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PA 685: Strategic Management of
Public Communications
Module 4:
The ROPES Process and Campaign
Development Strategy
Increasing Engagement
Much of the work done in public communications is
designed to increase an organization’s engagement with
its targeted stakeholders.
One needs to first understand the difficulty in engaging
smaller audiences.
Fortunately, most public communication campaigns are
done by small groups and teams rather than by
individuals.
Learning how to boost engagement in these small group
settings with communication and active listening can
ultimately boost our performance in public
communication campaigns.
Domino Model of Communication
This is not how public communication campaigns work.
We cannot guarantee that our work—even eventually—
will change behaviors.
Effects of Communication
Behavior.
Attitudes/Agreement.
Understanding.
Accuracy.
Awareness.
Degree of Difficulty
It is actually fairly easy to make someone aware of our
public communication campaign.
Getting them to accurately remember and understand
the messaging is a bit more difficult, but not nearly as
hard has changing someone’s attitude or getting
someone to change his or her behaviors.
The ROPES Model of Public Communication
Research (20%)
Organization
Opportunity
Publics
 The ROPES Process outlines
the five stages of campaign
development and
implementation.
 The percentages are average
amounts of time spent on
each stage during a
campaign.
Objectives (15%)
Awareness, Acceptance, Action
Programming (30%)
Planning, Implementation
Evaluation (15%)
Preparation, Process, and Program
Stewardship (20%)
Reciprocity, Responsibility
Reporting, Relationship
Nurturing
on
ty
and
Stage 1: Research
First and Most Important Step
Research
Research
on the Organizati
on the Opportuni
- Problem or issue.
Research on the Public
- Related to the organization
opportunity.
So, why exactly do public
communication practitioners
need to do research?
The center circles are both the same size.
Stage 1: Research
 Never make a decision based on your internal hunches. Think
about your initial reactions to these types of images.
 Always conduct research—even if it is a quick informal check.
Formal
Scientific
Informal
Unscientific
Methods
Qualitative Methods
Quantitative
Methods
-Surveys.
-Experiments.
-Content analysis.
-Statistical
analysis.
-Focus groups.
-In-depth interviews.
-Participant observation.
-Library science (records).
Stage 1: Research
Environment
Opportunities.
Threats.
Internal
Strengths.
Weaknesses.
Research—SWOT Analysis
Examples of strengths
Passion for the institution or campaign.
Strong print media ties.
Understanding of new technologies.
You must understand what your communication
strengths are so that you can build off of them.
Research—SWOT Analysis
Examples of weaknesses
Limited staff.
Limited financial resources.
Weak media ties.
Recognizing what your weaknesses are give you areas to
fight for when trying to grow your public communication
efforts.
Research—SWOT Analysis
Examples of Opportunities
People believe that more should be done by local
governments to support your department’s programs.
Constituents in a district have expressed interest
being more involved in their government.
There is a renewed interest in covering
your organization by broadcast media.
in
Public communicators need to continually look for
opportunities to share your organization’s messages.
Surveying the media landscape and public opinion can
help increase these chances.
Research—SWOT Analysis
Examples of threats
Other organizations are overshadowing
our messages and we are not being heard.
Turnover of members is reducing the
organization’s institutional memory .
Print media has reduced the amount of
government coverage in its newspapers.
Threats exist all around us and prevent public
communication campaigns from reaching their targeted
audiences. The more we know about these threats, the
better prepared we are to counter them.
Stage 2: Goals and Objectives
What are you hoping to accomplish with your public
communication plan?
Ultimately, campaigns have very broad goals (such as, to
increase the usage of reusable grocery bags or to reduce
incidents of texting while driving).
The key to achieving these goals is to have specific, or
“SMART,” objectives that force us to focus on
dimensions of the campaign.
SMART objectives are Specific, Measurable, Achievable,
Realistic, and Timely.
Stage 2: Goals and Objectives
Instead of: Do better at communicating with media.
Try: Conduct two briefings for reporters each month.
Specific
Instead of: Meet with my constituents.
Try: Hold 10 town meetings throughout district in 2014.
Measurable
Instead of: Get 100% of voters to click on Web site.
Try: Increase Web site hits by 10% in 2015.
Achievable
Instead of: Use all methods of technology to
communicate .
Try: Develop and promote blog to inform constituents.
Realistic
Instead of: Produce annual report for constituents.
Try: Distribute annual report 1 month after adjourning.
Timely
Three Types of Objectives
Awareness objectives
Focus on information, providing the cognitive
part of the message.
Acceptance objectives
Deal with affective, feeling part of the message
(attitudes).
Action objectives
Aimed at expression and conduct, the behavioral
element of the message.
Campaigns should have a combination of all three to
reach audiences at different stages of knowledge-
attitude-behavior change.
Stage 3: Programming
Because of our specific objectives, it is imperative to have
a documented guide to follow for every campaign.
This communication plan can be conveyed in several
ways:
Narrative format that details the plan in paragraphs.
Decimal or outline system that precisely identifies every item
that must occur during the campaign.
The communication plan must also include a Gantt chart
to show how long specific tasks should take—this helps
keeps the campaign moving forward in a time-sensitive
manner.
The budget must also be included in the plan.
Stage 3: Programming—Outline Format
I. OBJECTIVES:
Motivate chapters to act as main membership recruitment conduit.
Increase membership.
Support chapter recruitment efforts.
Encourage active membership committees.
GOALS:
25% CHALLENGE: Each chapter is challenged to increase its membership by 25%!
Introduce new recruitment programs to chapters.
Provide Leader Guides for membership chairs.
Regular communications (email, phone, other) between the national office, regional membership chairs, and chapter
membership chairs.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
II.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
Stage 3: Programming—Outline Format
CHAPTER MEMBERSHIP PROGRAMS:
Brown-Bag Mini-Meetings
III.
I.
I.
II.
Lunch meeting at CSI member’s office.
No charge – everyone brings their own lunch.
I. ALTERNATIVE: have sponsor cater lunch.
III.
IV.
Invite company colleagues to attend.
Program-- 1 hour brown bag lunch and discussion on construction-related or business-related topic.
I.
II.
ALTERNATIVE: use pre-packaged discussion module from CSI website.
Look at Construction Specifier for topic ideas.
II. Table-Top Recruitment Program
Find vendors to rent Table Top advertising space at monthly meeting.
Price advertising fee to include 2 dinners.
I.
II.
I.
II.
For example: dinners cost $30, for two people that’s $60, and a $50 fee for advertising =$110 fee.
Aim for 4-6 vendors per meeting.
Vendors MUST bring along a professional member-prospect to attend meeting and dinner (they must both stay for the whole
program.)
Invite prospect to join (or add to list of prospects to be contacted later).
III.
IV.
Stage 3: Programming—Decimal Format
1. Corporate Connection Program
1.1 Membership committee identifies a CORPORATE LIST
of construction-related companies who might have
potential CSI members.
1.2 Send out a short newsletter article about CSI to company
newsletter editors.
1.21 Newsletter article written by CSI staff and available on CSINet.
Invite them to an upcoming meeting at no charge.
1.31 Get an industry sponsor for this, and include their name
and logo in the letter.
1.32 Follow-up with a phone call inviting them to join CSI.
1.33 Break down the list, so that each committee member has the
same amount of people to call, or email.
1.3
Stage 3: Programming—Gantt Charts
Stage 3: Programming—Budget Items
 Expenses should include:
1) Personnel (including benefits and training).
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Supplies and printing (including design).
Postage and shipping
Telephone, fax, and internet.
Photocopying.
Travel, food, and entertainment.
Professional services/consultants.
8) Professional organization dues.
9) Equipment (tablets, computers, printers, copiers
10) Subscriptions (trade publications, industry magazines).
11) Other relevant items specific to the campaign.
Stage 3: Programming
Turning to stakeholder interactions, it is important to
understand the hierarchy of communication.
Interpersonal communication.
Controlled media communication.
Mass media (uncontrolled) communication.
 Interpersonal is always the most effective at reaching
audiences, but it is also the most time consuming and
resource-intensive because you reach so few people at
one time.
Mass media reaches the largest size audience, but it is
very easy for that audience to misunderstand or ignore
the message.
The right approach must be chosen for each campaign,
each message, and each targeted audience!
Stage 3: Programming—Communication
Tactics









News releases.
News conferences.
Newspaper columns.
Mass email updates.
Text message blasts.
Websites.
Podcasts/webcasts.
Blogs.
Facebook, Twitter, other
media platforms.
 Direct mail.
 Flyers/posters.
 Brochures.
 Annual reports.
 Public speaking engagements.
 Community meetings and
town-halls.
 Billboards.
 Newsletters.social
Stage 3: Programming – Communication
Tactics
Remember your audience when you think about what
tools to use.
Does your audience have the technology to use your
preferred tools?
Low-tech communications tools can be just as
effective, if not more effective, than high-tech tools!
During the research stage, you need to identify the
media consumption and usage patterns of your
stakeholders!
Develop strategies and choose tactics that will help you
meet your goals and objectives outlined in Stage 2.
Stage 3: Programming
Interpersonal Communication
Face-to-face conversations.
Small group meetings.
Speeches.
Telephone conversations
Personal letters.
Personalized proposals.
These are the most powerful forms
of public communication.
Stage 3: Programming
 Controlled Media Communication
 Direct mail; special events.
 Publications (newsletters, brochures & flyers).
 Computers (Web sites, social media, E-mail, internet).
 Videos and films.
 Phone-a-thons (telephone banks).
 Paid advertisements, billboards, signage.
 Because you are paying for these forms of public
communication, you have complete control over the
content and design.
Stage 3: Programming
 Mass Media (Uncontrolled) Communication
Editorials and Op-ed pieces.
News releases and story placements.
Public service announcements (PSAs).
 These are often considered “free” because they don’t cost
anything to prepare other than employee time, but there
is no control over the use of these public communication
tactics.
 No media outlet has to even look at them—much less use
them. So, devising a campaign that only uses mass
media can be quite risky.
Stage 4: Evaluation
Evaluation is not simply done at the end of the
campaign.
It should be done throughout.
Preparation Evaluation: Evaluation done during the
planning of the campaign to determine if the plan is
suitable (focus groups, readability studies of tactics).
Process Evaluation: Evaluation done during the
campaign to track its progress—do changes need to be
made during the campaign?
Program Evaluation—In essence, we return to what
was prepared during the second stage and ask, “Were
the objectives met?”
Stage 4: Stewardship
Final and Second Most Important Step for On-
Going Relationships with Stakeholders
Reciprocity
- Demonstrating gratitude: appreciation and recognition
Responsibility
- Acting socially responsible.
Reporting
- Being accountable.
Relationship Nurturing
- Keeping supportive audiences close.
Reciprocity
“Those whom you have helped have an obligation to help
you.”
Gouldner (1960, p. 173), “The Norm of Reciprocity.”
Reciprocity is a universal component of all moral codes.
Public communicators must demonstrate gratitude to
those who have chosen to become involved in their
campaigns.
This includes genuine “Thank you’s” and acknowledging
that your successes are a result of their engagement.
Responsibility
Responsibility requires organizations to keep their word.
Promises made when seeking support must be kept.
More generally, organizations must demonstrate through
their actions that they are worthy of supportive attitudes
and behaviors.
Increasingly, the public is requiring that organizations be
socially responsible not only with their programming and
services, but also maintain operations that are
environmentally-friendly and reflect good community
citizens.
Reporting
It is not enough for public communicators be
responsible—they must report back to the audience
about what they did!
 Reporting reinforces positive attitudes and behaviors
and increases the probability that supportive publics
will react similarly in future situations.
 Continued reporting holds organizations accountable
for their actions.
Reporting can take many forms.
Annual reports, blog updates, newsletters, etc.
Relationship Nurturing
“The new view of stewardship lets people know on a regular
basis that you care about them, respect their support,
appreciate their gifts, and want their interest and
involvement.” Kay Sprinkel Grace (1991)
“There is a reason to believe that involvement enhances
genuine, long-term behavioral support.” Hugh Culbertson (1993)
Relationship nurturing boils down to one key dimension:
when organizations make decisions that impact their
stakeholders, the needs and concerns of the stakeholders are
taken into consideration. Decisions are NOT made solely by
thinking about the organizational needs.
The ROPES Model of Public
Communication
 To reiterate its role, the
ROPES Process outlines the
five stages of campaign
development and
implementation.
 Adherence to the stages
helps ensure a positive
result of communication
efforts.
Research (20%)
Organization
Opportunity
Publics
Objectives (15%)
Awareness, Acceptance, Action
Programming (30%)
Planning, Implementation
Evaluation (15%)
Preparation, Process, and Program
Stewardship (20%)
Reciprocity, Responsibility
Reporting, Relationship
Nurturing

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Pa685 m4 ppt_alternate

  • 1. PA 685: Strategic Management of Public Communications Module 4: The ROPES Process and Campaign Development Strategy
  • 2. Increasing Engagement Much of the work done in public communications is designed to increase an organization’s engagement with its targeted stakeholders. One needs to first understand the difficulty in engaging smaller audiences. Fortunately, most public communication campaigns are done by small groups and teams rather than by individuals. Learning how to boost engagement in these small group settings with communication and active listening can ultimately boost our performance in public communication campaigns.
  • 3. Domino Model of Communication This is not how public communication campaigns work. We cannot guarantee that our work—even eventually— will change behaviors.
  • 4. Effects of Communication Behavior. Attitudes/Agreement. Understanding. Accuracy. Awareness. Degree of Difficulty It is actually fairly easy to make someone aware of our public communication campaign. Getting them to accurately remember and understand the messaging is a bit more difficult, but not nearly as hard has changing someone’s attitude or getting someone to change his or her behaviors.
  • 5. The ROPES Model of Public Communication Research (20%) Organization Opportunity Publics  The ROPES Process outlines the five stages of campaign development and implementation.  The percentages are average amounts of time spent on each stage during a campaign. Objectives (15%) Awareness, Acceptance, Action Programming (30%) Planning, Implementation Evaluation (15%) Preparation, Process, and Program Stewardship (20%) Reciprocity, Responsibility Reporting, Relationship Nurturing
  • 6. on ty and Stage 1: Research First and Most Important Step Research Research on the Organizati on the Opportuni - Problem or issue. Research on the Public - Related to the organization opportunity.
  • 7. So, why exactly do public communication practitioners need to do research?
  • 8.
  • 9. The center circles are both the same size.
  • 10. Stage 1: Research  Never make a decision based on your internal hunches. Think about your initial reactions to these types of images.  Always conduct research—even if it is a quick informal check. Formal Scientific Informal Unscientific Methods Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods -Surveys. -Experiments. -Content analysis. -Statistical analysis. -Focus groups. -In-depth interviews. -Participant observation. -Library science (records).
  • 12. Research—SWOT Analysis Examples of strengths Passion for the institution or campaign. Strong print media ties. Understanding of new technologies. You must understand what your communication strengths are so that you can build off of them.
  • 13. Research—SWOT Analysis Examples of weaknesses Limited staff. Limited financial resources. Weak media ties. Recognizing what your weaknesses are give you areas to fight for when trying to grow your public communication efforts.
  • 14. Research—SWOT Analysis Examples of Opportunities People believe that more should be done by local governments to support your department’s programs. Constituents in a district have expressed interest being more involved in their government. There is a renewed interest in covering your organization by broadcast media. in Public communicators need to continually look for opportunities to share your organization’s messages. Surveying the media landscape and public opinion can help increase these chances.
  • 15. Research—SWOT Analysis Examples of threats Other organizations are overshadowing our messages and we are not being heard. Turnover of members is reducing the organization’s institutional memory . Print media has reduced the amount of government coverage in its newspapers. Threats exist all around us and prevent public communication campaigns from reaching their targeted audiences. The more we know about these threats, the better prepared we are to counter them.
  • 16. Stage 2: Goals and Objectives What are you hoping to accomplish with your public communication plan? Ultimately, campaigns have very broad goals (such as, to increase the usage of reusable grocery bags or to reduce incidents of texting while driving). The key to achieving these goals is to have specific, or “SMART,” objectives that force us to focus on dimensions of the campaign. SMART objectives are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Timely.
  • 17. Stage 2: Goals and Objectives Instead of: Do better at communicating with media. Try: Conduct two briefings for reporters each month. Specific Instead of: Meet with my constituents. Try: Hold 10 town meetings throughout district in 2014. Measurable Instead of: Get 100% of voters to click on Web site. Try: Increase Web site hits by 10% in 2015. Achievable Instead of: Use all methods of technology to communicate . Try: Develop and promote blog to inform constituents. Realistic Instead of: Produce annual report for constituents. Try: Distribute annual report 1 month after adjourning. Timely
  • 18. Three Types of Objectives Awareness objectives Focus on information, providing the cognitive part of the message. Acceptance objectives Deal with affective, feeling part of the message (attitudes). Action objectives Aimed at expression and conduct, the behavioral element of the message. Campaigns should have a combination of all three to reach audiences at different stages of knowledge- attitude-behavior change.
  • 19. Stage 3: Programming Because of our specific objectives, it is imperative to have a documented guide to follow for every campaign. This communication plan can be conveyed in several ways: Narrative format that details the plan in paragraphs. Decimal or outline system that precisely identifies every item that must occur during the campaign. The communication plan must also include a Gantt chart to show how long specific tasks should take—this helps keeps the campaign moving forward in a time-sensitive manner. The budget must also be included in the plan.
  • 20. Stage 3: Programming—Outline Format I. OBJECTIVES: Motivate chapters to act as main membership recruitment conduit. Increase membership. Support chapter recruitment efforts. Encourage active membership committees. GOALS: 25% CHALLENGE: Each chapter is challenged to increase its membership by 25%! Introduce new recruitment programs to chapters. Provide Leader Guides for membership chairs. Regular communications (email, phone, other) between the national office, regional membership chairs, and chapter membership chairs. I. II. III. IV. II. I. II. III. IV.
  • 21. Stage 3: Programming—Outline Format CHAPTER MEMBERSHIP PROGRAMS: Brown-Bag Mini-Meetings III. I. I. II. Lunch meeting at CSI member’s office. No charge – everyone brings their own lunch. I. ALTERNATIVE: have sponsor cater lunch. III. IV. Invite company colleagues to attend. Program-- 1 hour brown bag lunch and discussion on construction-related or business-related topic. I. II. ALTERNATIVE: use pre-packaged discussion module from CSI website. Look at Construction Specifier for topic ideas. II. Table-Top Recruitment Program Find vendors to rent Table Top advertising space at monthly meeting. Price advertising fee to include 2 dinners. I. II. I. II. For example: dinners cost $30, for two people that’s $60, and a $50 fee for advertising =$110 fee. Aim for 4-6 vendors per meeting. Vendors MUST bring along a professional member-prospect to attend meeting and dinner (they must both stay for the whole program.) Invite prospect to join (or add to list of prospects to be contacted later). III. IV.
  • 22. Stage 3: Programming—Decimal Format 1. Corporate Connection Program 1.1 Membership committee identifies a CORPORATE LIST of construction-related companies who might have potential CSI members. 1.2 Send out a short newsletter article about CSI to company newsletter editors. 1.21 Newsletter article written by CSI staff and available on CSINet. Invite them to an upcoming meeting at no charge. 1.31 Get an industry sponsor for this, and include their name and logo in the letter. 1.32 Follow-up with a phone call inviting them to join CSI. 1.33 Break down the list, so that each committee member has the same amount of people to call, or email. 1.3
  • 24. Stage 3: Programming—Budget Items  Expenses should include: 1) Personnel (including benefits and training). 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Supplies and printing (including design). Postage and shipping Telephone, fax, and internet. Photocopying. Travel, food, and entertainment. Professional services/consultants. 8) Professional organization dues. 9) Equipment (tablets, computers, printers, copiers 10) Subscriptions (trade publications, industry magazines). 11) Other relevant items specific to the campaign.
  • 25. Stage 3: Programming Turning to stakeholder interactions, it is important to understand the hierarchy of communication. Interpersonal communication. Controlled media communication. Mass media (uncontrolled) communication.  Interpersonal is always the most effective at reaching audiences, but it is also the most time consuming and resource-intensive because you reach so few people at one time. Mass media reaches the largest size audience, but it is very easy for that audience to misunderstand or ignore the message. The right approach must be chosen for each campaign, each message, and each targeted audience!
  • 26. Stage 3: Programming—Communication Tactics          News releases. News conferences. Newspaper columns. Mass email updates. Text message blasts. Websites. Podcasts/webcasts. Blogs. Facebook, Twitter, other media platforms.  Direct mail.  Flyers/posters.  Brochures.  Annual reports.  Public speaking engagements.  Community meetings and town-halls.  Billboards.  Newsletters.social
  • 27. Stage 3: Programming – Communication Tactics Remember your audience when you think about what tools to use. Does your audience have the technology to use your preferred tools? Low-tech communications tools can be just as effective, if not more effective, than high-tech tools! During the research stage, you need to identify the media consumption and usage patterns of your stakeholders! Develop strategies and choose tactics that will help you meet your goals and objectives outlined in Stage 2.
  • 28. Stage 3: Programming Interpersonal Communication Face-to-face conversations. Small group meetings. Speeches. Telephone conversations Personal letters. Personalized proposals. These are the most powerful forms of public communication.
  • 29. Stage 3: Programming  Controlled Media Communication  Direct mail; special events.  Publications (newsletters, brochures & flyers).  Computers (Web sites, social media, E-mail, internet).  Videos and films.  Phone-a-thons (telephone banks).  Paid advertisements, billboards, signage.  Because you are paying for these forms of public communication, you have complete control over the content and design.
  • 30. Stage 3: Programming  Mass Media (Uncontrolled) Communication Editorials and Op-ed pieces. News releases and story placements. Public service announcements (PSAs).  These are often considered “free” because they don’t cost anything to prepare other than employee time, but there is no control over the use of these public communication tactics.  No media outlet has to even look at them—much less use them. So, devising a campaign that only uses mass media can be quite risky.
  • 31. Stage 4: Evaluation Evaluation is not simply done at the end of the campaign. It should be done throughout. Preparation Evaluation: Evaluation done during the planning of the campaign to determine if the plan is suitable (focus groups, readability studies of tactics). Process Evaluation: Evaluation done during the campaign to track its progress—do changes need to be made during the campaign? Program Evaluation—In essence, we return to what was prepared during the second stage and ask, “Were the objectives met?”
  • 32. Stage 4: Stewardship Final and Second Most Important Step for On- Going Relationships with Stakeholders Reciprocity - Demonstrating gratitude: appreciation and recognition Responsibility - Acting socially responsible. Reporting - Being accountable. Relationship Nurturing - Keeping supportive audiences close.
  • 33. Reciprocity “Those whom you have helped have an obligation to help you.” Gouldner (1960, p. 173), “The Norm of Reciprocity.” Reciprocity is a universal component of all moral codes. Public communicators must demonstrate gratitude to those who have chosen to become involved in their campaigns. This includes genuine “Thank you’s” and acknowledging that your successes are a result of their engagement.
  • 34. Responsibility Responsibility requires organizations to keep their word. Promises made when seeking support must be kept. More generally, organizations must demonstrate through their actions that they are worthy of supportive attitudes and behaviors. Increasingly, the public is requiring that organizations be socially responsible not only with their programming and services, but also maintain operations that are environmentally-friendly and reflect good community citizens.
  • 35. Reporting It is not enough for public communicators be responsible—they must report back to the audience about what they did!  Reporting reinforces positive attitudes and behaviors and increases the probability that supportive publics will react similarly in future situations.  Continued reporting holds organizations accountable for their actions. Reporting can take many forms. Annual reports, blog updates, newsletters, etc.
  • 36. Relationship Nurturing “The new view of stewardship lets people know on a regular basis that you care about them, respect their support, appreciate their gifts, and want their interest and involvement.” Kay Sprinkel Grace (1991) “There is a reason to believe that involvement enhances genuine, long-term behavioral support.” Hugh Culbertson (1993) Relationship nurturing boils down to one key dimension: when organizations make decisions that impact their stakeholders, the needs and concerns of the stakeholders are taken into consideration. Decisions are NOT made solely by thinking about the organizational needs.
  • 37. The ROPES Model of Public Communication  To reiterate its role, the ROPES Process outlines the five stages of campaign development and implementation.  Adherence to the stages helps ensure a positive result of communication efforts. Research (20%) Organization Opportunity Publics Objectives (15%) Awareness, Acceptance, Action Programming (30%) Planning, Implementation Evaluation (15%) Preparation, Process, and Program Stewardship (20%) Reciprocity, Responsibility Reporting, Relationship Nurturing