What are the defining characteristicsof the Early Statehood Era?• Texas becomes a state• Border disputes with Mexico• Increased population
What were the terms of the Treaty ofGuadalupe Hidalgo?• War with Mexico ended in 1848• U.S. acquires the Mexican Cession• Border is settled
3. What are the definingcharacteristics of the Civil War Era?• Southern states secede• 4 year war between the U.S. and Confederacy
4. List the main causes of the CivilWar• States’ rights• Slavery• Tariffs• Election of Lincoln
5. What prompted the removal of SamHouston as governor?• He refused to take an oath of allegiance to theConfederacy
6. What was the purpose of the Unionblockade?• To stop trade in and out of Texas
7. List the Civil War battles in Texas.• Galveston• Sabine Pass• Palmito Ranch
8. What did the 14th Amendementguarantee?• Citizenship and equal rights of AfricanAmericans
9. List the effects of TexasReconstruction.• Texas adopts the Constitution of 1866• Freedman’s Bureau is created• Southern states create Black Codes
10. Define sharecropper.• A tenant farmer who could not afford to ownland and received a share of the crop valueminus rent and other expenses.
11. What are the defining characteristics of theCotton, Cattle, and Railroad Era?• Period of growth and prosperity• Cotton industry rebounds• Demand for beef in east leads to cattle drives• Railroad end cattle drives but lead tosettlement in western Texas.
12. Define Buffalo Soldiers. What wastheir purpose?• African American soldiers on the Texasfrontier.• Purpose was to protect settlers from NativeAmericans.
13. Why was there a need for cattle drives?What was the final destination?• Get cattle to eastern cities.• Final destinations: Kansas, Colorado,Wyoming
14. Why did cattle trails expand afterthe Civil War?• As settler and railroads moved west, new trailsalso expanded west.
15. What impact did windmills have onsettlements and the open range method ofranching?• They accessed underground water.• Led to settlements and farming in West Texas.
16. What brought and end to cattledrives?• Barbed wire
17. What are the definingcharacteristics of the Age of Oil?• New industry in Texas• Increased population• Growth of urban areas• Factories in cities• Progressive Era and labor unions
18. Define fossil fuels and giveexamples.• Non-renewable source of energy.• Examples: oil and coal
19. Identify Spindletop. Explain itsimportance and the year it was drilled.• First major oil discovery in Texas in 1901.• Began growth of oil industry in Texas.
20. Define labor unions. Explain whythey were organized.• Urban worker formed unions to gain betterwages and working conditions during theProgressive Era.
21. What effect did the oil industry haveon West Texas towns such as Midland?• Towns grew as the demand for oil increased.
22. Which industry had the greateseconomic effec on East Texas in the early1900s?• Oil
23. What did the 1900 hurricane in Galvestoncause the city to build to protect itself fromfuture storms?• A seawall
24. What was the ProgressiveMovement?• A social movement that wanted to help urbanworkers and make government more efficient.
25. List the major reforms of theProgressive Movement.• Prohibition of alcohol• Laws governing elections• Women’s suffrage
26. What are the defining characteristics of theGreat Depression and WWII?• American fought in two world wars.• U.S. experience the Great Depression andDust Bowl
27. What was a social effect of WWIand WWII on the lives of women?• Women entered the workforce.
28. What was a social effect of theDust Bowl?• Many people left Texas and moved toCalifornia.
29. Who was Sam Rayburn and whywas he important to Texas?• U.S. Speaker of the House• Had ability to get legislation approved byCongress during the Great Depression andWWII.
30. What was the main purpose of NewDeal programs during the GreatDepression?• Provide jobs to unemployed Texans.• Jobs include building roads, bridges, andimproving state and national parks.
31. What were economic effects ofWWII on Texans?• Food and other items were rationed.• Women joined the workforce
32. What was a social effect of WWII?• Minorities began to work for equality/civilrights.
33. What are the defining characteristicsof Civil Rights & Conservatism?• Realization of social and economicdiscrimination experienced by minorities ledto demand for equal rights.
34. Identify Hector P. Garcia• Founded the GI Forum and WWII to helpMexican Americans receive benefits under theGI Bill.
35. Identify James L. Farmer.• Founded CORE to end racial discriminationthrough the U.S.
36. Explain Brown vs. Board ofEducation.• Segregated school ruled unconstitutional.• Led to desegregation of schools.
37. Identify Barbara Jordan.• First African American woman in Texas Senatesince 1883.• First African American woman from the southin U.S. Congress.• Member of Watergate hearings.
38. Identify Henry B. Gonzalez.• First Mexican American from Texas elected toU.S. Congress.• Worked to pass civil rights legislation.
39. What have U.S. citizens used to promote the1st amendment idea of civil rights?• Public demonstrations• Press
40. What was the Civil Rights Act and who wasU.S. President when it was passed?• It provided civil rights for all (Equalopportunity).• President Lyndon B. Johnson.
41. What was the original goal ofLULAC?• Created to support the civil rights of Spanish-speaking people in the U.S.
42. What are the defining characteristics andevents of Contemporary Texas?• More growth due to oil.• Technology (space program, medicine)• Cultural diversity
43. What effect did the oil boom haveon the state of Texas in the 1970s?• People from the U.S. and other nations movedto Texas, leading to increased population andcultural diversity.
44. Identify the following individuals.• Michael Debakey & Denton Cooley-heartsurgeons, developed techniques used insurgery today.• Walter Cunningham-Apollo astronaut• Michael Dell-Started the Dell computercompany.• Benjy Brooks-First pediatric surgeon in Texas
45. What is the significance ofHouston to various industries in Texas?• Medical Centers• NASA• Petroleum• Agricultural Chemicals• Research• Largest seaport in Texas
46. List example of festivals and celebration inTexas that reflect cultural diversity.• St. Patrick’s Day parade• Cinco de Mayo festivals• Octoberfest• Kwanzaa• Livestock shows and rodeos• Celtic heritage and festivals
47. What industries have led to greater economicinterdependence between Texas and the Worldeconomy?• Oil and technology
48. What industries have experienced boomand bust cycles in Texas in recent years?• Oil• Real estate• Computer technology• Banking
49. Identify and explain the five freedomsstated in the 1st Amendment.• Speech• Press• Assembly• Religion• Petition
50. Which amendment to the U.S. Constitutiongave women the right to vote?• 19th Amendment
51. What is the relationship betweenthe U.S. and Texas Constitutions?• The Texas Constitution was patterned afterthe U.S. Constitution.
52. Identify key features of the TexasConstitution.• Bill of Rights• Separation of Powers• Checks and Balances• Limited government• Election of judges and officials
53. Why did the writers of the TexasConstitution believe in the separation ofpowers?• To limit the power of the government bydividing it into 3 branches.
54. Which principle of government allowscitizens to vote for government officials?• Repubilcanism
55. Define the following terms:• Bicameral-A legislature with 2 houses (Senate& House of Representatives)• Amendment-An addition to a document, suchas the Constitution
56. How many people serve in theTexas State Legislature?• Senate-31• House of Representatives-150
58. Who is the leader of the municipal(city) government?• Mayor
59. What are the voting requirementsin Texas?• Must be at least 18 years old.• Resident of Texas• Must register to vote
60. What are civic responsibilities ofTexas citizens?• Vote• Pay taxes• Serve on a jury
61. Contrast the human & physicalcharacteristics of the Coastal Plains and GreatPlains regions of Texas.• Coastal Plains-Human (Higher population,more and larger cities), Physical (more rainfall)• Great Plains-Human (More wind farms),Physical (dry)