percentage of households with proper sewage system Percentage of waste receiving treatmentEducation and training Percentage of local people involved in tourism with professional training and education Distribution of tourism employees by education Percentage of tourism employees (and local people) participating in on-the-job training in a given timeLocal Satisfaction Overall perception of tourism’s impact to local communityTourist Attraction Overall satisfaction of tourists concerning the quality and the value/price ratio of the complex School of Hospitality Management tourist product Percentage/change of repeat visits compared to first-time visits
  17. 17. The need for a tourism plan• To determine the optimum level of tourism that can result in the achievement of environmental conservation objectives• To ensure that the natural and cultural resources are indefinitely maintained in the process of development School of Hospitality Management
  18. 18. The need for a tourism plan• There must be careful matching of tourist markets and products through the planning process without compromising socio-cultural and environmental objectives.• The direct and indirect economic benefits can best be optimized through the careful and integrated planning. School of Hospitality Management
  19. 19. The need for a tourism plan• Tourism can generate various socio-cultural benefits as well as problems• Tourism is a multi-sectoral, complicated and fragmented activity such that planning and project development coordination are necessary• Planning provides the rational basis for development staging and project programming. School of Hospitality Management
  20. 20. The need for a tourism plan• To upgrade and revitalize existing outmoded or badly developed tourism areas and plan for new tourism areas in the future; and• To satisfy the manpower skills and capability requirements of tourism development. School of Hospitality Management
  21. 21. Sub-Regionaland Area-WidePlanning School of Hospitality Management
  22. 22. Sub-Regional and Area-WidePlanning• Made up of policy and structure plans• Policy: states the extent of tourism development that is appropriate for the area and the special considerations.• Structure Plans: – shows the access to the area – primary and secondary attractions – places or sites where tourist facilities will be concentrated – the connecting transportation network – Type and approximate amount of accommodation to be developed – Tour circuits and tourist stopovers School of Hospitality Management
  23. 23. Important principles in Area-WidePlanning• Establishment of a good access point or gateway for tourists visiting the area. There may be more than one.• Establishment of a staging area at or near the access point.• Clustering of tourist attractions: induces more tourists to visit the area and encourage them to stay longer. Efficient provision of access and other infrastructure.• Designation of tourism development zones• Designation of an interesting and efficient transportation network: should allow for organising tour circuits that form loops and minimize backtracking on the same roads School of Hospitality Management
  24. 24. Important Principles in Area-Wide Planning • Development of tourist stopovers: points of tourist interest, with minor tourist facilities • Provision of multi-purpose infrastructure: serves general community needs and tourism development • The Plan (area-wide / sub-regional) should also include: – Market analysis and establish market targets – Establish carrying capacities – Recommendations on institutional elements and environmental measures – Approaches to conserving local cultural identities and bringing benefits to local communities School of Hospitality Management