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All the right ingredients


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This presentation gives the ins and outs of what comprises a healthy menu for seniors and how this impacts the quality of life.

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All the right ingredients

  1. 1. • How Nutrition Affects Quality of Life By Diane G Fager, LRD 208-528-0690
  2. 2. What Are the Right Ingredients In a Great Menu?
  3. 3. Aging is Experienced by Everyone Factors in Aging In your Control: •Weight •What you eat •Exercise •Smoking Not in your Control: •Disease •Food Supply •Disasters •Environment
  4. 4. Adult Disease Statistics How are these diseases affected by diet? How do these disease affect functional status? 1. 2. 3. 4. 598,607 died from Diseases of the Heart. 568,668 died from Malignant Neoplasms (cancer) 128,603 died from Cerebrovascular Diseases (stroke) – Diabetes Mellitus – 68,504. 1 in 13 people has diabetes (1 in 4 pre-diabetes) Every 10 seconds a person dies from diabetes-related causes 5. 34 % Americans have high blood pressure, 36% prehypertension **1&2 account for 48% of all deaths** Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2009 by Kenneth D. Kochanek, M.A.; Jiaquan Xu, M.D.; Sherry L. Murphy, B.S.; Arialdi M. Miniño M.P.H.; and Hsiang-Ching Kung, Ph.D., Division of Vital Statistics March 16, 2011
  5. 5. Functional Status Ability to do activities of daily living. Basic activities include: Personal hygiene and grooming Bowel and bladder management Self feeding Functional transfers: getting from bed to wheel chair, getting onto or off of toilet, etc. Dressing and undressing Ambulation: walking without use of an assistive device (walker, cane, or crutches) or using a wheelchair
  6. 6. Functional Status and Quality of Life
  7. 7. Caloric and Nutrient Intake As we age, does our need for calories increase or decrease? As we age, does our nutrient need increase or decrease? • An average sized elderly male needs 600 calories less than in his prime. • An average sized elderly woman needs 300 calories less than in her prime. • Nutrient need stays the same. • Because our calorie need decreases as we age, but our nutrient needs to not, nutrient dense food becomes essential to maintain functional status.
  8. 8. Lipids • Three kinds of fats are part of the lipid group – Saturated Fats • Trans Fats – Monounsaturated Fats – Polyunsaturated Fats
  9. 9. Saturated Fats • Fats that have no double bonds • Are solid at room temperature • Contribute significantly to heart disease and other health problems • Sources are: – Coconut and Palm Oil – Animal products • Meats • Poultry • Dairy Products Trans Fats – are manufactured or hydrogenated fats. These are fats changed from liquid to solid by adding hydrogen atoms
  10. 10. Monounsaturated Fats • Fats that contain one double bond. • Sources are: – – – – – – – olive oil canola oil peanut oil peanuts pecans almonds avocados • MUFA actually lower the amount of cholesterol in the body. However too much fat of any kind is bad for the health.
  11. 11. Polyunsaturated Fats • Fats that contain two or more double bonds • Sources are: – vegetable oils • • • • corn safflower sunflower cottonseed
  12. 12. Cholesterol • Another kind of lipid found in the body • Is closely linked with heart disease because it collects on the walls of the arteries and blocks flow of the blood to the heart Only found in animal products butterfat, egg yolks, organ meats (liver and brain)
  13. 13. Lean Proteins
  14. 14. Fatty Proteins
  15. 15. Carbohydrates Foe? Friend? or
  16. 16. There’s Been A Misunderstanding… …all carbohydrates are not bad for you
  17. 17. Foe
  18. 18. Friend
  19. 19. Functional Foods • Foods that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. They have identified benefit in disease prevention, reduced risk of disease, and possibly in treating diseases.
  20. 20. Functional Foods
  21. 21. So What Are “Carbs”? • Organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • The bodies most important source of energy Simple Carbohydrates: Glucose & Fructose
  22. 22. Complex Carbohydrates Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides
  23. 23. Refined Carbohydrates Whole plants stripped of the germ and/or bran from the grain leaving highly digestible and easily preserved starch or sugar Endosperm Endosperm Bran Germ Whole Grain “White” Grain
  24. 24. Glycemic Index (GI) Is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates (CHO) on blood sugar levels • CHO that break down quickly during digestions and release glucose rapidly into the bloodstream have a high GI • CHO that break down slowly with a gradual glucose release have a low GI
  25. 25. How do you figure GI? The glycemic index of a food is defined as the area under the two-hour blood glucose response curve following after eating a 50 gram portion of a “carbohydrate” food.
  26. 26. GI Classifications 2.5 g fiber, which is considered a good source, will lower glycemic index 5 g fiber is an excellent source, and will lower GI even more Higher Fiber = Lower GI
  27. 27. Limitations of GI • GI doesn’t account for what is eaten with other foods – protein offsets quick elevations • GI is significantly altered by the type of food, ripeness, processing, storage length, cooking methods, and variety. Example – potatoes • Glycemic response different from one person to another, and even in the same person from day to day • Most values on the GI do not show the impact of glucose levels after two hours • Glycemic response is strongly influenced by the composition of the previous meal and when it was consumed
  28. 28. Fiber Soluble Fibers • Regulate colonic transit time • Increase: – Satiety – Fecal bulk – Frequency of BM • Decreases – Gastric emptying – Glucose absorption from small intestine – Postprandial glucose level Insoluble Fibers • Regulate colonic transit time • Binds minerals • Increase: – Fecal bulk – Frequency of BM
  29. 29. Soluble Fibers Food Sources • • • • • • • • • • Green beans Carrots Bananas Oranges Apples Citrus Fruits Berries Oatmeal Legumes/dried beans Vegetable gums Health Benefits • Promotes healthy gut environment • Decreases: – – – – Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Risk of Diabetes Risk of Obesity Cholesterol
  30. 30. Insoluble Fibers Food Sources • • • • • • • • • • • • Wheat bran Whole wheat and rye Apple peeling Pear Cabbage family Fresh tomatoes Root veggies Whole grain cereals Potatoes Strawberries Peaches Plums Health Benefits • Decreases: – – – – Constipation Diverticular disease Hemorrhoids Hiatal hernia
  31. 31. Health Benefits of Whole Grain • Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Disease • Protection from Insulin Insensitivity/Resistance and Diabetes • Body Weight Regulation – – increased satiety – delays how quickly the stomach empties • Reduced Cancer Risk
  32. 32. Major Types of Whole Grain • Corn – Ground; dried cornmeal • Barley- Whole Grain Form – Hulled. Refined Form - Pearled • Oats – Contain Soluble and Insoluble Fiber. • Rye • Rice • Wheat
  33. 33. What About Pasta? • Pasta is not a naturally occurring grain but can be made from whole grains. However, most pasta on grocery store shelves is made from Semolina flour, which is made from refined wheat grains. Thus it is not whole grain. ?? ??
  34. 34. Whole Grains and Cereals At least half of all grains should be whole grains
  35. 35. Fruits and Vegetables Antioxidants Phytochemicals
  36. 36. Properly Packaged • 200 epidemiological studies demonstrate a 50% lower cancer risk. • Antioxidants & Phytochemicals are complementary and synergistic in: – – – – – – – Stimulating the immune system Antibacterial and antiviral activity Detoxification Enzymes Decreasing platelet aggregation Reducing blood pressure Altering cholesterol metabolism
  37. 37. Fruits and Vegetables • Phytochemicals • Antioxidants • Serve 5 fruits/vegetables daily
  38. 38. Antioxidants • Title: A.C.E. Selenium • Job Description: The Body’s Bouncer
  39. 39. Antioxidants • Free radicals are unstable molecules which are short one electron and it needs one more electron to become stable. The body tries to borrow one from a stable molecule, so the previously stable molecule is now a free radical - this chain reaction continues until broken by an antioxidant.
  40. 40. Oxidative Stress • Is the imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants . – Stimulation of immune system due to infection or disease. – Exposure to Exogenous ROS • Inadequate Supply – Low or inadequate dietary intake for an extended period of time. Oxidative Stress
  41. 41. Phytochemicals Are Unique • Phytochemicals are not necessary for growth, development, maintenance or repair – they protect against disease. • Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of phytochemicals and antioxidants and appear to have a synergistic effect.
  42. 42. Phytochemical Categories Phytochemicals are organized according to their protective physical, and chemical properties. Sometimes that groups them by color. •Terpenoids •Organosulfurs •Polyphenols
  43. 43. Rainbow of Colors Phytochemicals are widely found in the rainbow of colors: •Red •Orange and Yellow •Green •Blue and Purple
  44. 44. The More the Merrier • Sneak vegetables into: – Recipes – Entrees – Snacks – Ask for two times the serving when eating out “You are what you eat!”
  45. 45. Colorful Beans • Just like with fruits and vegetables, you want a variety of colors. • Beans contain the most fiber of all. • ½ c beans daily will decrease cholesterol 5-10% in 6 weeks. • Beans: – – – – Decrease cholesterol Decrease blood pressure Stabilizes blood sugars Helps weight loss (satiety)
  46. 46. Legumes • Just like with fruits and vegetables, you want a variety of colors. • Beans contain the most fiber of all. • ½ c beans daily will decrease cholesterol 5-10% in 6 weeks. • Beans: – – – – Decrease cholesterol Decrease blood pressure Stabilizes blood sugars Helps weight loss (satiety)
  47. 47. The Right Balance 20-30% Fat
  48. 48. For A 2000 Calorie Diet 900 – 1300 calories Carbohydrates 300 – 500 calories Protein 400 – 600 calories Fat
  49. 49. Application
  50. 50. Go Functional For All the Right Ingredients