South america ppt ch 9 10


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South america ppt ch 9 10

  1. 1. Caribbean and Atlantic South America<br />South America<br />
  2. 2. Caribbean South America<br />Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana make up the region<br />
  3. 3. Caribbean South America<br />The Orinoco River is the main river in the region<br />
  4. 4. Physical features include the Orinoco River, Guiana Highlands, Andes Mountains, and the Llanos- area of grassy plains between the Andes and the Guiana Highlands<br />Caribbean South America<br />
  5. 5. The first people to live in Colombia were the Chibcha<br />The Chibchalived in Colombia over 1500 years ago<br />They were very rich in gold. The Chibcha would cover their rulers in gold dust<br />The were conquered by the Spanish around the year 1500<br />Caribbean South America-Colombia<br />
  6. 6. The Spanish controlled this area from the year 1500 to the late 1700s<br />They established the colonial city of Cartagena-was a major naval base and port<br />In the late 1700s, Independence from Spain was achieved<br />Caribbean South America- Colombia<br />
  7. 7. After independence, the republic of Gran Colombia was created. Gran Colombia was made up of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.<br />In 1830, the republic dissolved, and New Granada, Which included Colombia and Panama was created<br />Caribbean South America-Colombia<br />
  8. 8. Caribbean South America<br />Bogota is the national capital of Colombia.<br />The city is located in the Eastern Andes<br />
  9. 9. Most Colombians live in fertile valleys and river basins among the mountain ranges, where the climate is moderate and good for farming. <br />The main religion is Roman Catholic<br />The Official Language is Spanish<br />58% of Colombians are Mestizo. Other ethnic groups include Spanish, African, and Indian descent<br />Caribbean South America- Colombia<br />
  10. 10. Colombia is known for exporting its world famous coffee<br />Other major export crops include bananas, sugarcane, flowers, and cotton<br />Recently, oil has become Colombia’s major export<br />Caribbean South America- Colombia<br />
  11. 11. Civil War has been a problem in Colombia over the past 40 years.<br />One of these groups is an army of guerrillas- members of an irregular military force<br />Guerrillas have forced farmers off their plantations in order to grow the illegal coca plant- used to make the illegal drug- cocaine <br />Colombia has passed laws and receives foreign aid from the U.S. in order to make it harder for these groups to operate freely<br />Caribbean South America-Colombia<br />
  12. 12. Venezuela<br />
  13. 13. Venezuela was originally home to many small tribes of Indians but they were later conquered and enslaved by the Spanish<br />The Spanish originally searched for gold but couldn’t find any so they later resorted to agriculture and grew indigo- a plant used to make blue dye<br />They first used captured Indians to farm the land and later used enslaved Africans<br />Caribbean South America-Venezuela<br />
  14. 14. Simon Bolivar led the fight against Spain for independence. He is known as a hero in many South American countries. (Bolivia is named after him)<br />Venezuela won its independence from Spain in 1821 but not officially until 1830. Many dictatorships and civil wars followed. <br />Oil was discovered in Venezuela in the 1900s but some leaders kept all the oil money for themselves<br />Caribbean South America-Venezuela<br />
  15. 15. The people of Venezuela are decedents of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. Most are Mestizo<br />Most Venezuelans are Spanish speaking and Roman Catholic, but the country’s Indians speak 25 different languages and follow ancient regions<br /> Venezuelan culture include dancing and sports. Joropo – is a famous Venezuelan foot stomping dance<br />Caribbean South America-Venezuela<br />
  16. 16. Most Venezuelans earn a living by farming and ranching<br />Llaneros are Venezuelan Cowboys <br />Most wealthy Venezuelans earn a living in the Oil business<br />Venezuela is a member of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Country)<br />Caracas is Venezuela’s capital and economic/cultural center<br />Caribbean South America-Venezuela<br />
  17. 17. After years of suffering under military dictatorship, the people of Venezuela elected its first president in 1959.<br />In 2002, President Hugo Chavez evenly distributed the country’s oil wealth. (Before this, only a select few had benefited from the countries oil wealth)<br />Caribbean South America-Venezuela<br />
  18. 18. The countries of Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana are together known as the Guianas. Dense rainforest covers most of the region<br />Guyana-means land of water. 1/3 of people in the capital city of Georgetown. About ½ the people are descendents of people who came from India<br />Suriname-Capital is Paramaribo-home to nearly half the population<br />French Guiana-territory of France. Have representation in the French Gov. 2/3 of people are of African Descent <br />Caribbean South America-The Guianas<br />
  19. 19. Atlantic South America-Brazil<br />The region of Atlantic South America is made up of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay<br />
  20. 20. Brazil is the largest country in South America. Its population is more than 188 million-larger than all other South American countries combined<br />
  21. 21. The first group of people to inhabit Brazil were the Indians<br />
  22. 22. Atlantic South America: Brazil<br /><ul><li>In 1500, Portuguese explorers arrived. Soon settlers from Portugal arrived and established a large sugar growing colony. The colonists brought African slaves to work the plantations</li></li></ul><li>Brazil gained independence from Portugal without a fight in the year 1822<br />Despite once being ruled by dictatorships and elected officials at other times, Brazil has a democracy today.<br />Nearly 50% all Brazilians are of European descent. 40% of the people are of mixed African and European descent <br />Brazil’s official language is Portuguese. 75% of Brazilians are Roman Catholic. <br />Atlantic South America-Brazil<br />
  23. 23. Atlantic South America-Brazil<br />Carnival- celebrated before the Christian season of Lent. It mixes African, European, and Brazilian traditions. During Carnival, Brazilians dance the Samba-which is a form of an African dance<br />
  24. 24. Brazil can be broken up into the following regions:<br />1. The Southeast<br />2. The Northeast<br />3. The Interior<br />4. The Amazon<br />Atlantic South America<br />
  25. 25. Atlantic South America: Brazil<br />Southeast Brazil- most Brazilians live in this region. It is also the richest region. <br /> However, large cities have huge slums called - favelas<br />
  26. 26. Sao Paulo- South America and Brazil’s largest city Home to 17 million people. Considered a megacity-giant urban area that includes surrounding cities and suburbs<br />Atlantic South America-Brazil<br />
  27. 27. Rio de Janeiro – 2nd largest city in Brazil<br /> Major port city. Home to 11 million city. Formal capital until 1960<br />
  28. 28. Atlantic South America-Brazil<br />Northeast Brazil-poorest region of Brazil because it suffers from drought and has a lack of industry. <br />This region has many colonial cities and beautiful beaches which attracts tourists<br />
  29. 29. Atlantic South America-Brazil<br />The Interior<br />Known as Brazil’s frontier land. <br />Brazilia- the country’s capital is located in this region<br />
  30. 30. Atlantic South America!<br />The Amazon-covers the northern part of Brazil<br />Horned Frog<br />
  31. 31. Atlantic South America-Brazil<br />Manaus-is a major port and industrial center- population 1 million<br />Isolated Indian villages are scattered throughout the region<br />
  32. 32. Originally home to Indians until the Spanish arrived in the 1500s looking for gold and silver. The named the region Argentina meaning “land of silver” or “Silvery One”<br />In the early 1800s, Argentina fought for independence from Spain. Violence and instability followed. <br />Atlantic South America- Argentina<br />
  33. 33. The Pampas<br /><ul><li> became an important agricultural region. Argentine cowboys, or Gauchos, herd cattle and horses on the grasslands</li></li></ul><li>Argentine Gaucho in 1868<br />
  34. 34. Argentine Gauchos of Today<br />
  35. 35. BEEF!<br />Beef exports made the country rich although it was ruled by many dictators. <br />
  36. 36. Eva Peron- AKA Evita- was a very popular leader who helped improve the living conditions of the people in Argentina. She died of cancer at the age of 33<br />Atlantic South America-Argentina<br />
  37. 37. Today most Argentines are descended from the Spanish<br />Most speak Spanish and are Roman Catholic<br />Atlantic South America - Argentina<br />
  38. 38. Buenos Aires is the county’s biggest city and national capital <br />Atlantic South America - Argentina<br />
  39. 39. Most farming is still done in the Pampas region<br />Argentina joined Mercosur in the 1990s- an organization that promotes trade with southern and eastern countries of South America<br />Atlantic South America-Argentina<br />
  40. 40. The capital of Uruguay is Montevideo-located on the north shore of the Rio de la Plata<br />Atlantic South America- Uruguay<br />
  41. 41. Once claimed by Portuguese in the colonial period and later taken over by the Spanish in the 1770s, many people speak Portuguese and Spanish. <br />Spanish is the official language and Roman Catholic is the main religion. <br />Atlantic South America - Uruguay<br />
  42. 42. Paraguay is a landlocked country- means it is completely surrounded by land<br />Atlantic South America-Paraguay<br />
  43. 43. Since Paraguay was won its independence in 1811, it was ruled off and on by dictators until 1989. Since then, Paraguay has had a democracy<br />95% of Paraguayans are Mestizos<br />Paraguay has two official languages: Spanish and Guarani <br />Atlantic South America - Paraguay<br />
  44. 44. Asuncion is the country’s capital<br />Most people are Roman Catholic<br />Few rich families share most of the country’s wealth<br />½ of the country’s worker’s are farmers <br />Atlantic South America-Paraguay<br />